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v. 30 



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DECEMBER 28, 1943 







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JAN 1 4 1944 


DECEMBER 28, 1943 



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INDEX . . 263 




1. Map of Chile showing principal localities mentioned in text ..... 8 

2. Principal faunal districts of Chile 27 

3. Distribution of the genus Dromiciops 51 

4. Distribution of Chilean forms of the genus Ctenomys 121 

5. Distribution of Oryzomys longicaudatus and subspecies 147 

6. Distribution of Notiomys valdivianus and subspecies 153 

7. Distribution of the macronyx group of the genus Notiomys 161 

8. Distribution of Akodon olivaceus and A. o. brachyotis 169 

9. Distribution of Akodon (Abrothrix) longipilis and subspecies with A. 

sanborni and A. lanosus 187 

10. Distribution of Phyllotis darwini and Chilean subspecies 203 


1. Marmosa elegans elegans 45 

2. Dromiciops australis australis 49 

3. Rhyncholestes raphanurus 52 

4. Dusicyon griseus domeykoamis 69 

5. Dusicyon fulvipes 74 

6. Felis guigna guigna 85 

7. Lutra provocax 89 

8. Lutra felina 90 

9. Grison cuja 92 

10. Conepatus humboldti 96 

11. Abrocoma bennetti bennetti 106 

12. Octodon degus 109 

13. Maxillary teeth of Octodon degus, O. lunatus, and O. bridgesi Ill 

14. Aconaemys fuscus fuscus 112 

15. Spalacopus cyanus cyanus 115 




16. Ctenomys maulinus brunneus 126 

17. Myocastor coypus melanops 133 

18. Chinchilla chinchilla velligera 134 

19. Lagidium viscacia cuvieri 139 

20. Oryzomys longicaudatus longicaudatvs 144 

21. Notiomys valdivianus chiloensis 154 

22. Notiomys megalonyx megalonyx 158 

23. Akodon olivaceus olivaceus 168 

24. Akodon (Abrothrix) longipilis longipilis 185 

25. Akodon (Abrothrix) sanborni 195 

26. Akodon olivaceus olivaceus (upper) and A. (Abrothrix) sanborni (lower) . 196 

27. Eligmodontia puerulus 198 

28. Phyllotis darmni darurini 201 

29. Phyllotis (Auliscomys) boliviensis 210 

30. Phyllotis (Auliscomys) micropus 212 

31. Euneomys chinchilloides chinchilloides 215 

32. Irenomys tarsalis tarsalis 218 

33. Reithrodon auritus pachycephalus 222 


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MAP 1. Map of Chile showing principal localities mentioned in text. 



In December, 1922, accompanied by Mr. Colin C. Sanborn and 
Mr. Boardman Conover, of Field Museum, I sailed for Chile with 
the intention of making a survey of the vertebrate fauna of 
that country. Mr. Conover and I, after working mainly in the 
southern Province of Llanquihue, came north to Santiago and left 
for Argentina in May, 1923, returning to the United States in July 
of the same year. Mr. Sanborn continued in Chile until July, 1924, 
covering various localities from the Province of Valdivia northward 
to Tacna and Arica. The collection of birds obtained by this expedi- 
tion formed the basis of a general work on the birds of Chile, by 
C. E. Hellmayr, published in 1932. 1 Following this, it had been 
hoped to issue a similar work on the mammals, but these proved 
more difficult to deal with and other responsibilities for a number 
of years interfered with the prosecution of their study. 

Important material was still lacking from several parts of cen- 
tral Chile and from the extreme south in the vicinity of the 
Straits of Magellan; therefore a second expedition was made in 
1939-40 during which Mr. Sanborn and myself were again associated 
in the field. On this trip we had the assistance of Mr. John M. 
Schmidt, and after making brief stops in the provinces of Angol, 
Maule, and Llanquihue, proceeded directly to Punta Arenas to 
work in that vicinity during the months of December, January, 
and February. 

The mammals obtained by these two expeditions form a collec- 
tion vastly larger and more varied than anything previously existing. 
Aside from a very limited collection in the British Museum, from the 
mostly old and imperfect mounted mammals in the National 
Museum of Chile, and from scattered specimens in other institu- 
tions, there is, in fact, no other collection of Chilean mammals of 
any consequence. This collection is still deficient in many respects, 
but it covers the principal faunal areas of Chile and probably 
furnishes a fairly accurate and nearly complete picture of the 

1 Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, 472 pp., 1932. 



whole mammal fauna. This may seem to be a rash statement, not 
justified by experience in other fields, but the conditions in Chile 
are unusual. The mammal fauna is a small one and the presump- 
tion of many little-known species promoted by the large number 
of names given by R. A. Philippi proves not to be justified. Many 
details remain to be worked out, and these offer a promising field 
for the local student, but the main facts seem to be already in hand. 

Besides the collections of Field Museum, I have been able to 
examine with considerable care all material in the Museo Nacional 
at Santiago, including Philippi's types so far as they exist. I have 
also reviewed material in the British Museum, including the Dar- 
win types, now more than one hundred years old. 

In the following treatment, cetaceans have been omitted, since 
material is lacking for any critical study of them, and historical 
accounts of them are to be found elsewhere. To record the cetaceans 
of the Chilean coast would be to deal with practically all those of 
the south Pacific and Antarctic regions. 

For the convenience of local naturalists in Chile and in the 
hope that they may be stimulated to further research on their own 
fauna, identification keys and brief descriptions have been included 
as well as illustrations of skulls of most of the species. 


During the field work of two fairly extensive expeditions many 
courtesies were extended by Chilean officials and by private indi- 
viduals. Without the cordial co-operation of residents within the 
country the work scarcely would have been possible. In 1923 and 
1924 we were indebted especially to Mr. Alan Digby Murray and 
Mr. Anderson, of the Cia Industrial del Aysen, who facilitated our 
trip from Puerto Aysen across the mountains to Rio Nirehuao. 
Later, Mr. Sanborn received many courtesies in passing northward 
through the country. Among those to whom he is especially grate- 
ful are Mr. Alexander Morrison, of Concepcion; Sr. Juan Churgwin, 
of Romero, Province of Coquimbo; Dr. Enrique Gigoux, of Caldera; 
Mr. Thomas H. Foulkes, of Putre and Choquelimpie; and officials 
of the DuPont-Nobel Dynamite Plant at Rio Loa, Province of 
Antofagasta. The late John A. Wolffsohn, of Papudo, also co-oper- 
ated with Mr. Sanborn in many helpful ways. 

In 1939 and 1940 a preliminary trip to the Sierra Nahuelbuta 
was made possible through the cordial assistance of Dr. D. S. 


Bullock and Mr. E. E. Reed, of El Vergel, Angol, and the hospi- 
tality of Sr. Angel Martinez, Administrador of the Parque Nacional 
de Nahuelbuta. 

Field work in Magallanes in 1940, with Punta Arenas as a base, 
owed much of its success to Mr. P. F. Griffin, manager for Swift 
and Company at Rio Gallegos, Argentina, and Mr. John Dick, of 
Punta Arenas. Through the cordiality and intelligent interest of 
Mr. Dick a series of excursions was successfully organized to various 
points within two hundred miles of the Straits of Magellan. On 
Tierra del Fuego our generous hosts were Mr. John Goodall, of 
Rio Grande; Mr. Percy Reynolds and family, of Via Monte; and 
Mr. A. W. Spooner, of Cullen Station. Not only their indispensa- 
ble hospitality was greatly appreciated, but perhaps even more their 
obviously sincere interest in the work we were doing. On the main- 
land we were similarly indebted to Messrs. William and John Fell, 
of North Arm Station; Mr. McLean, of Rio Verde; Mr. Kusanovich, 
of Mina Rica; and Mr. Greer, of Castillo. 

Chilean officials received us with uniform courtesy during both 
expeditions, and American diplomatic representatives in Santiago 
met with full co-operation when they presented our requests for 
free entry of equipment and other privileges. We were especially 
indebted to former American Ambassador William M. Collier, to 
Ambassador Claude G. Bowers, and to Secretary Edward Trueblood. 

Chilean naturalists with whom we had cordial relations include 
Dr. Carlos Porter, editor of the "Revista Chilena"; Director 
Ricardo E. Latcham, of Chile's Museo Nacional; Dr. Rodulfo 
Philippi, ornithologist; Mr. Carlos Reed, Director of the Santiago 
zoological garden; Dr. Kurt Wolfhiigel, of Cayetue, Lake Todos 
Santos; and Dr. Dillman S. Bullock, of Angol. 

As stated elsewhere, the privilege of studying specimens in the 
Museo Nacional of Santiago, Chile, was freely granted. Chilean 
material has also been examined in the British Museum through 
the courtesy of Mr. A. C. Hinton, Keeper of Zoology; in the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History through Dr. H. E. Anthony, 
Curator of Mammals; and in the United States National Museum 
through Mr. Gerrit S. Miller, Jr., Curator of Mammals. 


Molina. A few notes on the mammals of Chile, especially the 
larger marine forms, may be found in the accounts of voyages to 


the southern coast during the sixteenth and early seventeenth 
centuries. Early writers, such as Buffon, appear to have had no 
information on the region, and except the elephant seal, the domesti- 
cated llama, and the guinea pig, no Chilean species is included in 
the ' 'Systemas' ' of Linnaeus, published in 1758 and 1766. This practi- 
cally complete lack of knowledge was suddenly changed with the 
publication in 1782 of an extensive work on the entire fauna and 
flora of Chile. This was the "Saggio sulla storia naturale del 
Chili" of Molina, which was soon translated into German and 
Spanish, then into French and later into English, and became widely 
quoted in zoological literature. Molina credited Chile with thirty- 
six species of mammals of which he gave formal descriptions of 
twenty-five and of these he provided new names for twenty-three. 
Of the thirty-six, there are five extra-limital, two domesticated, and 
six unidentifiable. Fifteen of the names he proposed are now recog- 
nized and cover nearly half the specific types found in the country. 
His contribution to knowledge, therefore, was a very large one which 
quite justifies calling him the father of Chilean natural history. 

However, Molina worked under many disadvantages, and the 
accounts he published, although obviously sincere and containing 
much first-hand knowledge, were frequently mixed with hearsay 
which has caused subsequent authors considerable difficulty in 
dealing with the names proposed. He was interested in all branches 
of natural history, botany as well as zoology, and, all things con- 
sidered, it is rather remarkable that he covered the field as well 
as he did. 

Juan Ignacio Molina was born in Talca, Province of Maule, 
Chile, June 23, 1737, and died at Bologna, Italy, September 12, 
1829. He was educated for the Jesuit order and within it attained 
to a post as librarian of the Jesuit College in Santiago. When his 
order was expelled from Chile in 1767 he went to Italy and in 1774 
settled in Bologna. Therefore, when he left Chile he was only thirty 
years of age, and all his collecting and direct observation of Chilean 
natural history must have been made before that time. His writing 
for publication was done in Italy, apparently based only on notes 
and even all these may not have been available to him. In the 
preface to his principal work, he states (translation) : "At an early 
period of life I began to turn my attention to both the natural and 
the political history of Chile, with the view of publishing at some 
future time the results of my inquiries. Some untoward circum- 
stances, however, interrupted my progress, and I had even relin- 


quished the hope of having it in my power to carry my plan into 
effect, when a fortunate accident put me into the possession of the 
requisite materials, and enabled me to offer the present work to the 
public." It seems probable that the "fortunate accident" may have 
referred to the recovery of his notes, 1 but that he had any actual 
material before him when writing his descriptions seems doubtful. 
Evidently he did preserve some specimens, but these probably 
never left Chile and have long since been destroyed. He mentions 
having collected no less than three thousand plants and in the 
second edition of the "Saggio," under Mus maulinus, he says: "I 
investigated it as soon as I killed it, and preserved the skin for some 
time in straw." Nevertheless, the description of Mus maulinus is 
wholly unidentifiable and cannot be applied to any animal known 
from Chile. 

Molina's descriptions are accompanied by very brief Latin 
diagnoses that appear as footnotes and are evidently intended to 
cover technical requirements. He says of them (translation): "In 
describing objects of natural history I have avoided the use of 
technical terms, as being difficult to be understood by those not 
conversant with the study; but for the gratification of such as are 
familiar with that science, I have given, at the bottom of the page, 
the Linnaean characters in Latin, both of the known species and of 
those that are new which I have discovered." In most cases, how- 
ever, these Latin diagnoses would be quite insufficient were it not 
for the popular accounts which accompany them. On the other 
hand, having given the Latin diagnoses, it is not impossible that he 
then felt free to be somewhat unrestrained in his popular accounts. 
These are frequently quite extensive, with accounts of habits of the 
animals and much material obviously derived from hearsay. In 
some cases he begins with a good account of one well-known animal 
and continues with matter applying to quite a different one. The 
result makes the application of some of his names very difficult or 
even impossible by any modern standards. 

He confesses to having received many stories of animals which 
were probably fanciful but, in his own opinion, at least, he was 
able to separate the true from the false. This is evident in the fol- 
lowing quotation from his preface: "In confining the number of 

1 It is reported that he had his notes with him as he was about to embark 
from Valparaiso, but that they were taken from him by a soldier at that time. 
A witness to the seizure, a young man of means, Don Ignacio Garcia Huidobro, 
bought the notes from the soldier and later during a trip to Europe delivered them 
to Molina in Bologna. 


quadrupeds in Chili to thirty-six species, I have reference only to 
those that are well known; but I am fully persuaded that there is 
a much greater number, especially in the interior of the Andes, that 
are as yet undiscovered or very imperfectly known. This opinion 
is confirmed by the common traditions of the country; and I have 
been informed of eight new species that have been discovered at 
various times; but as the descriptions I have received of them have 
been very imperfect, and the animals have been seen but by few, I 
have thought them not sufficiently characterized to merit a place 
among those whose economy is well known. Such, for instance, is 
the piguchen, a winged quadruped or species of large bat which, if 
its existence is real, forms a very important link between birds and 
quadrupeds. This animal is said to be of the size and shape of a 
tame rabbit and to be covered with a fine hair of a cinnamon color; 
the nose sharp, the eyes round and shining, the ears almost invisible, 
the wings membranaceous, the paws short and like those of a lizard, 
the tail round at the root and ending like that of a fish. It inhabits 
holes in trees, which it leaves only at night and does no injury to 
anything but insects, which serve it for food. 

"Of this kind is likewise the hippopotamus of the rivers and lakes 
of Arauco, which is different from that of Africa, and in its form and 
stature resembles a horse, but the feet are palmated like those of the 
seal. The existence of this animal is universally credited throughout 
the country, and there are some persons who pretend to have seen 
the skin which, they say, is covered with a very soft and sleek hair, 
resembling in color that of the sea- wolf." 

Molina did not provide names for the hippopotamus or the 
winged piguchen with a tail like a fish, but it is clear that much of 
his information was received from others, and some of the names he 
proposed must be regarded as undeterminable. It is interesting to 
note, also, that in the second edition of his book, published in 1810, 
there is evidence that in regard to some names even his own faith 
may have been shaken. Many of the accounts are altered, and 
in two cases, at least, the Latin names are omitted. These are his 
Castor huidobrius, the description of which is hopelessly composite, 
and Equus bisulcus, about which his information was obviously 

Adding further to uncertainty in regard to the sources of Molina's 
information are several curious discrepancies. Hellmayr has noted 
that among the numerous birds named by him there is no mention 
whatever of those of the family Pteroptochidae, which includes 


several very common and highly characteristic Chilean birds well 
known to every native. Similarly, such an important mammal as 
the chinchilla receives no clear-cut distinction and under its vernac- 
ular name appears such a combination of the characters of several 
animals as defies disentanglement. 

Usage has established a large proportion of Molina's names and 
with few exceptions it seems best not to subject them now to analysis 
bordering on the hypercritical. Where there is no doubt as to the 
animal principally concerned, his names should be accepted even 
though the descriptions may contain some contradictory matter. 
Where several animals, either real or fanciful, are inextricably con- 
fused, the names cannot be allocated and must be discarded. A 
list of Molina's names exactly as proposed and numbered by him 
and their present disposition follows: 

1. L'Urigne, Phoca Lupina?=Arctocephalus. 

2. II Porco marine, Phoca Porcina. Unidentifiable. 

3. II Lame, Phoca Elephantina=Mirounga leonina Linnaeus 1758. 

4. II Leon marine, Phoca Leonina =0taria flavescens Shaw 1800. 

5. II Chinchimen, Mustela Felina=Lutra felina Molina 1782. 

II Guillino, Castor Huidobrius. Composite and unidentifiable. 
II Coypu, Mus Coypus=Myocastor coypus Molina 1782. 

1. II Chinghe, Viverra Chinga=Conepatus chinga Molina 1782. 

2. La Cuya, Mustela Cuja=Grison cuja Molina 1782. 

3. II Quiqui, Mustela Quiqui=Grison cuja Molina 1782. 

5. L'istrici, o sia il Porco-spino Chilesesi. No technical name. 

5. II Culpeu, Canis Culpaeus= Dusicyon culpaeus Molina 1782. 

6. La Guigna, Felis Guigna=Felis guigna Molina 1782. 

7. II Colocolo, Felis Colocola= Felis pajeros colocolo Molina 1782. 

8. II Pagi, Felis Puma=Felis concolor puma Molina 1782. 

1. II Guanque, Mus Cyanus=Spalacopus cyanus Molina 1782. 

2. La Chinchilla, Mus Laniger. Composite and unidentifiable. 

3. II gran topo boschereccio, Mus Maulinus. Unidentifiable. 

4. II Degu, Sciurus Degus=Octodon degus Molina 1782. 

5. II Covur. Mentions four species of armadillos found in Cujo (= present 

Province of Mendoza, Argentina). 

1. II Cuy, Lepus Minimus =Cavia porcellus Linnaeus 1782. 
1. La Viscaccia, Lepus Viscacia=Lagidium viscacia Molina 1782. 

1. II Pudu, Capra Pudu=Pudu pudu Molina 1782. 

2. La Vicogna, Camellus Vicugna=Vicugna vicugna Molina 1782. 

3. Chilihueque, Camelus Araucanus. Doubtfully identifiable; probably Lama 

glama Linnaeus 1758. 

4. II Guanaco, Camelus Huanacus=Lama guanicoe Miiller 1776. 

5. II Guemul, or Huemul, EquusBisulcus= Hippocamelus bisulcus Molina 1782. 

Poeppig, Cuming, and King. Following Molina, nothing further 
was learned of Chilean mammals for several decades. From 1826 


to 1829, the German botanist Edward Poeppig made an extensive 
journey in South America during which he spent considerable time 
in Chile. Various notes on mammals are found in his "Reise" and 
he gave names to several, only one of which is now recognized a 
bat, Histiotus macrotus. He also gave a name to Spalacopus cyanus, 
already described by Molina, and published a special account of its 
habits. At about the same time (1827-30), a British traveler, H. 
Cuming, made large zoological collections, principally invertebrates, 
on the west coast of South America, and several mammals which he 
brought back to the Zoological Society of London were described 
by E. T. Bennett. A few other species, also described by Bennett, 
were discovered and preserved by Captain Philip Parker King, a 
British naval officer engaged in surveying, principally around the 
Straits of Magellan, from 1826 to 1830. 

Darwin and Waterhouse. During the famous voyage of the 
Beagle, from 1831 to 1836, a great deal of time was spent in Chilean 
waters, and Charles Darwin, the naturalist of the expedition, was 
able to make several excursions inland. He made large additions 
to knowledge of Chilean mammals. Until his time, most of the 
species described had been those of medium or large size and con- 
spicuous habits. Darwin, however, was obviously interested in the 
small rodents and prepared to obtain them. He did not depend upon 
natives but trapped them himself, as indicated by the frequent occur- 
rence in his notes of the phrase "caught in traps baited with cheese." 
He discovered at least ten new species which include most of the 
well-marked forms now known from the region and represent seven 
different modern genera. His specimens were presented to the 
Zoological Society of London, and most of the new forms were 
described by George R. Waterhouse in a preliminary paper in the 
"Proceedings of the Zoological Society" in 1837. Later, the same 
author published full accounts of them with many colored plates, 
in the section on Mammalia in the "Zoology of the Voyage of the 

Some of Darwin's specimens were preserved "in spirit" and are 
now in poor condition, but most of them evidently were prepared in 
the field as skins carefully formed and laid on the side. They are 
now in the British Museum and in practically all cases readily 
identifiable. Types were not especially designated by Waterhouse, 
but in cases where more than one specimen of a species were involved 
Oldfield Thomas (1927) has carefully selected and designated a single 
one as lectotype. 


Bridges. Large collections of birds and a considerable number 
of mammals were sent from Chile to the British Museum by Thomas 
Bridges from about 1840 to 1846. The mammals were described by 
Waterhouse and include such important species as Aconaemys fuscus, 
Notiomys megalonyx, and Octodon bridgesi. Bridges worked in the 
provinces of Colchagua and Valparaiso. He also made an excursion 
to Mendoza and another to Bolivia. In a number of cases he con- 
tributed valuable notes on the habits and occurrence of little-known 

Gay. From 1828 to 1842, the French naturalist and traveler 
Claudio Gay was engaged in an extensive study of the zoology, 
botany, topography, and history of Chile. He returned to France 
for a short time in 1832 but altogether spent some eleven or twelve 
years in Chile, during which he is said to have visited all parts of the 
country, much of the time subsidized or employed by the govern- 
ment. The results of his investigations were published in Paris in 
a monumental work, "Historia fisica y politica de Chile," com- 
prising twenty-three small octavo volumes of text and two quarto 
volumes of plates, mostly colored. Eight volumes of the text and 
one volume of plates are devoted to zoology, Volume I covering 
mammals and birds. Various authors contributed to the series, 
but the section on mammals may have been written by Gay himself, 
possibly with the assistance of Paul Gervais. It is a comprehensive 
account, with full descriptions of higher groups, genera, and species, 
citations of literature, and notes on distribution and habits. It 
presents an excellent summary of knowledge at the time and is not 
wholly a compilation, but it does not contribute much in the way of 
actual addition to knowledge. Three supposed new species of mam- 
mals are described, all now regarded as synonyms. Sixty-seven 
species are listed, including eight domesticated or introduced forms, 
two fossils, and several now known to be extralimital. 

Gay was the founder of the Museo Nacional at Santiago (1830). 
Some of his collections were deposited there, but many others are 
known to have been taken to Paris. After leaving Chile in 1842, 
he traveled extensively in other parts of the world. He made a 
further brief visit to Chile in 1863. He died in Paris in 1873. 

Philippi. From 1853 to 1900, the study of natural history in 
Chile was dominated and greatly promoted by the German-born 
naturalist Rodolfo Amando Philippi, who arrived in Chile Decem- 
ber 4, 1851, at the age of forty-three, a refugee from European mili- 
tarism. His education (in medicine) at the University of Berlin 


had been followed by experience as a teacher of zoology and botany 
in Kassel and by independent zoological research in Italy and 
Switzerland. After a voyage of 136 days, from Hamburg to Val- 
paraiso, he went by sea a further twenty-one days to Valdivia where 
he purchased a farm called San Juan de Bellavista, on the banks of 
the Rio Bueno, near the present city of La Union. His attainments 
and ability were soon recognized and on October 20, 1853, he was 
called to become Director of the Museo Nacional in Santiago, which 
had been sadly neglected since the departure of Gay in 1842. 

With the assistance of a young French entomologist, Filiberto 
Germain, Philippi immediately began to amass collections for the 
museum, and thereafter for more than forty years he pursued a life 
of great activity and devotion to study and travel. His interests 
were practically all-inclusive, and he wrote on geology, geography, 
and anthropology, as well as all branches of zoology and botany. 
In Europe he had worked principally in conchology, but in Chile 
he found a practically virgin field in all directions. If he had any 
leading interest perhaps it was botany, to which his contributions 
were enormous. 

During the period from 1858 to 1900, Philippi from time to time 
published papers on mammals and described a number of new species, 
most of which are now recognizable. In his bibliography of more 
than four hundred titles not less than thirty are devoted to mammals. 
Among these were many that were evidently prepared with care 
and conservatism, forming definite additions to knowledge. In 
1900, however, he issued a large work entitled "Figuras i descrip- 
ciones de los murideos de Chile," which is one of the most extraor- 
dinary publications ever to find its way into print. In it he 
describes and figures in color a total of sixty-three Chilean rodents 
and proposes sixty-three new names of which no less than fifty-nine 
are synonyms or quite unidentifiable. The common Akodon olivaceus 
of central Chile was given fourteen different names. At this time he 
had reached the advanced age of ninety-two and, according to his 
biographers, was still active mentally, but his hearing had failed 
and his sight was so impaired that he was obliged to depend almost 
wholly upon a secretary for reading and writing. Nevertheless, the 
seventy-six colored figures were drawn by himself. Most of his 
supposed species were placed in the genus Mus and since there were 
no collections elsewhere and since his figures and descriptions indi- 
cated considerable variety, mammalogists in Europe and the United 
States who received his paper were quite at a loss as to how to dis- 


pose of his names. As late as 1932, Gyldenstolpe, in his list of South 
American rodents, was obliged to place most of Philippi's names in 
a separate list entitled "Incertae Sedis." 

In producing this remarkable paper, perhaps Philippi was 
influenced by the large number of rodents being described at the 
time by American and British zoologists, but it is quite evident 
that the infirmities of age were chiefly responsible. The specimens, 
many of which are still existing, had evidently been accumulated 
during his own travels or sent to him by friends throughout the 
country. In nearly all cases they were mounted for exhibition in 
the museum, and many of the distinctions he drew between them 
were due to the distortions of bad taxidermy, to the use of unsuit- 
able preservatives, to immaturity and, in some cases, to false infor- 
mation maliciously given him as to their sources. 

Philippi died in Santiago, Chile, in July, 1904, at the age of 96. 
He was succeeded as Director of the museum by his son Federico 
Philippi, who had published a few short papers on mammals, notably 
the description of Dromiciops australis. A grandson, Dr. Rodulfo 
Philippi, is now practicing medicine in Santiago and is associated 
with the Museo Nacional as ornithologist. 

Magellanic and Cape Horn Expeditions. At various times a few 
mammals were obtained, chiefly from the Straits of Magellan and 
vicinity, by expeditions organized under different national auspices 
mostly for other than zoological exploration. Most important was 
the French "Mission scientifique du Cap Horn" in 1882-83, pri- 
marily an astronomical expedition. Members of this expedition 
spent considerable time encamped at the Bay of Orange on the 
Hardy Peninsula, Island of Hoste, south of Tierra del Fuego, where 
they collected numerous common mammals now in the Paris 
Museum and reported on by Milne-Edwards and Thomas in 1891. 

A German expedition, "Hamburger Magalhaensische Sam- 
melreise," obtained on Tierra del Fuego and on the Straits of 
Magellan scattered specimens belonging to eight species which were 
reported on by Matschie in 1*898. 

At a much earlier date a very few Chilean mammals were col- 
lected by R. 0. Cunningham, naturalist of the British surveying 
vessel Nassau from 1866 to 1869. Small collections of mammals 
were also made by Charles H. Townsend during the visit of the 
United States Fish Commission Steamer Albatross to the Straits 
in 1887-88. These specimens are preserved in the United States 
National Museum at Washington. 


Wolffsohn and Thomas. Soon after the death of Philippi, 
Chilean mammals began to receive attention from John A. Wolff- 
sohn, an English-speaking resident of Chile who had sent a few 
specimens to the British Museum and later, through the encourage- 
ment of Oldfield Thomas, became an active collector. Although not 
a man of means or special training, Wolffsohn not only collected 
but studied Chilean mammals, publishing a number of valuable 
papers in the "Revista Chilena" over a period of some twenty 
years, from 1908 to 1927. During this period Thomas was active 
in describing South American mammals from various sources, and 
among them were more than twenty now attributed to the Chilean 
fauna, a considerable number having been collected by E. Budin 
at localities in Argentina near the Chilean boundary. 

Meanwhile, from time to time, various Chilean authors contrib- 
uted notes and short articles mainly on the habits and distribution 
of Chilean mammals to the "Revista Chilena," published in Santiago 
by Dr. Carlos Porter. 

Expeditions of Field Museum. As stated on another page, Field 
Museum has sent two expeditions to Chile, the first in 1922 and 
1924 and the second in 1939 and 1940. The most interesting result 
of the first expedition was the discovery of the caenolestid mar- 
supial Rhyncholestes raphanurus (Osgood, 1924). Of more impor- 
tance, however, was the accumulation of series of well-prepared 
modern specimens of all the common mammals from selected locali- 
ties representing the principal areas of the country. This material 
furnishes the basis for evaluation of previous work, and it is now 
supplemented by collections made by the second expedition about 
the Straits of Magellan. Altogether, there are now available in 
Field Museum nearly two thousand specimens of mammals from a 
wide range of localities in Chile and immediately adjoining regions. 
Even these collections would present many difficulties for study 
had it not been possible while they were being made to visit the 
Chilean Museo Nacional at Santiago and examine carefully the 
numerous types of mammals described by Philippi. So far, very 
little has been published since Field Museum's expeditions were 
made and most of their results are incorporated in the present work. 


Chile is entirely south of the equator and essentially a temperate 
country. In contrast to Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia, it includes 
only one slope of the Andes and no very complicated systems of 


ranges and valleys. Its physical diversity, therefore, is mainly 
correlated with its great longitudinal extent. From its northern 
boundary with Peru to its southern limit at Cape Horn, it covers 
nearly forty degrees of latitude, a distance of more than 2,500 miles 
or as much as the distance from central Mexico to western Alaska. 
Throughout this great length it is relatively very narrow. In the 
northern province of Antofagasta it is about 250 miles in width 
but elsewhere, except at the Straits of Magellan, it is scarcely half 
that and in its narrowest parts its span from west to east is no more 
than seventy-five miles. At the Straits of Magellan its boundary 
turns east and extends to the Atlantic Ocean, setting off a very nar- 
row area only a few miles wide on the northern shore of the Straits. 
South of the Straits its line cuts south through the island of Tierra 
del Fuego which it divides nearly in half, the western part and the 
Cape Horn Islands being Chilean and the eastern part Argentinian. 

Except in the extreme south, therefore, the eastern boundary of 
Chile follows the highest peaks of the Andes, which divide eastern 
and western drainage. In its northern and central parts the moun- 
tains are very high and continuous, so only western slopes are 
included. Farther south the same is generally true, but the aver- 
age elevation is much reduced and the higher peaks are frequently 
detached, so that some of the streams which drain to the Pacific 
may in their windings, for at least a short distance, traverse terri- 
tory that is east of the main mountain mass. Thus a few small 
areas within Chilean boundaries offer opportunity for minor inva- 
sions of some elements of the Patagonian fauna. 

In the northern provinces of Antofagasta and Atacama, in the 
nitrate district, the mountains rise almost directly from the sea 
and extend inland as a high plateau, much of it well over 10,000 
feet in height. Eastern and western ranges inclosing a central valley 
are indicated in some parts but are not well defined. Elevated 
deserts in this region occupy large areas, so arid that animal and plant 
life are non-existent. South of this, in the Province of Coquimbo, 
the higher elevations are farther from the coast and narrow trans- 
verse valleys are characteristic, with a few spurs of the mountains 
reaching the coast. 

Thence southward from the vicinity of lat. 33 S., near the 
principal cities of Valparaiso and Santiago, the typical topography 
of central Chile begins, with the high wall of the Andes on the east 
and a fairly defined low range or scattered hill masses following the 
coast, with a somewhat elevated and fairly wide valley between them 


and the Andes. This central valley forms the heart of agricultural 
Chile. It extends approximately from lat. 32 S. to 38 S., that is, 
from the Province of Santiago to the Province of Malleco, roughly 
from Santiago to Angol. With a temperate climate, abundance of 
water from the neighboring Andes, and generally good soil condi- 
tions, it is a highly productive region adapted to dairying, stock- 
raising, and both large- and small-scale cultivation of a wide variety of 
cereals, vegetables, and fruits. For about four hundred miles the valley 
is fairly defined but it seldom exceeds twenty-five or thirty miles in 
width and in some parts is much narrower, although it often 
leads into smaller valleys, especially to the westward. The numerous 
watercourses drain to the westward. Along these there is some tree 
growth of native species, but open fields and low bush growth pre- 
dominate, now divided by long rows of Lombardy poplars, willows, 
and other introductions. Adjacent slopes of the Andes rise rather 
abruptly, with scattered, mixed forest and bush, reminding much 
of that found in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada of California. 
Above this the forest rapidly thins out, and until the more southern 
latitudes are reached the higher parts of the Andes are mostly rough 
and rocky, with scant vegetation and limited fauna. West of the 
valley the so-called coast range consists of a series of groups of low 
mountains rather than a continuous chain, since it is cut at frequent 
intervals by good-sized rivers flowing through very narrow valleys 
to the Pacific. Light deciduous forest and bush are characteristic, 
and elevations seldom exceed 2,500 feet. 

Although there is gradual slight increase in humidity as we pro- 
ceed southward, conditions are relatively uniform down to the 
vicinity of lat. 37 S., at a point corresponding roughly to the first 
southern incidence of the Humboldt Current on the coast. Here 
there is a rather abrupt change both in climate and in topography. 
The Bio Bio River, which was long the frontier between the early 
colonists and the Araucanian natives, offers a convenient natural 
boundary for the beginning of this change, although it is by no means 
an exact one. South of this river the central valley is no longer 
evident, and open fields or bushy slopes are replaced by thickly 
forested hills and cool swamps. With increased rainfall there is a 
greater abundance of small streams, and the higher mountains both 
near the coast and inland are bathed in mist much of the time. Just 
south of Concepcion, between the Bio Bio and the Bueno rivers and 
adjacent to the coast, the Sierra Nahuelbuta forms a fairly defined 
range rising to some six thousand feet. Meanwhile in the same 


latitude there is change in the character of the Andes, which no 
longer present a solid front but are cut by the canyons of large rivers 
and flanked by outlying volcanic peaks individually sharply dis- 
tinguished. This leads to the famous lake region in which the Andes 
are broken by deep narrow valleys holding beautiful lakes and sur- 
rounded by snow-capped mountains. Low passes in several cases 
lead to the eastern side of the divide into Argentina, the best-known 
being that via Lake Llanquihue and Lake Todos Santos to Lake 
Nahuelhuapi. Small lakes are numerous, and the larger ones are 
often connected by torrential streams. The topography is compli- 
cated, and considerable areas are unexplored. Some of the more 
southern lakes are but little removed from arms of the sea, and it is 
plain that their present condition is due to gradual elevation of the 
land. In lat. 42 S. the Andes actually reach the sea, with the wide 
Bay of Ancud and the Gulf of Corcovado separating them from the 
large island of Chiloe which occupies the same position relative to 
them as the coastal region farther north, with water intervening 
instead of an open valley or broken hills. Thence southward the 
heavily forested mountains stand but a short distance from the 
coast and send down numerous streams, many of which debouch 
into narrow fiords. Small islands form a protection from the open 
Pacific but much of the country is inhospitable and difficult of access. 
In recent years, at favorable points, a few hardy settlers have 
pushed in, notably at Rio Aysen where there is passage to Argentina, 
but most of the region is in a state of nature. As far south as 
lat. 47 there is mixed forest including many of the trees found farther 
north. Individual volcanic peaks, such as the great Corcovado and 
Mount Mako, are heavily blanketed with snow and furnish impres- 
sive views when weather permits. 

From the vicinity of lat. 47 S. (Gulf of Penas) to the Straits of 
Magellan similar physiographic conditions continue, but average 
temperatures are lower, soil conditions are poor, and forest trees 
are markedly reduced in size and number of species. In the extreme 
south, small glaciers occasionally reach the sea, and mountains of 
only moderate height carry perpetual snow. Timberline varies 
according to local conditions, in many cases being not more than a 
thousand feet above the sea or sometimes even less. Often the trees 
form but a narrow fringe at the edge of the water and above them 
are only open rocks among which even procumbent vegetation is 
limited in amount. Although there is heavy rainfall, running 
streams are few, not only on most of the islands but also for long 


stretches on the mainland. The region is quite uninhabited, and 
the few aborigines who formerly hunted marine animals along the 
shores have practically disappeared. 

On the mainland and on some of the islands near the western 
entrance to the Straits of Magellan local conditions favor a some- 
what better forest growth, and even along the Beagle Channel on 
the south side of Tierra del Fuego the forests are heavier and the 
climate is milder than somewhat farther north. Except for the 
extreme south, on the Cape Horn Islands, the region of conditions 
most forbidding for life lies mainly on the coast and islands between 
the Gulf of Penas and the Straits of Magellan, where practically no 
zoological collecting has been done. 

At the southern end of the continent and on Tierra del Fuego 
general conditions are similar to those farther north, with the humid 
forest of the west coast extending to the east of the mountains some- 
what diminished in species and rapidly tapering to low bush and 
finally to open grassy plains. On the west coast the forest is com- 
posed mainly of three species of trees, the Antarctic beech (Notho- 
fagus antarctica} or nire, the evergreen beech (Nothofagus betu- 
loides) or coihue, and the winter's bark (Drimys winteri). Of 
these N. betuloides predominates on the coast and in colder, more 
elevated parts eastward. The winter's bark also is mainly a coast 
tree, less numerous than the others, and the nire, N. antarctica, is 
the only one that ranges far to the eastward beyond the coast 
mountains. On the Straits of Magellan, trees extend slightly beyond 
Punta Arenas, specifically to a point (Cabo Negro) about fifteen 
miles north. On Tierra del Fuego the same conditions prevail, the 
northern and eastern parts being open grassland, changing on the 
northern slopes of the mountains to forest which becomes more dense 
and humid on the southern or Pacific side and the neighboring islets. 
Where soil and other conditions are favorable, the trees reach good 
size, with maximum diameters exceeding four feet, but as they ap- 
proach their eastern limits they assume small, rounded and wind- 
blown shapes and reach a height of no more than ten or fifteen feet. 

At a few points the grasslands of southern Patagonia or at least 
treeless areas actually extend to salt water on the Pacific coast 
through breaks in the mountains. A conspicuous case of this kind 
is on Ultima Esperanza or Last Hope Inlet, in the vicinity of Puerto 
Natales. Some of the larger islands, as, for example, Riesco Island, 
are also treeless on their inner or northern sides, becoming heavily 
forested on the seaward sides. 


Thus the general climatic and physiographic conditions of Chile 
present a slightly blurred mirror image of those found in the north 
on the Pacific coast from Mexico to Alaska. The resemblance is far 
from exact, but there are many parallels. Someone has said that 
Chile is "California upside down," and this carries a considerable 
measure of truth. The coastal deserts of northern Chile are more 
arid than any on the North American coast; the central valley of 
Chile is on a considerably smaller scale than the San Joaquin of 
California; and the fiords of the Magellanic region, while similar 
to those of Alaska, present a somewhat different appearance due 
mainly to the absence of coniferous trees. 


It is doubtful if an attempt to correlate the distributional prov- 
inces of Chile with those of countries north of the equator is justified. 
Although there are intrusions from the north and east, the fauna is 
largely autochthonous or part of that assemblage of types which by 
statistical methods has led to the recognition of a so-called Pata- 
gonian Subregion. This fauna diminishes to the northward and 
also to the southward and no broad distinctions can be drawn except 
between the temperate regions and the alpine or puna. Excluding 
the puna, therefore, practically all of Chile belongs to what probably 
should be called the South Temperate zone. 


Hellmayr 1 has regarded as tropical a narrow strip of desert coast 
in the north adjoining Peru and extending into the provinces of 
Tacna and Tarapaca south to the Rio Loa. This is because of the 
occurrence there of certain birds characteristic of the coast of 
Ecuador and Peru. Among these are Volatinia j. peruviensis, Pyro- 
cephalus r. obscunts, Crotophaga sulcirostris, and Melopelia asiatica 
meloda, all of which are identical with or only subspecifically sepa- 
rable from forms ranging southward from Panama. It cannot be 
denied, therefore, that they are truly tropical types, but it is to be 
noted that they occur in company with such southern and temperate 
forms as Geositta and Leptasthenura, which range still farther north 
on the coast of Peru. The effect of the Humboldt Current in carry- 
ing marine forms northward is well known and, although its influence 
on the terrestrial fauna is less marked, it is not inconsiderable. 

1 Birds of Chile, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 21, 1932. 


Access to this region for tropical forms is mainly or wholly from the 
north, since the continuous high range of the western Andes is an 
effective barrier on the east. An undiluted tropical fauna including 
mammals and other vertebrates as well as birds extends from 
Ecuador to the coast of northern Peru only to the vicinity of Tru- 
jillo or some six degrees south of the equator. Here, for example, 
are still found opossums of the genus Didelphis, and here or just 
north of here many tropical birds and reptiles find their southern 
limit. Beyond this the fauna is definitely reduced, with some 
mixture of both northern and southern types, with Andean deriva- 
tives, and with subspecies, species, and even genera regionally 
differentiated. Extreme northwestern Chile falls within this region 
of transition between temperate and tropical but it is not truly 
tropical. A careful study of the entire fauna of the coast from 
southern Ecuador to northern Chile is needed. 

Aside from a few bats (e.g. Desmodus and Tadarida) there are 
no truly tropical mammals in Chile. These bats which, like birds, 
have powers of flight, are of little or no significance in evaluating 
the faunal position of the region. Although belonging to tropical 
groups, they have invaded a temperate region and adapted them- 
selves to it, in a sense being comparable to the parrots and hum- 
ming birds which are found throughout Chile even south to Tierra 
del Fuego. Somewhat comparable to these is the mouse opossum, 
of which one species reaches Chile. Although belonging to a genus 
which is mainly tropical, the Chilean species falls into a section now 
adapted to a temperate climate. 


The puna zone is not well-marked and detailed information in 
regard to it is lacking. Actual or theoretical timberline becomes 
progressively lower from the north, where it may be about 13,000 
feet, to the extreme south, where it is only 1,000-1,500 feet. Exces- 
sive aridity in the northern provinces is combined with relatively 
high altitudes and a greatly reduced fauna, making the delimitation 
of a puna zona somewhat arbitrary. The paramos or punas of 
Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru have their counterparts in limited 
areas in northern and north-central Chile, but southward in the 
central provinces the mountains are often so rough and rocky or so 
steep that there is but little life between the upper limit of trees 
and the lower snow line. Farther south, below lat. 36, the Andean 
chain is not continuous and puna conditions are found only on 
isolated peaks or limited ranges. Moreover, in southern latitudes 

MAP 2. Principal faunal districts of Chile. Boundaries are only approxi- 
mate, especially those of the puna district, the exact limits of which are either 
unknown or too complicated to be shown on a map of this size. 



the puna fauna tends to range into arborescent vegetation more 
extensively. Even on Tierra del Fuego, however, at least one bird 
(Attagis) breeds only above timberline, even though this may be 
at an altitude of no more than 1,200 feet. So far as known, the only 
mammals ranging into the higher treeless parts of Tierra del Fuego 
are also well distributed down to sea level. In recent years, a con- 
siderable proportion of the guanacos left on Tierra del Fuego have 
resorted to the open highlands to breed, but this is largely because of 
persecution elsewhere. 

The only mammal definitely characteristic of the puna zone is 
the mountain viscacha (Lagidium). This ranges through the highest 
parts of the Andes from the most elevated plateaus of the provinces 
of Tarapaca and Antofagasta south to the district of Ultima Espe- 
ranza in Patagonia, at about lat. 52 S. Other mammals that range 
into this zone from the vicinity of timberline are Akodon andinus, 
Phyllotis, Aconaemys, Chinchilla, Dusicyon culpaeus, Hippocamelus, 
Lama guanicoe, and Vicugna vicugna. That the fauna of Bolivia 
extends at least for a short distance into Chile is indicated by the 
record of Phyllotis boliviensis at Choquelimpie, Tacna, at 15,000 
feet. A Bolivian tuco tuco, Ctenomys opimus, also is reported from 
this locality. 


Excluding the puna and a few coast valleys in the extreme 
northwest, the remainder and by far the greater part of Chile has 
a temperate climate and a temperate although largely peculiar 
fauna. In the north, the political boundaries of the country extend 
far enough to include a small area where there is contact with the 
highland fauna of southern Peru 1 and Bolivia. Likewise, in the 
south on the north side of Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of 
Magellan as well as in small discontinuous areas at the eastern base 
of the Andes, the Patagonian fauna crosses the boundary and extends 
for a very short distance into Chile. Aside from these intrusions of 
extralimital faunas, the temperate of Chile is divisible into three 
well-marked areas characterized by the differentiation of related 
forms and by the presence or absence of certain generic or well- 
marked specific types. These areas have a climatic basis and, except 
in detail, are latitudinal. Their general extent seems fairly clear but 
exact boundaries for them await further study and much more 
information than is available at present. From north to south, 

1 The occurrence of Phyllotis arenarius at Putre, Province of Tacna, at 11,000 
feet, is perhaps an example of the intrusion of a temperate form from Peru. 


therefore, we have the following subdivisions of the temperate: 
Northern Desert or Atacaman, Central or Santiagan, Humid Forest 
or Valdivian, and Littoral Forest or Fuegian. The Treeless Plain or 
Patagonian may be added to these, although if political boundaries 
were slightly different it would not figure. 

Northern Desert or Atacaman. This district includes the arid 
northern part of Chile below 10,000 feet, from the Province of Tacna 
nearly to Coquimbo. It is wholly arid and treeless with many areas 
quite devoid of life. Some of it is still unexplored. Scattered through 
the higher parts are occasional intermittent streams and saline reser- 
voirs promoting the existence of limited plant and animal life, some 
of which is temperate. Although fairly extensive, this district has 
scarcely any mammal fauna of its own. Here and there certain 
species of the puna zone may be found in it, as, for example, the 
chinchilla and the guanaco, which formerly ranged to the sea, at 
least at times. A few rodents, as Akodon and Oryzomys, enter the 
edges but have not become well established. Phyllotis, which is 
common in the next district southward, may be found but tends to 
the higher parts where it is slightly differentiated (P. darwini 
rupestris). Not improbably some forms of the Peruvian coast 
may also reach it, but records at present are lacking. The scattered 
areas that are suitable for any mammalian life have been settled 
and, in most cases, infested with house rats and mice, so whatever 
native life may have existed has now disappeared. 

One bat, Myotis chiloensis atacamensis, stands as a well-marked 
race allied to southern forms, but it appears to range through the 
highlands into Argentina and is not wholly peculiar to this district. 
So far as mammals are concerned, therefore, the district has mainly 
negative characteristics. 

Central or Santiagan. Occupying the most populous part of the 
country, this district extends from the southern edge of the desert 
in the Province of Coquimbo to the forests of Valdivia and from the 
Pacific Ocean to timberline in the Andes. The majority of Chilean 
mammals are found within it, and although a large proportion of the 
species extends southward into the humid forest district, practically 
all of these are subspecifically differentiated. Actually confined to 
it are the two genera Octodon and Spalacopus, as well as a few species 
such as Abrocoma bennetti and Felis pajeros (colocolo) or the bats of 
tropical origin, Desmodus and Tadarida. 

Representative subspecies of this district as compared with those 
of the adjoining humid district are as follows: 



Marmoset elegans elegans 
Myotis chiloensis arescens 
Dusicyon griseus domeykoanus 
Felis concolor puma 
Felis guigna molinae 
Myocastor coypus coypus 
Notiomys megalonyx megalonyx 
Abrothrix longipilis longipilis 
Akodon olivaceus olivaceus 
Oryzomys longicaudatus longicaudatus 


Marmoset elegans soricina 
Myotis chiloensis chiloensis 
Dusicyon griseus maullinicus 
Felis concolor araucanus 
Felis guigna guigna 
Myocastor coypus melanops 
Notiomys megalonyx microtis 
Abrothrix longipilis apta 
Akodon olivaceus brachiotis 
Oryzomys longicaudatus philippii 

Humid Forest or Valdivian. South of the Santiagan the Valdi- 
vian district extends along the coast and through the mountains 
to the vicinity of the Gulf of Penas, about lat. 47 S. There is some 
interdigitation at the northern boundary where humidity increases 
with altitude, but the change is fairly abrupt from a region of 
moderate rainfall and relatively light vegetation to one of great 
humidity and dense forest. 1 In the heart of this district, vegetation 
is widely varied and highly exuberant. Heavy forest growth is 
combined with dense undergrowth and the numerous cryptogams 
that go with an atmosphere constantly charged with moisture. As 
indicated above, a considerable proportion of the specific types of 
mammals of the Santiagan district continue into the Valdivian, but 
in every instance there is subspecific differentiation. A better 
example of climatic and faunal correlation could scarcely be desired. 
The characters displayed by the subspecies of small rodents are, as 
might be suspected, much the same as those shown under similar 
conditions in the forests of Oregon and Washington. Saturate colors, 
thickened pelage, and lengthened tails prevail. 

Several generic types of mammals are wholly or almost wholly 
confined to this district. These are the marsupials Rhyncholestes 
and Dromiciops, the cricetine rodent Irenomys, and the ungulate 
Pudu. The last-named is reported as extending southward into 
the Fuegian district, and it may locally overlap into the southern 
part of the Santiagan; but its center of abundance is the Valdivian, 
and any deviation is not significant. The small highly adapted 
rodent Notiomys valdivianus also characterizes this district, although 
it has slight subspecies in Argentina. Another species is Akodon 
(Abrothrix) sanborni, a dark-colored mouse of uncertain relationships. 

Littoral Forest or Fuegian. This includes the forested coast 
region from the vicinity of the Gulf of Penas to the Straits of Magel- 

1 Rainfall at Valparaiso 20-40 inches; at Valdivia 80-200 inches. 


Ian and the southern or Pacific shore of Tierra del Fuego. It is 
characterized by a reduced fauna and flora. The forest trees, 
although often in luxuriant solid stands, are few in species, not more 
than three in fact, and other vegetation is correspondingly lacking 
in the diversity that prevails in the Valdivian district. Mammals 
and birds are few in species and even insects and fresh-water inverte- 
brates are scarce. The most characteristic small mammal is Akodon 
xanthorhinus, which is excessively abundant on Tierra del Fuego and 
continues northward along the coast for an undetermined distance. 
At Last Hope Inlet it is still abundant and it doubtless ranges con- 
siderably farther north. Less common, but occupying the same 
region, is Akodon (Abrothrix) lanosus. Only one of the small rodents 
of northern Chile has a subspecific representative here. This is the 
Oryzomys, which is substantially differentiated in each of the prin- 
cipal faunal districts, as below. 

Santiagan Valdivian Fuegian 

O. 1. longicaudatus O. 1. philippii O. I. magdlanicus 

Aside from amphibious forms, there is one carnivore, Dusicyon 
culpaeus magellanicus, only subspecifically distinguishable from a 
northern form D. c. culpaeus, and on Tierra del Fuego a closely 
allied insular form, D. c. lycoides. 

Typically, therefore, we have in this district only three small 
rodents, Akodon, Abrothrix, and Oryzomys, with one terrestrial 
carnivore, Dusicyon. Several forms from the Patagonian may occa- 
sionally penetrate short distances into the forests of this district, 
but they are essentially interlopers not properly part of this fauna. 
Such are Reithrodon and Euneomys on Tierra del Fuego and Notiomys 
on the mainland. 

Treeless Plain or Patagonian. As stated elsewhere, the political 
boundaries of Chile in the south include various eastern slopes and 
tongues of pampa which, although scattered and of small extent, 
provide access for a considerable number of mammals not otherwise 
found in Chile. These include species mainly of the eastern foot- 
hills and others of the open plains. Among them are Dusicyon 
griseus, Conepatus humboldti, Lyncodon patagonica, Ctenomys magel- 
lanicus, Reithrodon auritus cuniculoides, Euneomys chinchilloides, 
Phyllotis micropus, Phyllotis xanthopygus, and Akodon (Abrothrix) 
longipilis suffusa. On Tierra del Fuego the open plain is largely 
within the boundaries of Argentina, but enough of it extends into 
Chile to make it certain that all species of the island occur on both 
sides of the line. 



Geologists and paleontologists are mostly agreed that South 
America received a primitive mammalian fauna from the north at 
a very early date. The oldest fossils now found there are regarded 
as Paleocene, indicating an established fauna at least as early as the 
beginning of the Tertiary, and it is not impossible that forerunners 
of this fauna entered during the latter part of the Cretaceous. Fol- 
lowing this introduction from the north, the South American conti- 
nent was cut off from the rest of the world for a long period, for 
many millions of years in fact, and during this time its mammals 
became differentiated into an extraordinary number of widely 
varying types so different from their contemporaries elsewhere 
that it became necessary to erect innumerable new genera, many 
new families, and even five or six new orders to accommodate them. 
No less than forty different families were represented and it was 
perhaps the largest and most peculiar mammalian fauna that ever 

This fauna was flourishing in the Miocene some twenty to thirty 
million years ago, but in later periods most of it disappeared. All 
the larger forms became extinct and many of the smaller ones also, 
but a few descendants of the latter have continued into the present. 
These include only the marsupials (didelphids and caenolestids) and 
the sloths, anteaters, and armadillos. Late in the Miocene, while 
the large fauna was still well represented, there suddenly appeared 
a whole group of rodents, the Hystricomorpha, many of which in 
only slightly modified form have continued into the present. These 
include the American porcupines, cavies, chinchillas, viscachas, and 
various octodonts of ratlike form. How and where they originated 
is not certain, but a few members of the same group are now found 
in Africa with some evidence of a possible ancestry in Europe. 
Nothing closely resembling them has been discovered so far in the 
North American Tertiary. At about this time the antecedents of 
the platyrrhine monkeys also appeared, and their origin, like that 
of the hystricomorphs, is still uncertain. Obviously, the record is 
far from complete. 

Meanwhile, just before the extinction of the great South Ameri- 
can fauna, important physical changes took place, the general nature 
of which is quite certain. In Pliocene times, South America and 
North America again became connected at Panama and the isthmus 
was then probably higher and wider than it is now, furnishing a 
bridge for the interchange of northern and southern faunas. Cats, 


dogs, deer, cricetine rodents, and other familiar northern forms 
poured into South America and spread over the entire continent, 
perhaps having some part in the extinction of the southern types, 
although doubtless other factors were involved. Southern forms 
also invaded the north but in smaller numbers and mostly to limited 
areas. Ground sloths and glyptodonts reached Ohio, Kentucky, 
California, Nevada, and similar latitudes and there became extinct. 
Opossums and armadillos now extend to the southern United States, 
and in tropical Mexico there are anteaters, sloths, monkeys, and 
several representatives of the hystricomorph rodents. The only 
form of southern derivation which has attained a very wide range in 
the north is the porcupine now covering a great part of the United 
States, Canada, and Alaska. 

These general features of the history of South American mam- 
mals are well known, especially to paleontologists, and of course 
they are responsible for the broader aspects of present-day distri- 
butions, but they cover such vast periods of time and so many 
elements are lacking that interpretation of details cannot be entirely 
free of speculation. When applied to Chile they furnish the basis 
for an immediate division of its modern fauna into one series of 
southern origin and one of northern. 

Those of undoubted southern origin are the following, belonging 
to two orders and eleven genera: 

Order Marsupialia: Rhyncholestes, Marmosa, Dromidops. 
Order Rodentia: Chinchilla, Octodon, Aconaemys, Spalacopus, Lagidium, 
Ctenomys, Myocastor, Abrocoma. 

Of these, three are marsupials and the remainder hystricomorph 
rodents. Rhyncholestes and perhaps also Dromidops are directly 
derived from ancient stocks which may have occupied the same 
region as these their descendants now do. Both are peculiar to 
Chile and do not occur east of the Andean chain. The third marsu- 
pial, Marmosa, although a primitive type, probably reached Chile 
at a much later date by secondary invasion from northern and 
central South America. Two genera of bats, Desmodus and Tada- 
rida, are doubtfully of southern origin, but like the Marmosa they 
are obviously recent introductions from tropical regions to the 

Among the hystricomorphs of Chile, the majority are peculiar 
to the region and only two, Ctenomys and Myocastor, have extensive 
distribution east of the Andes. Moreover, although tropical types 
of hystricomorphs are numerous (Proechimys, Dasyprocta, Hydro- 


chaerus, etc.), none of them have reached Chile. It is evident, there- 
fore, that at some period in the history of the ancient southern types, 
both among the marsupials and the rodents, they became divided, 
by migration or differentiation, into two groups, one occupying 
tropical parts of South America and the other the temperate. In 
Chile only the temperate forms are found among the hystricomorphs 
and it is easily seen that among the much fewer marsupials the one 
form closely allied to tropical types is a recent invader. The north- 
ward distribution of these temperate forms is very limited. Although 
climatic conditions are favorable for them in the Andes of northern 
Ecuador, Colombia, and even Venezuela, only the caenolestids have 
reached to these limits and their northern representatives are well 
differentiated from the southern. Lagidium goes no farther than 
southern Ecuador, Chinchilla reaches central Peru, while Dromiciops, 
Octodon, Aconaemys, Spalacopus, and Abrocoma are practically con- 
fined to Chile. Abrocoma is recorded from Bolivia just beyond the 
political boundaries of Chile, and in adjoining parts of Argentina 
are the very local allied genera Octodontomys and Octomys. 

The following mammals reached Chile from the north: 

Order Chiroptera: Myotis, Histiotus, Lasiurus. 

Order Carnivora: Felis, Orison, Lutra, Dusicyon, Conepatus. 

Order Rodentia: Akodon, Eligmodontia, Euneomys, Irenomys, Reithrodon, 

Phyllotis, Notiomys, Oryzomys. 
Order Artiodactyla: Hippocamelus, Lama, Vicugna, Pudu. 

These, therefore, include four orders and twenty genera, a much larger 
and more varied assemblage than those of southern origin. The 
proportion of endemic forms, however, is much smaller. All the 
bats and all the carnivores belong to wide-ranging genera. Among 
the rodents, all of which are cricetines, only Irenomys is strictly 
confined to Chile, although Notiomys is essentially Chilean. The 
ungulates Hippocamelus, Lama, and Vicugna extend into Bolivia and 
Peru, while Pudu is supposed to be represented in Ecuador by a 
rare allied form Pudella. 

Of the eight genera of cricetine rodents, only one, Oryzomys, now 
has continuous distribution from the north southward. All the 
others, although obviously of northern origin, have become well 
differentiated and are now confined to southern South America; 
their immediate northern ancestors are either extinct or unrecog- 
nizable among living forms. It is probable, therefore, that all or 
most of these are the result of a relatively early invasion from the 
north, while the Oryzomys may have come at a much later date, 


probably in the Pleistocene. The Oryzomys, in fact, can be traced 
northward from Tierra del Fuego, where it is quite common, through 
Chile, Peru, and Ecuador to Colombia and from there by forms 
scarcely more than subspecifically different to Panama and Central 
America. It has also spread somewhat into the tropics in Brazil 
and elsewhere. Its distribution and relationships are not yet fully 
worked out but perhaps it may offer some clue as to the route into 
the south followed by the other cricetines. 

Excluding bats and pinnipeds, the significance of which is doubt- 
ful, there are thirty genera of mammals now found in Chile. 
Of this number, seventeen are of northern origin. This high per- 
centage of northern forms is interesting not only in its relation to 
their past history, but is significant of the present condition, for the 
process of extinction is still going on and, at least among the rodents, 
it appears that the northern forms are rapidly gaining supremacy. 
Among the hystricomorphs or southern forms, several of the families 
and most of the genera are now monotypic, while nearly all of them 
occupy very restricted areas. Already the chinchilla is practically 
gone and none of the octodont rats is generally distributed. In 
order to obtain specimens of all the genera of these octodonts it is 
necessary to travel over most of central Chile and to visit isolated 
areas, sometimes only a few square miles in extent, where they are 
found in limited numbers and under conditions where slight dis- 
turbance might easily wipe them out. On the other hand, the 
northern forms, especially the cricetine rodents, are mostly of general 
distribution and differentiated into various subspecies occupying 
adjoining areas. Except where they are crowded out by the intro- 
duced murines, they are abundant and flourishing. That they will 
eventually have complete ascendancy over the small octodonts seems 
highly probable. 

Purely Palearctic or Nearctic forms are very few in South 
America and none of them have reached the far south. They 
include only the weasels, which extend to Ecuador and Peru, the 
shrews, which extend to Ecuador, and possibly some of the squirrels, 
with a slightly wider range. All the southern cricetines and at least 
most of the carnivores of Chile appear to have been derived from the 
so-called Sonoran Region or Subregion of central and south-central 
North America. In this area certain well-differentiated groups, as 
the Antilocapridae and Geomyidae, have never reached South 
America, but the majority of the mammals of the southern United 
States and northern Mexico have their representatives in the south 


and, at the present time, various groups are more highly developed 
in the south than in the north. Such a genus as Oryzomys, for 
example, must have spread southward from the Sonoran, although 
now more restricted there than in the invaded regions. The sig- 
nificance of the Sonoran as a zoogeographic province is thus increased 
by considering its relation to South America. Besides family and 
generic types peculiar to it, there are certain specific ones such as 
the puma, which despite its very wide range in the south is to be 
regarded as a purely Sonoran type. 

The present-day mammal fauna of Chile, therefore, consists of 
two major elements and two minor ones. By far the majority of 
the mammals are either hystricomorph rodents of long standing in 
South America or invaders belonging to several families from North 
America. The minor elements are (1) the caenolestid marsupials 
directly descended from the early Patagonian fauna and (2) the 
mouse opossum and several bats that are doubtless recent intrusions 
from tropical South America. 


No less than eight genera of mammals are peculiar to Chile. 
These are two marsupials, four octodont rodents, one cricetine 
rodent, and one ungulate, as follows: 

Order Marsupialia: Rhyncholestes, Dromiciops. 1 

Order Rodentia (octodont): Ociodon, Abrocoma, 1 Spalacopus, Aconaemys. 

Order Rodentia (cricetine): Irenomys. 

Order Artiodactyla: Pudu. 

This is a high percentage of the total mammal fauna. If we exclude 
the pinnipeds and the five genera of bats, as well as the genera that 
barely pass Chilean political boundaries and do not properly belong 
to its fauna, the total number of genera is reduced to twenty-six. 
Nearly one-third of these, therefore, are confined to the region, 
practically all of them to middle Chile where the high wall of the 
Andes most effectively shuts them in. The area in which they live 
is a very small one as compared to the continent of which it is a 
part and it is scarcely to be supposed that they have developed 
within it. More probably they or their ancestors became isolated 
at a time when physical conditions forced them into a limited area 
and exterminated their near relatives elsewhere. At some time 

1 Records of these genera from Argentina are such a short distance beyond 
Chilean territory that their inclusion in this list seems justifiable. 


during the Pliocene much of Patagonia was under the sea, with the 
Andes of the west lower than now and more limited in extent. The 
marine inundation and the gradual elevation of the Andes neces- 
sarily produced profound climatic disturbances the exact nature of 
which cannot be traced. There was some glaciation in the southern 
Andes and there are a few small glaciers there now, but there were 
no great intermittent glacial periods as there were in the north. 
There must have been some selective climatic influence, however, 
which may have been at least partially responsible for present 


The Juan Fernandez Islands, lying some four hundred miles 
west of the mainland and under Chilean sovereignty, are quite 
devoid of land mammals. Otherwise, Chilean islands are strictly 
continental, and the mammals found on them are only slightly or 
not at all differentiated. 

Off the northern and central coast there are no islands large 
enough to support a mammal fauna with the exception of Santa 
Maria Island, in the Gulf of Arauco near Concepcion, and Mocha 
Island, a short distance farther south. No information is available 
about Santa Maria, but Mocha is known to be inhabited by several 
rodents, including representatives of practically all the common 
forms of the neighboring mainland. Apparently all are very slightly 
differentiated and their isolation is obviously of not very long stand- 
ing. Mocha is about eight miles in length and is situated about 
twenty-five miles offshore. It has a varied topography and sup- 
ports an extensive flora with considerable forest. 

Southward from Puerto Montt to Cape Horn many islands are 
scattered along the entire coast. Most of them are small in size 
and only a few have been visited by naturalists. As a rule they are 
heavily wooded and provided with conditions favorable for small 
mammals, but the limited evidence available indicates that their 
faunas are small and scarcely or not at all differentiated. The large 
island of Chiloe has an extensive fauna including practically all the 
mammals of the Valdivian district. A few forms, as Dromiciops 
australis gliroides, Notiomys valdivianus chiloensis, and Dusicyon 
fulvipes, seem to be differentiated, but so far they have been com- 
pared only with material from the northeast, mainly from the 
Province of Valdivia. Museum specimens from the coast directly 
opposite Chiloe are still lacking and when they are forthcoming it 


is not unlikely that they will bridge the distinctions now drawn 
between island and mainland forms. Chiloe Island, therefore, has 
only slight faunal peculiarity. 

The great island of Tierra del Fuego, which is separated from the 
mainland by the Straits of Magellan, is characterized more by the 
absence of certain forms than by the peculiarity of those that are 
present. The Straits exceed twenty miles in width throughout much 
of their extent, but the narrows near the Atlantic entrance, for about 
twelve miles, although some fifty fathoms deep, are less than five 
miles in width, and at low tide, in places, perhaps no more than three. 
It is not strange, therefore, that the majority of the mammals of 
Tierra del Fuego are identical with those of the nearby mainland. 
Among the small rodents, those that are common to both sides of 
the Straits are the following: 

Akodon xanthorhinus xanthorhinus Akodon xanthorhinus canescens 

Akodon (Abrothrix) lanosus Euneomys chinchilloides chinchilloides 

Reithrodon auritus pachycephalus Oryzomys longicaudatus magellanicus 

Rodents possibly peculiar to the island include only Ctenomys 
magellanicus fueginus and Akodon (Abrothrix) longipilis francei. In 
both cases the distinction is doubtful, since the supposed characters 
are very slight and based on inadequate material. Their recognition 
is quite provisional and better information than we now have may 
lead to the conclusion that all the rodents of Tierra del Fuego are 
identical with those of the mainland. 

The larger land mammals of Tierra del Fuego consist only of the 
guanaco and the wolf (Dusicyon culpaeus lycoides). Of these, the 
wolf appears to be somewhat peculiar in size and cranial characters, 
but material representing it is scanty and comparisons so far made 
are with only one or two specimens from the mainland. The guanaco 
conceivably may have been transported by the aborigines. 

Not yet recorded from Tierra del Fuego and doubtless quite 
absent from it are a number of mammals now or formerly common 
on the north side of the Straits. These are the puma (Felis concolor 
subsp. ) , the huemul (Hippocamelus) , the small fox (Dusicyon g. griseus) , 
the skunk (Conepatus), and two small rodents (Notiomys and Phyl- 
lotis m. micropus). Apparently the island has been populated from the 
mainland quite fortuitously and at intervals when chance favored 
one set of animals rather than another equally suited. This accords 
well with the evidence that the island has received its fauna at a 
relatively recent time subsequent to the period of glaciation or eleva- 
tion. In other words, although a large share of the mainland fauna 


has reached the island, sufficient time has not elapsed for all of it 
to do so. Certain birds of the mainland also are absent from the 
island, notably the rhea, which is common on the northern shore of 
the Straits but unknown on the other side. The only reptile of the 
region, a small lizard (Liolaemus magellanicus) , is common to both 
sides of the Straits. 


As far back as 1813, when Chilean independence was not yet 
fully established, the idea of a national museum in connection with 
the "Universidad de San Felipe" was officially promulgated. Again, 
in 1822, it was considered by the great leader Bernardo O'Higgins, 
but it was not until 1830, when Claudio Gay was commissioned to 
make his explorations, that definite authority for a museum was 
ordered; and not until 1838, when Gay's collections were placed in 
a public hall later occupied by the Tribunales de Justicia, that the 
museum became an objective reality. By 1851, according to report, 
affairs were in a bad state and some of the collections had mys- 
teriously disappeared, the remainder being located "en los altos" 
of the Biblioteca Nacional. 

In 1853, only two years after his arrival in Chile, Dr. R. A. 
Philippi was appointed Director of the museum and Professor of 
Natural History in the University of Chile. Thenceforward until 
his retirement in 1897, Philippi was very active and the museum 
grew rapidly. In 1866 it was removed to one of the halls of the 
university and in the same year was subjected to considerable loss 
through robbery, certain intrinsically valuable objects being ex- 
tracted and others damaged or destroyed. 

In 1876 a final move was made to an imposing and commodious 
building in the Quinta Normal de Agricultura, an attractive park, 
where the museum became one of the show places of the capital 
city of Santiago. This building had been constructed for an inter- 
national exposition in 1875 and was so large it could not be fully 
occupied at once and for some years its main hall was frequently 
used for public functions. In 1879, during the war between Peru 
and Bolivia, it served as a hospital, and in 1888 it housed the mineral 
display of another exposition. By the early part of the present 
century, however, its natural history exhibits were sufficient to 
require all or nearly all available space. These exhibits covered 
zoology, botany, geology, ethnology, and archaeology. In later 
years the building suffered somewhat from earthquakes, requiring 


considerable reconstruction, but most of the collections remain 

In 1922, when Field Museum's first expedition was working in 
Chile, full access to the zoological collections of the Museo Nacional 
was courteously accorded by the then Director, Dr. Eduardo Moore. 
Apparently they had been changed but little since the days of 
Philippi. The representation of mammals and birds was large and 
comprehensive, mainly Chilean, but with many important species 
from other parts of the world. As was customary, especially in 
European museums, all specimens were mounted and displayed, 
often including many duplicates. The workmanship from the con- 
temporary standpoint was most creditable. Each specimen was 
attached to a wooden stand or perch, on the under side of which 
was a paper label giving essential data, handwritten or, in some 
cases, typewritten. 

Most important were the types of new species first described by 
Philippi. None of these were designated as such, but it was soon 
evident that the majority of them could be identified with certainty 
by the labels or more especially by the postures in which they had 
been mounted by the taxidermist. These postures were in so many 
cases identical with those of the figures published by Philippi that 
there could be no doubt the figures were drawn from the mounted 
specimens. Not all the types were found, however, and it is clear 
that some of them have been extracted from the collection or lost. 
Philippi, himself, appears to have sent at least a part of them to 
other institutions, perhaps in exchange, and according to local 
report others have found their way elsewhere in Chile. 

In 1939, when a party from Field Museum was again in Santiago, 
Dr. Ricardo E. Latcham, present Director of the museum, and 
Dr. Rodulfo Philippi, Curator of Birds, were most courteous and 
demonstrated convincingly that every care is now being taken for 
the allocation and preservation of the valuable types. 


In the present account of the mammalian fauna of Chile an 
effort has been made to cover the whole field, but it has proved 
impractical to carry out a uniform treatment for all species. In 
many cases the accounts are. quite complete, but in others it is 
probable there may be more existing knowledge than is presented. 
This is especially true of the larger forms, which the progress of 
settlement has rendered scarce and difficult to obtain. The work 


has been subject to many interruptions, so it has been done piece- 
meal from time to time over a number of years, and this has caused 
some irregularity of method. 

Owing to the confused state of knowledge of South American 
mammals in general and the especial problems due to the loose 
work of several early Chilean naturalists, it has been necessary to 
devote considerable space to discussion of generic relationships, 
to nomenclature, and to the identification of old types matters 
which it is hoped may clear the way for a future in which they will 
no longer trouble. Although principally of interest to professional 
mammalogists they are unavoidable at this time. 

On the other hand, it has seemed desirable to introduce at least 
some of the features of a manual such as simple keys and very brief 
diagnoses, which may be helpful to anyone entering the field, and 
more especially to Chilean naturalists on the ground, whose desire 
to pursue the subject is unquestioned. The skulls of most but not 
all species are illustrated by drawings made by Mr. John J. Janecek 
from specimens in Field Museum. Distribution maps, also drawn 
by Mr. Janecek, are given for certain species for which there are 
sufficient data to make them significant. In other cases records 
are so few and indefinite that maps are not practical. 

The bibliography is perhaps not far from complete but it has 
not been pursued very systematically and some omissions may be 
found. As it is, there are many references of little importance save 
historical exhaustiveness. With a very few exceptions, all references 
have been checked with original sources. 

Despite the large number of names existing, it has proved 
necessary to add fifteen, mostly for slightly characterized forms 
heretofore unrecognized. These are enumerated in the historical 
list at the conclusion of the report (p. 242). 



Marmoset elegans elegans Waterhouse 
Marmosa elegans coquimbensis Tate 
Marmoset elegans soricina F. Philippi 

Dromiciops australis australis F. Phi- 

Dromiciops australis gliroides Thomas 
Rhyncholestes raphanurus Osgood 


Lasiurus borealis bonariensis Lesson and 


Lasiurus cinereus villosissimus Geoffrey 
Myotis chiloensis chiloensis Waterhouse 
Myotis chiloensis arescens Osgood 
Myotis chiloensis atacamensis Lataste 
Histiotus macrotus Poeppig 

Histiotus montanus montanus Philippi 
and Landbeck 

Histiotus montanus magellanicus Philippi 

Desmodus rotundus d'orbignyi Water- 

Tadarida brasiliensis Geoffrey 


Dusicyon culpaeus culpaeus Molina 
Dusicyon culpaeus andinus Thomas 
Dusicyon culpaeus magellanicus Gray 
Dusicyon culpaeus lycoides Philippi 
Dusicyon griseus griseus Gray 
Dusicyon griseus domeykoanus Philippi 
Dusicyon griseus maullinicus Philippi 
Dusicyon fulvipes Martin 
Felis concolor puma Molina 
Felis concolor patagonica Merriam 
Felis concolor araucanus Osgood 
Felis pajeros colocolo Molina 
Felis guigna guigna Molina 
Felis guigna molinae Osgood 

Felis jacobita Cornalia 
Lutra provocax Thomas 
Lutra felina Molina 
Grison cuja Molina 
Lyncodon patagonica Blainville 
Conepatus chinga chinga Molina 
Conepatus chinga mendosus Thomas 
Conepatus humboldti Gray 
Conepatus rex Thomas 
Leptonychotes weddelli Lesson 
Hydrurga leptonyx Blainville 
Mirounga leonina Linnaeus 
Otaria flavescens Shaw 
Arctocephalus australis Zimmermann 


Abrocoma bennetti bennetti Waterhouse 
Abrocoma bennetti murrayi Wolffsohn 
Octodon degus Molina 
Octodon bridgesi Waterhouse 
Octodon lunatus Osgood 
Aconaemys fuscus fuscus Waterhouse 
Aconaemys fuscus porteri Thomas 
Spalacopus cyanus cyanus Molina 
Spalacopus cyanus maulinus Osgood 
Spalacopus cyanus tabanus Thomas 
Ctenomys magellanicus magellanicus 


Ctenomys magellanicus fueginus Philippi 
Ctenomys magellanicus osgoodi Allen 

Ctenomys magellanicus dicki Osgood 
Ctenomys maulinus maulinus Philippi 
Ctenomys maulinus brunneus Osgood 
Ctenomys fulvus Philippi 
Ctenomys robustus Philippi 
Ctenomys opimus Wagner 
Myocastor coypus coypus Molina 
Myocastor coypus melanops Osgood 
Chinchilla chinchilla velligera Prell 
Lagidium viscacia viscacia Molina 
Lagidium viscacia cuvieri Bennett 
Lagidium viscacia famatinae Thomas 
Lagidium viscacia boxi Thomas 





Lagidium viscada sarae Thomas and 

St. Leger 

Lagidium viscada moreni Thomas 
Lagidium viscada wolffsohni Thomas 
Cavia australis Geoffroy and d'Orbigny 
Oryzomys longicaudatus longicaudatus 


Oryzomys longicaudatus philippii Land- 
Oryzomys longicaudatus magellanicus 


Notiomys valdivianus valdivianus Phi- 

Notiomys valdivianus chiloensis Osgood 
Notiomys valdivianus bullocki Osgood 
Notiomys valdivianus bicolor Osgood 
Notiomys valdivianus michaelseni 


Notiomys megalonyx megalonyx Water- 

Notiomys megalonyx microtis Philippi 
Notiomys macronyx macronyx Thomas 
Notiomys macronyx vestitus Thomas 
Notiomys macronyx alleni Osgood 
Notiomys delfini Cabrera 
Akodon olivaceus olivaceus Waterhouse 
Akodon olivaceus pencanus Philippi 
Akodon olivaceus mochae Philippi 
Akodon olivaceus brachiotis Waterhouse 
Akodon olivaceus beatus Thomas 
Akodon andinus andinus Philippi 
Akodon andinus dolichonyx Philippi 
Akodon xanthorhinus xanthorhinus 


Akodon xanthorhinus canescens Water- 
Akodon (Abrothrix) longipilis longipilis 


Akodon (Abrothrix) longipilis apta 

Akodon (Abrothrix) longipilis castaneus 

Akodon (Abrothrix) longipilis moerens 

Akodon (Abrothrix) longipilis hirta 

Akodon (Abrothrix) longipilis suffusa 

Akodon (Abrothrix) longipilis nubila 

Akodon (Abrothrix) longipilis francei 


Akodon (Abrothrix) sanborni Osgood 
Akodon (Abrothrix) lanosus Thomas 
Eligmodontia puerulus Philippi 
Eligmodontia elegans morgani Allen 
Phyllotis darwini darwini Waterhouse 
Phyllotis darwini boedeckeri Philippi 
Phyllotis darwini fulvescens Osgood 
Phyllotis darwini vaccarum Thomas 
Phyllotis darwini rupestris Gervais 
Phyllotis darwini xanthopygus Water- 
Phyllotis (Auliscomys) boliviensis 


Phyllotis (Auliscomys) micropus micro- 
pus Waterhouse 
Phyllotis (Auliscomys) micropus fumipes 

Euneomys chinchilloides chinchilloides 

Euneomys chinchilloides ultimus 


Euneomys petersoni Allen 
Irenomys tarsalis tarsalis Philippi 
Irenomys tarsalis longicaudatus Philippi 
Reithrodon auritus cuniculoides 

Reithrodon auritus pachycephalus 



Hippocamelus bisulcus Molina Lama guanicoe Miiller 

Pudu pudu Molina Vicugna vicugna Molina 


Feet furnished with hoofs; upper jaw without front or middle incisor teeth. 

ARTIODACTYLA (Hoofed mammals), p. 224. 

Feet furnished with claws; front or middle incisor teeth present in upper jaw. 
Anterior limbs with membranous adaptation for flying. 

CHIROPTERA (Bats), p. 53. 
Anterior limbs normal for walking or running. 

Canine (corner) teeth absent; a marked space between front or incisor teeth 
and molariform or hinder teeth, which are adapted for grinding. 

RODENTIA (Gnawing mammals), p. 105. 
Canine teeth present; no marked space between front teeth and the others, 

which are adapted for cutting or tearing. 
No more than three pairs of incisor teeth in front of canines. 

CARNIVORA (Flesh-eating mammals), p. 63. 
At least four pairs of incisor teeth in front of canines. 

MARSUPIALIA (Pouched mammals), p. 44. 



Middle pair of lower front teeth very long and procumbent, very unlike adjoining 

pairs; under parts colored like upper parts Rhyncholestes. 

Middle pair of lower front teeth essentially like adjoining pairs; under parts much 

paler in color than upper parts. 
Middle pair of upper incisors or front teeth in contact with next pair; auditory 

capsules large and completely closed Dromiciops. 

Middle pair of upper incisors separated from next pair by a slight space; audi- 
tory capsules small and not completely closed Marmoset. 

Marmosa elegans elegans Waterhouse. MOUSE OPOSSUM; LLACA. 

Didelphis hortensls Reid, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 4, 1837 Valparaiso, 

Chile; nomen nudum. 
Didelphis elegans Waterhouse, Zool. Voy. Beagle, Mamm., pp. 95-96, pis. 

31, 35, fig. 5, a-e, 1839 Valparaiso, Chile. 
Marmosa elegans Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), 14, p. 188, 1894; (7), 

10, p. 158, 1902. 
Thylamys elegans Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus., p. 101, 1843; Matschie, 

Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturf. Freunde, Berlin, p. 271, 1916. 
Marmosa (Thylamys) elegans Cabrera, Gen. Mamm., p. 40, 1919. 
Marmosa elegans elegans Tate, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 66, p. 214, 1933. 

A medium-sized mouse opossum of generally grayish or light brownish 
coloration with pure white or creamy under parts and a conspicuous blackish 
facial marking through the eyes. Tail finely haired throughout and frequently 
incrassated or thickened. Total length 270; tail 137; hind foot 17. 





Range. Central Chile, probably from Coquimbo to Concepcion; 
at present known mainly from the coast ranges in the provinces of 
Aconcagua and Valparaiso. 

Although apparently abundant in the vicinity of Valparaiso, 
records of this species from other parts of Chile are very few. It 
would not be surprising, however, to find it throughout much of the 
region from Valdivia northward to Coquimbo and thence north- 
eastward through the mountains to connect with the very closely 
related forms of northwestern Argentina and Bolivia. The treat- 
ment of several of these Argentine and Bolivian forms as species 

FIG. 1. Marmosa elegans elegans. F.M. No. 23869. X 1. 

fully distinct from elegans and from each other, as proposed by Tate 
(op. cit., pp. 209-235), is hard to accept in view of their strong simi- 
larity in general characters and the high probability that further 
collections will fill gaps in distribution. Even Thomas, whose 
standards of species and subspecies were anything but conservative, 
never intimated more than subspecific status for most of these forms. 
Their general features, including coloration, approximate actual 
identity, and separation must be based upon slight differences in 
size and cranial peculiarities of a kind commonly useful for drawing 
average distinctions between subspecies rather than species. That 
such characters exist in these cases need not be doubted, but that 
they signify sharp lines of differentiation seems open to question. 

The mountains of northeastern Chile have not been visited by 
collectors but their character is so similar to that of adjoining parts of 
Bolivia and Argentina that close affinity of faunas is to be expected. 
The case of Marmosa elegans in this region corresponds closely to 
that of Phyllotis darwini and Oryzomys longicaudatus, both of which 
are represented in Bolivia and Argentina by closely related sub- 
species the connections of which are somewhat better indicated than 
in Marmosa although there are considerable gaps to be filled in. 


The unusually large series of elegans in Field Museum, consisting 
of thirty-four specimens from a very limited area, demonstrates the 
wide range of size due to age and sex. The summer pelage is shown 
by at least one specimen taken by Sanborn on December 6, in which 
the color of the upper parts is practically identical with that of a 
specimen of janetta from Bolivia and very close to that of a topotype 
of venusta. No such series of the northern forms exists, and it is 
extremely difficult to ascertain whether or not a few given specimens 
are comparable. As a group, the northern forms seem to have smaller 
audital bullae than elegans and there can be scarcely any question 
that this character is of taxonomic importance. However, it is by 
no means too much to be bridged by gradations and it is almost 
covered by individual variations. Among themselves, the charac- 
ters of the northern forms are very difficult to evaluate and especially 
difficult to correlate with logical areas of distribution. In a broad 
way it seems possible to make a primary division of the forms in 
northwestern Argentina and Bolivia resulting in one series of fairly 
large size and dark color and another of somewhat smaller size and 
pale color. The names Cinderella and sponsoria apply to the first 
series, while pallidior, and probably pusilla, apply to the second. 
Apparently intermediate between them are venusta and janetta. If 
it happens that venusta is intermediate in both size and color while 
janetta is only intermediate in color, it only shows that all sorts of 
combinations are possible and a few specimens from very restricted 
areas need not be taken very seriously. That they are all closely 
related to the Paraguayan marmota is evident, but they seem much 
closer to pusilla and verax and, although marmota and pusilla appear 
quite distinct in Paraguay, the evidence that both have repre- 
sentatives in the west leaves much to be desired. Material is far 
too scanty to deal satisfactorily with the eastern forms, but inter- 
gradation among the western ones is demonstrable. This may be 
illustrated by reference to one specimen (B.M. from 
Caimancita, Jujuy, which Tate (op. cit., pp. 227-228) listed twice, 
once under Cinderella and once under sponsoria. This is no especial 
criticism of Mr. Tate, for it only perpetuates in print what has 
occurred in the mind of everyone who works with closely related 
subspecies. A specimen from this same locality, now in Field Mu- 
seum and not examined by Tate, appears in every respect exactly 
intermediate between Cinderella and janetta, and this is exactly 
what should be expected on geographic grounds. Of further interest 
is the fact that it agrees minutely with a topotype of venusta, being 
much nearer to that than to either Cinderella or janetta. If venusta 


is intermediate, then sponsoria and janetta are, also, and recog- 
nition of venusta seems far enough to go. There is little except 
color to distinguish such closely related animals and a much clearer 
view of present knowledge appears if sponsoria and janetta are 
dropped. For the present, also, it may be preferable to write Mar- 
mosa elegans venusta, M. e. Cinderella, and M. e. pallidior with the 
reservation that future collections may easily show that all are con- 
nected with pusilla, which was the first of the group to receive a 
name. 1 

Specimens examined. Total 35: Near Calera, Aconcagua, 5; 
Limache, Valparaiso, 4; Longotoma, Aconcagua, 1; Olmue, Valpa- 
raiso, 8; Palmilla, La Cruz, Valparaiso, 5; Palos Quemados, Valpa- 
raiso, 4; Papudo, Aconcagua, 7; Santiago, 1 (B.M.). 

Marmosa elegans coquimbensis Tate. 

Marmosa elegans coquimbensis Tate, Amer. Mus. Nov., No. 493, p. 14, 1931 
Paiguano, Province of Coquimbo, Chile. Alt. 3,300 feet. 

This form, so far known only from the type specimen, is notice- 
ably paler than elegans. It is also paler than pallidior, with which 
its intergradation is highly probable. The name chosen for it is 
unfortunate, since it may be found to inhabit only a small part of 
the Province of Coquimbo, and it may range northward even to 
Peru. In the southern and coastal part of the province, including 
the city of Coquimbo, typical elegans is to be expected. 

The occurrence of a mouse opossum at Cobija, Province of Anto- 
fagasta, mentioned by Waterhouse (Nat. Hist. Mamm., 1, p. 518, 
1846) on the authority of Bridges, is significant of the probable 

1 The work of Thomas on this group is perhaps responsible for the presumption 
of a greater number of species and subspecies than time will justify. It was his 
practice to interpret almost any observable morphological difference as worthy 
of recognition. His criterion of species and subspecies was mainly that of "degree 
of difference" and, never having worked with large series covering wide areas, 
he was unwilling to admit that fairly marked characters might be connected by 
gradations. Since he dominated the South American field for so long, and since 
he was such a careful observer and keen analyst, subsequent workers may be 
influenced to do greater justice to his opinions than they deserve. In effect, he 
seems to have tried to adopt standards of distinction such, for example, as are 
applied now to California mammals, but with the tremendous disadvantage of 
having only a handful of specimens from scattered localities, whereas the Cali- 
fornians have not only thousands of specimens in connected geographic series, 
but they also have intimate knowledge of physical conditions. When Chilean 
and Argentine mammals are as well known as those of California, doubtless more 
names for them will be in use than now, but some of the present ones will have 
disappeared. In working toward this condition, mistakes of commission seem 
more likely than those of omission, and at any given time synthesis is probably 
less harmful than ultra-analysis. 


connection between typical elegans and allies now known to inhabit 
the southwestern part of Peru (Arequipa). 

Marmosa elegans soricina F. Philippi. 

Didelphys soricina F. Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 60, (1), p. 36, pi. 4, fig. 1, 

1894 Province of Valdivia, Chile. 
Marmosa elegans Wolffsohn, Bol. Mus. Nac. Chile, 2, No. 1, p. 85, 1910; 

Cabrera, Gen. Mamm., p. 40, 1919. 
Marmosa elegans soricina Tate, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 66, p. 216, 1933. 

The original type was examined in Santiago where it is still 
preserved, although in rather poor condition. The skull is inside 
the skin. Extensive notes on the specimen were published by 
Wolffsohn, who found nothing to distinguish it from elegans. 
Careful examination, however, reveals characters of at least sub- 
specific importance. On removing the mounted specimen from its 
wooden stand, it is seen that the under parts are darker than in 
elegans, with practically all the hairs having extensive dark bases. 
In elegans, the under parts are pure white and only on the sides are 
there hairs with dark bases, the entire broad central area from the 
chin to the tail being pure white to the roots of the hairs. In sori- 
cina, the under parts are buffy, and all the hairs, except possibly a 
few short ones on the chin, have dark plumbeous bases. It is evi- 
dent, therefore, 'that soricina should be recognized as a subspecies of 
elegans, and although no specimens except the type are at present 
known, the form will doubtless be found throughout Valdivia and 
adjoining provinces in southern Chile. A skull from Angol, Province 
of Malleco, which may belong here, is mentioned by Tate (I.e.). 

Dromiciops australis australis F. Philippi. MONITO DEL MONTE; 

Didelphys australis F. Philippi, Verhandl. Deutsch. Wiss. Verein., Santiago, 
Chile, 2, pp. 318-319, 1893; Anal. Univ. Chile, 3 pp., 1 pi., author's ed., 
1893 near Union, Valdivia, Chile. 

Dromiciops australis Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 3, p. 212, 1919; 
Cabrera, Gen. Mamm., p. 31, 1919. 

A small marsupial with much smaller ears than Marmosa and the tail thickened 
at the base and densely hairy except a narrow naked area on the under side at the 
tip. Color brownish with alternating light and dark areas on the sides. Females 
with an abdominal pouch. Mammae four. Skull with audital bullae large and 
complete posteriorly as well as anteriorly. 

Range. Valdivian forest district of south-central Chile from 
the higher parts of the Sierra Nahuelbuta through the lake region 
to and slightly beyond the Argentine boundary. 




After two expeditions to Chile and much time spent within the 
range of this interesting animal, Field Museum has accumulated 
only a very small series of specimens. In 1923-24 it was found only 
once, at Rio Colorado (alt. 3,000 ft.), Province of Malleco, where 
Sanborn obtained two adults and four half-grown young, all succes- 
sively caught in the same trap which chance appears to have placed 
near a nest or runway. In 1939, four adults were caught in the heavy 
humid forest on the summit of the Sierra Nahuelbuta and a fifth was 
taken under similar conditions at Peulla at the eastern end of Lake 
Todos Santos. Several of these were caught in traps placed off the 
ground on fallen logs and, in one case, in the fork of a large tree 

FIG. 2. Dromiciops australis australis. F.M. No. 22672. X 1. 

some four feet up. Obviously the species is highly arboreal. Its 
tail is especially provided with a prehensile adaptation and its pelage 
although shorter is more dense than that of Marmosa. 

A character of the genus not previously noted is the presence of 
a well-developed marsupium. The lining of this pouch is deep 
Cinnamon-Rufous in color in sharp contrast to the surrounding 
parts as in Caluromys, to which, as suggested by Thomas, Dromiciops 
may be most closely related. The female taken at Peulla, November 
24, was carrying three small young in her pouch. The mammae are 
four, symmetrically placed in two pairs.. 

The type of the species australis is still in the museum at 
Santiago where it was examined and found in fairly good condition 
and quite identifiable from its posture, which is reproduced in 
Philippi's figure. The skull, in 1923, was inside the skin and per- 
haps nearly or quite entire. Besides the type there are at least 
three others in the Chilean museum, one adult and two immature. 
Three specimens in the British Museum have been recorded by 
Thomas (I.e.), two from Beatriz, Lake Nahuelhuapi, Argentina, and 
one from Temuco, Chile. Two from Curacautin are recorded by 
Wolffsohn and Porter (1908) and another from Valdivia by Wolff- 
sohn (1921, p. 512). 


In Chile, the names llaca and monito del monte are in use for this 
animal, although both are sometimes also applied to Marmosa. 

Specimens examined. Total 14: Cayetue, Lake Todos Santos, 1 
(coll. K. Wolfhiigel); Lota, southwest of Concepcion, 1 (coll. D. S. 
Bullock, Angol) ; Peulla, Lake Todos Santos, 1 ; Rio Colorado, Mal- 
leco, 6; Sierra Nahuelbuta, 4; Victoria, Malleco, 1. 

Dromiciops australis gliroides Thomas. 

Dromiciops gliroides Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), 14, p. 187, 1894 
Huite, near Ancud, Chiloe Island, Chile. 

During the fairly intensive trapping pursued by Sanborn and 
myself on Chiloe Island, this animal was not encountered. One 
imperfect specimen without skull was secured from a native at the 
village of Quellon. This is noticeably darker and shorter-tailed 
than specimens from the mainland, indicating at least subspecific 
distinction. The under parts especially are darker, and the tail, 
which in australis is usually somewhat lighter below, is wholly dark. 
The type, apparently the only other preserved specimen, was taken 
in 1868 by Dr. R. 0. Cunningham, who refers to it under the name 
Didelphys elegans (1871, p. 362). It is now in the British Museum. 

Rhyncholestes raphanurus Osgood. FAT-TAILED CAENOLESTID. 

Rhyncholestes raphanurus Osgood, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 14, 
p. 170, pi. 23, 1924 mouth of Rio Inio, Chiloe Island, Chile. 

A small marsupial of uniform dark brown color above and below, loose pelage, 
and distinctive dentition; two median lower incisors long and slender; rostral part 
of skull very narrow and elongate; no external pouch or marsupium. Mammae 
five. Total length 204-215 (male), 175 (female); tail 78-87 (male), 65 (female); 
hind foot 19.5-23.5. 

Range. Heavy forests of the Province of Llanquihue including 
Chiloe Island. So far known from two localities only. 

Although having the plain brown color and external appearance 
much as in its allies Caenolestes and Lesteros, this interesting mar- 
supial differs markedly from them in cranial and dental charac- 
ters. Among these are the very elongate rostrum, the open palate, 
the double infraorbital foramen, the bifid lateral incisors, and the 
sexual differentiation of the canines, single-rooted and scalpriform 
in the male, slightly notched and premolariform in the female. 

Since the unexpected discovery of this animal in 1922 in the 
heavy temperate forests near the southern end of Chiloe Island, it 
has not been reported again. However, in 1939 Mr. Sanborn suc- 
ceeded in obtaining a single specimen at Refugio on the northwest 


V 70 


iSpecimens or records 

75 70 

MAP 3. Distribution of the genus Drornza'ops. 


side of Mount Osorno at an altitude of 3,000 feet. It was caught 
under deep growth in a cool and very moist location. Subsequent 
trapping in the vicinity was continued for a few nights without 
further success and the species was not taken in fairly intensive 
trapping on the south side of Mount Osorno and on the neighboring 
shores of Lake Todos Santos. This specimen at least demonstrates 
that it does occur on the mainland as well as on the island of Chiloe. 
Probably it will be found, at least in suitable spots, throughout the 
Valdivian forest district. 

FIG. 3. Rhyncholestes raphanurus. F.M. No. 22422, type. X 1^. 

Mr. Sanborn's specimen is an adult male in which the tail is not 
incrassated as it was in the male from Chiloe. Except for slightly 
larger size, it shows no characters by which it might be distinguished 
subspecifically from the specimen previously described from Chiloe. 
Its external measurements are slightly greater, its skull is some- 
what larger, and its skeleton is more robust throughout, but when 
these differences are expressed in figures they are not very impressive 
and, since the material is so limited, even a provisional distinction of 
island and mainland forms does not seem justified. The measure- 
ments of the mainland specimen in comparison with the one from 
Chiloe Island are as follows: total length 215 (204); tail 87 (78); 
hind foot 23.5 (21). Skull: greatest length 34.8 (34); basal length 
34.8 (33.3); zygomatic breadth 15 (14.7); mastoid breadth 11.8 
(11.1) ; length of nasals 19.1 (18) ; greatest breadth of nasals 3.7 (3) ; 
least interorbital breadth 6.8 (6.9); length of palate from gnathion 
20.7 (20.3); anterior palatine foramina 7.9 (8.7); palatal vacuities 
6.6 (6) ; front of upper canine to back of last molar 13.4 (13.4) ; com- 


bined length of four upper molars 5.5 (5.4) ; combined length of three 
lateral incisors 3.8 (3.9); length of bone of mandible from condyle 
21.5 (20); exposed length of lower incisor 6.8 (6.8). 

Specimens examined. Total 3 : mouth of Rio Inio, Chiloe Island, 
2 (type and paratype) ; Refugio, Mount Osorno, Llanquihue, 1. 



Tail absent Desmodus. 

Tail present. 

Tail extending well beyond interfemoral membrane Tadarida. 

Tail extending only slightly or not at all beyond membrane. 

Upper surface of interfemoral or tail membrane densely hairy Lasiurus. 

Upper surface of interfemoral membrane naked. 

Ears very large, more than 15 mm. long Histiotus. 

Ears moderate, less than 15 mm. long Myotis. 

Lasiurus borealis bonariensis Lesson and Garnot. RED BAT. 

Vespertilio bonariensis Lesson and Garnot, Voy. Coquille, Zool., 1, pt. 1, 

pp. 137-139, pi. 2, fig. 1, 1826 Rio La Plata at Buenos Aires, Argentina. 
Vespertilio blossvillii Anonymous, Ferussac's Bull. Sci. Nat. Geol., 8, p. 95, 

1826 "Montevideo." 
Nycticeius varius Poeppig, Reise in Chile, Peru und Amaz., 1, p. 451, footnote, 

1835 Antuco, Chile. 
Nycticeus Poepingii Lesson, Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Mamm. Ois. (Suppl. 

Oeuvr. Buffon), 5, pp. 119-120, 1836 N. varius renamed. 
Lasiurus borealis bonariensis Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), 8, p. 435, 


A small bat of bright rufous color with well-developed tail enclosed in the 
interfemoral membrane, the upper side of which is densely hairy. Distinguished 
from the other species of the same genus by its smaller size. Forearm 36-42. 

The small red bat has been reported from central Chile by Gay, 
Reed, Wolffsohn, and others. As elsewhere in South America, it 
appears to be rather uncommon. The name varius is available 
should a Chilean race prove distinguishable. 

Specimens examined. Total 16: Angol, 6; Concepcion, 1; 
Limache, 1; Puente Alto, near Santiago, 1 (B.M.); Santiago, 4 
(P.M. 2; B.M. 2); Temuco, 2 (B.M.); Valparaiso, 1 (B.M.). 

Lasiurus cinereus villosissimus Geoffrey. HOARY BAT. 

Chauve-souris septieme ou chauve-souris brun-blanchatre Azara, Quad. Paraguay, 
2, p. 284, 1801. 


Vespertilio villosissimus Geoffrey, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 8, p. 204, 

1806 Paraguay (based on Azara). 

Lasiurus grayi Tomes, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pp. 40-42, 1857 Chile. 
Atalapha cinerea var. o Dobson, Cat. Chiropt. Brit. Mus., p. 273, 1878. 
Lasiurus cinereus villosissimus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), 8, p. 435, 

1901; (7), 9, p. 238, footnote, 1902. 

Dasypterus villosissimus Allen, Mamm. Patagonia, p. 191, 1905. 
Nycteris cinerea villosissima Thomas, supra cit., (8), 5, p. 240, 1910. 

Color reddish brown overlaid with whitish; upper side of interfemoral mem- 
brane hairy. Forearm 50-55. 

Scattered specimens of this bat, known in northern countries as 
the hoary bat, have been taken in various parts of central Chile. 
A female and two young in alcohol from Paiguano, Coquimbo, are 
in Field Museum. One from Nahuelbuta, west of Angol, is in the 
American Museum of Natural History. One from Puente Alto, 
near Santiago, is in the British Museum. If a Chilean form should 
prove separable from that of Paraguay it would take the name grayi. 

Myotis chiloensis chiloensis Waterhouse. CHILOE BAT. 

Vespertilio chiloensis Waterhouse, Zool. Voy. Beagle, Mamm., p. 5, pi. 3, 
1838; Gervais in Gay, Hist. Chile, 1, p. 42, Atlas Mamm., pi. 1, figs. 3, 
3a, 1847 islets on the eastern side of Chiloe Island, Chile. 

Vespertilio gayi Lataste, Act. Soc. Sci. Chile, 1, (1891), pp. 79, 81, 1892 
Valdivia, Chile. 

Myotis chiloensis Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Suppl., p. 94, 1904; Miller and 
Allen, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 144, p. 192, 1928. 

A small bat of sooty brownish color above and below; tail long and enclosed 
in membrane; ears narrow with a slender pointed tragus; upper incisors four. 
Forearm 36-39; ear 13-15. 

Range. Humid forested region of southern Chile from the 
vicinity of the Province of Valdivia southward along the coast, 
possibly to the Straits of Magellan. 

Typical Myotis chiloensis heretofore has been very poorly repre- 
sented in museums. The small series now available from Chiloe 
Island agrees fully with specimens from the Province of Valdivia 
and removes all doubt that the Vespertilio gayi of Lataste is a 
synonym. The color in topotypical specimens is rich dark Vandyke 
Brown above and below, the bases of the hairs nearly the same. A 
specimen from Curacautin, in the southeastern Province of Malleco, 
is more sooty and shows greater contrast between the tips and bases 
of the hairs of the under parts. Possibly it should be regarded as 
intermediate between chiloensis and the form of central Chile. 


Small bats of the genus Myotis doubtless are common locally 
throughout Chile, but in our experience comparatively few were 
seen. Those obtained on Chiloe Island were taken from a roosting 
place by Juan Vera, a native in our employ, who made a special 
trip to get them. In other localities most of the bats seen flying 
appeared to be Histiotus. Darwin's observation of a small bat on 
Tierra del Fuego may refer also to Histiotus or perhaps to this 
species, but no specimens of Myotis have yet been taken farther 
south than Chiloe Island. 

Specimens examined. Total 18: Cucao, west coast of Chiloe 
Island, 3 skins, 9 ale.; Curacautin, Malleco, 1 skin, 1 ale.; Mafil, 
Valdivia, 1 skin, 1 ale.; Rinihue, 2 skins. 

Myotis chiloensis arescens subsp. nov. 

Myotis chiloensis atacamensis Miller and Allen, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 144, 
p. 192, 1928 not of Lataste. 

Type from Hacienda Limache, Province of Valparaiso, Chile. 
No. 24396 (skin) Field Museum of Natural History. Adult male. 
Collected January 1, 1925, by J. A. Wolffsohn. Paratype (skull) 
F.M.N.H. No. 23636. 

Range. Central Chile between the ranges of M. c. chiloensis and 
M. c. atacamensis. 

Diagnosis. Similar in color to M. c. chiloensis, but paler, with 
the tips of the hairs in considerable contrast to the bases. 

Color. Upper parts light brown about halfway between the pale 
buffy of atacamensis and the deep brown of chiloensis; under parts 
dull broccoli brown, the tips of the hairs grayish. 

Measurements. Type specimen: total length 96; tail 43; hind 
foot 9; forearm (dry) 38; ear from meatus (dry) 13.5. Skull of para- 
type No. 23636: greatest length 14.8; zygomatic breadth 9.3; inter- 
orbital constriction 3.8; breadth of braincase 7.2; maxillary toothrow 

Remarks. This is the form recognized and described by Miller 
and Allen under the name Myotis chiloensis atacamensis. In the 
absence of specimens from northern Chile representing typical ataca- 
mensis, these authors were obliged to assume that the paleness shown 
by specimens from central Chile was the same as that attributed to 
atacamensis. There are three forms instead of two, however, and 
although arescens is intermediate in color between typical chiloensis 
and atacamensis, it is well distinguished from both of them and 


probably has a considerable range. Specimens of it are recorded 
only from the vicinity of Valparaiso and Santiago, but it is not 
unlikely that it will be found in all of central Chile from Concepcion 
to Coquimbo. 

Specimens examined. Total 18 skins with 35 unmatched skulls, 
all from Hacienda Limache, Province of Valparaiso. 

Myotis chiloensis atacamensis Lataste. 

Vespertilio atacamensis "Philippi," Lataste, Act. Soc. Sci. Chile, 1, (1891), 
pp. 80-81, 1892; Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 13a, pp. 5-6, 
pi. 1, fig. 1, 1896 San Pedro de Atacama, Province of Antofagasta, 
Chile. Alt. 2,436 meters. 

(!)Myotis dinellii Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), 10, p. 493, 1902 Tucu- 
man, Argentina. 

Myotis atacamensis Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Suppl., p. 94, 1904. 

Myotis chiloensis atacamensis Miller and Allen, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 
144, p. 192, 1928 part. 

Similar to M. c. arescens but paler in color, light ochraceous buff above and 

Range. Northern provinces of Chile from Coquimbo northward 
and thence to northwestern Argentina. 

The small Myotis of northern Chile is a pallid form agreeing in 
every respect with the description of M. dinellii from Tucuman, 
Argentina. Although no comparison with Argentine specimens has 
been possible, the inference is strongly indicated that dinellii is a 
synonym of atacamensis. In fact, the type locality of atacamensis 
is somewhat farther north than Tucuman and separated from it by 
a relatively short distance, in the greater part of which physical 
conditions are similar. 

As stated elsewhere, Miller and Allen, who had no Chilean 
material from the northern provinces, have misapplied the name 
atacamensis to the form of the central provinces. Our specimens 
from Coquimbo and Tarapaca, the latter quite near the type local- 
ity, show very clearly that this course is not justified. Both skins 
and alcoholics show the very pale color that is characteristic. 

Philippi's description and figure of this bat are confused and mis- 
leading. In his Latin diagnosis he states that it is "totus nigrescens" 
and, in the Spanish description following, that it is "un pardo . . . 
que tira amarillo en la parte superior del cuerpo, siendo aun mas 
claro en la parte ventral." The colored figure is, of course, wholly 


Notes on the type specimen made in Santiago in 1923 are as 
follows: "A specimen is in the museum with an old label on the 
back of the stand, reading: '62. Vesp. atacamensis Ph. Atacama. 
Febr. 1885.' ' Probably this is the type and the basis of Philippi's 
figure of 1896, although the skull is inside and Philippi gives con- 
siderable description of the skull and dentition. It is the only small 
My otis in the collection at present, but a loose skull without jaws, 
once fairly clean but now very grimy, is still preserved. It measures: 
greatest length 12.2; breadth of braincase 6.2; front of canine to last 
molar 4. The first premolar is not nearly double the size of the 
second, but considerably larger and higher. The mounted skin is 
faded and dirty but entire. There is still great contrast between 
the tips of the hairs and the under fur, the tips being quite 
broadly lighter, now pale buffy brown. The under parts are similar 
to the upper, but paler, now nearly clear buff. The forearm 
measures roughly 32; tibia 25.5; ear from notch 9.5. 

When this type was examined, its pale color was supposed to be 
due, at least in part, to fading, but since specimens from the northern 
provinces have become available, it seems more probable that its 
color is not far from normal. 

Specimens examined. Total 36: Paiguano, Coquimbo, 3 skins, 
32 ale.; near Pintados, Tarapaca, 1 ale. 

Histiotus macrotus Poeppig. BIG-EARED BAT; OREJON. 

Nycticeius macrotus Poeppig, Reise in Chile, Peru und Amaz., 1, p. 451, foot- 
note, 1835 Antuco, Province of Bio Bio, Chile. 

Nycticeus chilensis Lesson, Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Mamm. Ois. (Suppl. Oeuvr. 
Buffon), 5, pp. 120-121, 1836 based on Poeppig. 

Vespertilio velatus Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 27, (1), p. 289, 1861. 

Plecotus poeppigii Fitzinger, Sitzungsber. K. Akad. Wiss., Wien, Math.- 
Naturw. Cl., 66, pp. 88-89, 1872 renaming of N. macrotus Poeppig. 

Histiotus macrotus Peters, Monatsber. K. Akad. Wiss., Berlin, p. 788, pi., 
figs. 2-2e, (1875), 1876; Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 17, p. 273, 

A medium-sized bat with very large ears connected at the base by a membrane; 
color light brown above, whitish gray below. Total length 120; tail 50; hind foot 
12; ear 35; forearm 50. 

Range. Central Chile, in the region west of the Andes, from 
Santiago to Concepcion; exact limits unknown. 

The first name applied to a big-eared vespertilionine bat from 
Chile is Poeppig's macrotus, proposed in 1835. His description is as 


" N. macrotus, n. sp. N. auriculis externis capite triple longiori- 
bus, ovalibus, transversim rugosis, membrana interna gladiata; 
membrana interfemorali utrinque nuda; pectore, abdomine, dorsoque 
concoloribus, flavescenti murinis." This is preceded by his diag- 
nosis of the genus Nycticeius in which the upper incisors are said 
to be only two in number. In applying this name and description 
to a bat of the genus Histiotus, therefore, it is necessary to interpret 
freely the statement that the ears are three times longer than the 
head and to assume that he failed to observe the pair of small outer 
incisors found in Histiotus. This is essentially what was done by 
Peters (I.e.) in 1876 when he referred a single specimen to macrotus 
and distinguished it from montanus. 

In 1916, Thomas (I.e.) recognized macrotus and mentions the 
specimen recorded by Peters while stating that "we have none that 
I can assign to it, unless a very large skull, without skin, sent by 
Mr. Wolffsohn from near Santiago, may be referable to it." Aside 
from the one specimen examined by Peters, therefore, the species 
has not been recorded for the more than one hundred years since it 
was first described. The characters (all of which were recognized 
by Peters) distinguishing it from montanus are its larger size, larger 
ears, and at least an incipient membranous connection between the 
inner bases of the ears. 

Among Chilean mammals which I was privileged to examine in 
the British Museum, in June, 1937, is a series of nineteen bats from 
Santiago that appear to represent this species. They are recorded 
as collected by Professor J. W. Hislop-Harrison of Armstrong Col- 
lege, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and are preserved as skins and skulls. 
It is possible that these specimens from Santiago in central Chile 
may prove to be at least subspecifically separable from any that 
may subsequently be taken at the type locality of macrotus, which 
is a considerable distance south of Santiago. However, this locality, 
Antuco, is not within the very humid region, and general probabili- 
ties favor the assumption that its fauna is the same as that of central 

The specimens from Santiago are rather pale in color, the under 
parts markedly lighter than the upper. Over the entire under parts 
the hairs are very broadly tipped with whitish gray. The upper 
parts are pale Buffy Brown. Measurements of the forearm in four 
dry skins are, respectively, 49.3, 49.8, 51.1, 51.2; ears from notch 
31.8, 32.8, 33, 33.3; antitragus from anterior base 11.5, 11.8, 12.8, 
13.2; greatest width of tragus 4, 4.2, 4.4, 4.5. The skull, as compared 


to that of montanus, is generally similar, but larger, with particu- 
larly large audital bullae and a somewhat more elevated interorbital 
region. Measurements of skull (compared with montanus magel- 
lanicus, F.M. No. 23621, from Mafil, Valdivia): condylo-incisive 
length 18.9 (17.6); zygomatic width 11.8 (11.5); interorbital' con- 
striction 4.9 (4.5); toothrow from front of canine 7.1 (6.7). 

In the series of dry skins examined, the existence of a mem- 
branous connection between the bases of the ears is evident, but 
apparently not so well developed as in H. velatus. This membrane 
was noted by Peters in the specimen sent him by Philippi and doubt- 
less largely influenced him to place macrotus in the genus Histiotus 
while retaining montanus in Vesperus. 

Specimens examined. Total 19 (B.M.), all from Santiago. 

Histiotus montanus montanus Philippi and Landbeck. 

Vespertilio montanus Philippi and Landbeck, Arch. Naturg., 27, (1), pp. 

289-290, 1861 cordillera of Santiago, Chile. 
Vesperus segethii Peters, Monatsber. K. Akad. Wiss., Berlin, p. 383, 1864 


Vesperus montanus Peters, supra cit., p. 789, pi., fig. 3 (ear), 1875. 
Vesperugo montanus Dobson, Cat. Chiropt. Brit. Mus., p. 189, 1878. 
Vespertilio (Histiotus) montanus Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Suppl., p. 77, 1904. 
Histiotus montanus Miller, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 57, p. 214, 1907; 

Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 17, p. 274, 1916. 

A medium-sized bat with rather large ears not connected with each other by 
a membrane; color "light grayish bfown (wood brown)." Total length 115; 
tail 50; hind foot 11; ear 26; forearm 46. Upper incisors four. 

Range. Central Chile, at least in the vicinity of Santiago, 
probably northward to the Province of Coquimbo and southward, 
perhaps, to the Bio Bio River. 

A specimen which perhaps may be regarded as Philippi's type 
of montanus is still preserved in the National Museum of Chile. 
Notes taken from it are as follows: "Vesperugo montanus Philippi. 
Several specimens labeled thus. The oldest one is No. 733 and is 
labeled '54. V. montanus Ph. & L. adult Cordillera de Santiago, 
Febr. 1861.' This is mounted in flying position, the tail bone 
removed, but not wired. The skull may be inside but is not evident. 
The ears are large and measure from meatus about 20 mm. The 
tragus is fairly large and broad. The color has faded. About all 
that can be said is that the hairs on the back are long, with broad 
light tips. Below there is a white inguinal area. Forearm about 


Except for the imperfect examples in Santiago, no specimens 
fully representing this form have been examined. Three specimens 
in Field Museum from Curacautin and Lake Galletue are doubtfully 
referred to it since they are slightly paler than magellanicus. In 
1916 Thomas (I.e.) mentions specimens received from Wolffsohn 
from the Santiago region in which the color was "light greyish brown 
(wood-brown), very different from the dark of H. magellanicus" 
It is also to be noted that one of Philippi's original specimens, as 
mentioned above, has "a white inguinal area." Hence it seems 
probable that montanus is considerably paler than magellanicus. 
Although specimens are now few, probably it is fairly common. 

Specimens examined. Total 6: Cordillera of Santiago, 2 (type 
and topotype in Mus. Nac. Chile); Curacautin, Malleco, 2; Lake 
Galletue, Cautin, 1; Temuco, 1 (B.M.). 

Histiotus montanus magellanicus Philippi. 

Vespertilio magellanicus Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 32, (1), p. 113, 1866 Straits 

of Magellan. 

Vespertilio capucinus Philippi, supra cit., p. 114, 1866 Chile. 
Vesperus magellanicus Peters, Monatsber. K. Akad. Wiss., Berlin, p. 790, pi., 

figs. 4-5, (1875), 1876. 
Histiotus magellanicus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 17, p. 273, 1916. 

Similar to H. montanus, but darker and more richly colored. 

Range. Humid coast of Chile from the Straits of Magellan 
northward to the Province of Valdivia. 

No recently collected specimens from the extreme south are 
available, but the dark color shown by skins from Chiloe Island and 
neighboring parts of the mainland makes them separable from 
montanus of central Chile, and it is therefore assumed that they 
represent magellanicus. 

The supposed types of Vespertilio magellanicus and V. capucinus 
were examined in Santiago and the following notes taken: 

"Vespertilio magellanicus Philippi. A specimen with an old label 
'61, Vespertilio magellanicus, Magallanes' may be the type. It is still 
dark brown above with few and narrow light tips, the hairs being 
brown to the bases. The under parts are the same brown basally 
with buffy brown tips. The skull is inside and shows the lower 
incisors well, 3-3, slightly trifid and set close together. Upper in- 
cisors seem to be 2-2, the middle pair very much larger than the 
outer pair. Forearm about 42; tibia about 19; hind foot about 8; 
ear from meatus about 14." 


"Vespertilio capucinus Philippi. A specimen with an old label 
'Vespertilio capucinus 1 and in pencil 'Magallanes' may be the type. 
The skull is inside. It is closely similar to the supposed type of 
magellanicus above described and doubtless is the same species. 
Forearm 44; tibia 19; hind foot 8." 

In the original description of capucinus, Philippi states that he 
does not know the part of Chile from which it came. Therefore, the 
penciled locality, "Magallanes," which now appears on the specimen 
label, was doubtless written there at a later time, and means little. 
Peters (I.e. 1876) placed it as a synonym of magellanicus and, since 
it cannot be distinguished, this seems the best disposition of it, 
although Cabrera (1903, p. 286) gave it nominal recognition on the 
basis of figures supplied him by Matschie and presumably drawn 
from specimens in the Berlin Museum. 

A specimen from Pico Salamanca, Chubut, Argentina, recorded 
by Thomas (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (10), 4, p. 36, 1909) as H. 
montanus not improbably will prove referable to magellanicus. 

Darwin has reported a small bat, presumably of this form, from 
Tierra del Fuego and during our brief stay on the island in 1939 
residents informed us that bats were occasionally seen during the 
warmest part of the very short summer. We saw none, however, 
and the paucity of insect life is such that the support of more than 
a very small population seems improbable. On the southern main- 
land, reports of bats were somewhat more numerous, but here also 
it is evident that conditions are not very favorable. At North Arm 
Station on the open pampa near the Argentine boundary, our 
friends William and John Fell advised that bats were of fairly regu- 
lar occurrence each summer during a very short period. The only 
bats personally observed were several seen flying on two successive 
evenings (February 23-24) at Lago Lazo near Lake Sarmiento, 
some 300 miles north of the Straits. They appeared at such a late 
hour that efforts to shoot them were unsuccessful. 

Specimens examined. Total 6: Mafil, Valdivia, 1 skin; Quellon, 
Chiloe Island, 1 ale.; Rio Inio, Chiloe Island, 2 skins; "Straits of 
Magellan," 2 skins (types of magellanicus and capucinus in Mus. 
Nac. Chile). 

Desmodus rotundus d'orbignyi Waterhouse. VAMPIRE BAT. 

Desmodus d'orbignyi Waterhouse, Zool. Voy. Beagle, Mamm., pp. 1-3, pis. 1, 
25, fig. 1, 1838 Coquimbo, Chile. 


A medium-sized bat having thin coarse pelage, a small rounded nose-leaf and 
no tail; middle upper incisors and canines very large, projecting and sharp-edged. 
Forearm 56-60. 

Range. Known only from central Chile from Coquimbo to the 
vicinity of Valparaiso. 

This form seems entitled to recognition' on the basis of the 
unusually light color of the under parts shown by the few known 
specimens. In large series of Desmodus from various parts of South 
America, occasional specimens show rather light color on the under 
parts but, as a rule, they are much darker than in the Chilean 
examples. Waterhouse's description and figure indicate a specimen 
with very light under parts, and a specimen in the Chilean museum 
examined by the writer was found to be similar. This was especially 
noted as having the entire under parts pure buffy white to the roots 
of the hairs. Twenty-two specimens from Curaumilla and Papudo 
have been recorded by Wolffsohn (1921, p. 523). Five from the 
latter locality are in the British Museum. 

A modern specimen sent by Wolffsohn and now in Field Museum 
also has light under parts, but the area of self-colored hairs is con- 
fined mainly to the throat. The upper parts are very dark brown 
sharply contrasted with the under parts. The forearm in this speci- 
men measures only 56.5 mm. and the Catapilco specimen is 62, 
suggesting that the form may be characterized by a short forearm, 
but this needs confirmation with a larger series of specimens. 

Specimens examined. Total 7: Catapilco, Valparaiso, 1 (Mus. 
Nac. Chile); Papudo, Aconcagua, 6 (F.M. 1; B.M. 5). 

Tadarida brasiliensis Geoffrey. FREE-TAILED BAT. 

Nyctinomus brasiliensis Geoffroy, Ann. Sci. Nat., Paris, 1, pp. 343-347, pi. 

22, 1824 Curityba district, Brazil. 
Molossus nasutux Gay, Hist. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 35, 1847. 
Tadarida brasiliensis Thomas, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 58, p. 222, 1920. 

A small brownish or blackish bat with thick leathery ears, heavy jowls, and 
tail with tip projecting beyond membrane. Forearm 42-45. 

This widely distributed, free-tailed bat is perhaps the most com- 
mon bat of Chile. The record from Valdivia is the southernmost for 
the genus and carries it into a region of definitely temperate climate. 
Records from the coast of Chile north of Valparaiso are lacking, but 
the species is known from Tucuman and Mendoza, Argentina, and 
it may have reached Chile by crossing the northern Andes. 


Specimens examined. Total 7: Paiguano, Coquimbo, 2; Palmilla, 
north of Quillota, Valparaiso, 1; Papudo, Aconcagua, 1; Rinihue, 
Valdivia, 1; Temuco, Cautin, 2. 


Hind feet with four toes. 

Head short and rounded; teeth not more than 30 Felis. 

Head long and narrow; teeth 42 Dusicyon. 

Hind feet with five toes. 

Toes webbed for aquatic life; color mainly dark brown Lutra. 

Toes not webbed; color grizzled or striped. 
Upper parts black or brownish, striped or mantled with pure white. 

Upper parts mainly grizzled grayish or yellowish. 

Larger; head and. body about 500 mm.; teeth 34 Grison. 

Smaller; head and body about 300 mm.; teeth 28 Lyncodon. 

Dusicyon culpaeus culpaeus Molina. ANDEAN WOLF; CULPEO. 

cants culpaeus Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, pp. 293-295, 341, 1782 Chile 

(Province of Santiago by selection). 

(l)Canis vulpes chilensis Kerr, Anim. Kingd., p. 144, No. 258, 1792. 
Cants amblyodon Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 69, (1), p. 157, 1903 Province of 


Cants albigula Philippi, supra cit., p. 159 central provinces of Chile. 
Pseudalopex culpaeus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 13, p. 357, 1914. 
Pseudalopex culpaeus culpaeus Cabrera, Journ. Mamm., 12, p. 62, 1931 type 

locality selected. 
Dusicyon (Dusicyon) culpaeus Osgood, Journ. Mamm., 15, p. 49, 1934. 

A good-sized canid with the chin light tawny, not sharply distinguished from 
other under parts; body and upper side of tail grayish, heavily tipped with black; 
head mainly tawny; feet and legs bright tawny uninterrupted by black; under 
side of tail dull tawny unmixed with black. Total length 900-1,150; tail 360-450; 
hind foot 150-164. 

Range. Central Chile from the Province of Coquimbo south- 
ward mainly in the mountainous regions, meeting the range of 
magellanicus somewhere in southern Chile and Argentina. 

The culpeo is the representative in central Chile of the wolflike 
canid which ranges from the Straits of Magellan northward through 
the Andes to Ecuador. It is decidedly larger than the chilla and 
distinguished from it at a glance by the color of its chin, which is 
tawny instead of black. The species reaches a length of some three 
and a half feet and, excepting Chrysocyon, is the largest of conti- 


nental South American canids. It appears to be fairly common in 
the coast hills near Valparaiso, but elsewhere is reported mainly 
from the cordillera. It is not recorded from the coast south of 
Valdivia. The southern limit of typical culpaeus is unknown, but 
it may extend into Argentina to meet the range of magellanicus. 
A trade skin in Field Museum from "Nahuelhuapi" shows no 
important differences from typical culpaeus. 

During my brief visit to the Chilean Museum at Santiago, time 
did not permit a search for the types of Philippi's amblyodon and 
albigula, both of which have been referred to culpaeus by Wolffsohn 
and by Cabrera. That this is correct is scarcely to be doubted. 
Wolffsohn (1921, p. 528) states that he himself collected the type of 
amblyodon and that he is sure of its identity with culpaeus. In the 
case of albigula, the name itself may be taken as sufficient evidence 
that the culpeo rather than the chilla is concerned. 

In Molina's original account of the species it is stated (transla- 
tion) that "the name appears to be derived from the Chilean word 
culpem, which signifies madness or folly and is strikingly applicable 
to the conduct of this animal, which constantly exposes itself to be 
shot by hunters." 

Specimens examined. Total 7: Cayetue, Lake Todos Santos, 1 
(coll. K. Wolfhiigel); Limache, Valparaiso, 1; Los Agostinos, Palo- 
mar, Aconcagua, 1; "Nahuelhuapi," 1 (skin only); Palmilla, La 
Cruz, Valparaiso, 1; Palos Quemados, Valparaiso, 1 (skull only); 
Papudo, Aconcagua, 1. 

Dusicyon culpaeus andinus Thomas. 

Pseudalopex culpaeus andina Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 13, p. 357, 
1914 Esperanza, near Mount Sahama, Oruro, Bolivia; Osgood, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 10, p. 174, footnote, 1914; Cabrera, Journ. 
Mamm., 12, p. 63, 1931. 

Cants (Dusicyon) culpaeus andinus Kraglievich, Physis, 10, p. 59, 1930. 

Similar to D. culpaeus culpaeus, but color paler throughout, the head, legs, 
and feet ochraceous tawny rather than tawny. 

Range. Northern Chile from the Province of Coquimbo east- 
ward into western Argentina and northward to western Bolivia and 
southern Peru. 

This form appears to differ from typical culpaeus mainly in 
somewhat paler color, the blackish dorsal area being less extensive 
and the general coloration averaging paler. In most specimens of 
culpaeus the dorsal coloration spreads to the sides, whereas in andinus 


the sides are often quite abruptly paler. The under parts are 
scarcely different, being perhaps a trifle paler in andinus. Seasonal 
variation in color is considerable and present material does not per- 
mit characterization in more than general terms, but it is apparent 
the two forms are definitely separable. There is some evidence 
that the skulls of andinus are heavier in the rostral part and in the 

Cabrera (I.e.) mentions a specimen of this form from Cazadero, 
on the west slope of Mount Aconquija, and it is altogether probable 
that it ranges throughout the mountains of northwestern Argentina. 

The type locality of P. inca (Thomas, op. cit., p. 361) is Sumbay, 
Arequipa, Peru, at an elevation of 4,000 meters, in the region in 
which andinus appears to be the common form. The published 
measurements of the skull of the type of inca fall within the varia- 
tion in andinus but are disproportionately large for those given for 
the skin, which is said to have the markings of the griseus group. 
Re-examination of this type in the light of recent knowledge would 
be very desirable. Cabrera (op. cit., p. 57, footnote) is inclined to 
consider it allied to D. gymnocercus, which otherwise is not recorded 
from Andean localities. Recent work at Sumbay and other locali- 
ties in southwestern Peru has yielded only andinus, of which speci- 
mens are now in Field Museum from Hacienda Collacachi (Puno), 
Hacienda Picotani (Puno), Salinas (Arequipa), and Pampa de 
Arrieros (Arequipa). 

Specimens examined. Total 6: Balala, Coquimbo, 1; Bafios del 
Toro, Coquimbo, 1; Guanta, Coquimbo, 1; Pica (3 miles south), 
Tarapaca, 1 (skin only) ; 20 miles east of San Pedro, Antofagasta, 2. 

Dusicyon culpaeus magellanicus Gray. 

Canis magellanicus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 88, 1836 nomen nudum. 
Vulpes magellanica Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. (Charlesworth), 1, p. 578, 1837 

Port Famine, northern side of Straits of Magellan. 
Cerdocyon magellanicus H. Smith, Jard. Nat. Lib., 9, p. 266, pi. 30, 1839; 

Allen, Mamm. Patagonia, p. 162, 1905. 
Canis (Pseudalopex) magellanicus Burmeister, Erlaut. Fauna Bras., p. 51, 

pi. 26, fig. 3, 1856. 

Pseudalopex magellanicus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 512, 1868. 
Canis montanus Prichard, Through the Heart of Patagonia, p. 260, 1902 

cordillera of Patagonia; preoccupied name. 
Canis (Cerdocyon) prichardi Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Suppl., p. 234, 1904 

substitute for C. montanus. 


Pseudalopex culpaeus magellanicus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 13, 

p. 357, 1914. 

Cants (Duslcyori) culpaeus magellanicus Kraglievich, Physis, 10, p. 69, 1930. 
Pseudalopex culpaeus magellanica Cabrera, Journ. Mamm., 12, p. 63, 1931. 

Very similar to D. culpaeus culpaeus, but probably averaging slightly larger; 
skull with the rostral part slightly more elongate. 

Range. Southern Patagonia and the vicinity of the Straits of 
Magellan; northward range undetermined. 

The southern form of the culpeo is represented in Field Museum 
only by a single skin without skull from the Brunswick Peninsula on 
the northwest side of the Straits of Magellan. This is in full winter 
pelage, very long and heavy and richly colored, the tawny markings 
intense, and the body with considerable suffusion of tawny, very 
similar to the colored plate published more than fifty years ago by 
Mivart (Monog. Canidae, p. 52, 1890). Specimens of culpaeus from 
central Chile are mostly in short coat and not comparable, but a 
single trade skin said to be from Nahuelhuapi is nearly as richly 
colored as the one from Brunswick Peninsula. 

The animal is now relatively scarce in the extreme south where 
it has been persistently pursued for the fur market in which, of 
course, it commands a higher price than the smaller and more 
numerous chilla or pampa fox. 

The status of magellanicus as a subspecies rests mainly on the 
conclusion of Thomas (I.e.) expressed as follows: "In the south the 
skulls tend to get longer, especially in the muzzle, a tendency which 
is carried, on the average, slightly further in Patagonian and Magel- 
lan specimens than in those from central Chile, the type locality of 
culpaeus. On this account we may, perhaps provisionally, recognize 
an extreme southern subspecies, Ps. c. magellanicus, which gradually 
passes into Ps. c. culpaeus." 

Specimen examined. Brunswick Peninsula, 1 (skin only). 

Dusicyon culpaeus lycoides Philippi. 

Canis (Pseudalopex) lycoides Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 54, p. 542 (pp. 4-6, 

author's ed.), 1896 Tierra del Fuego. 
Pseudalopex lycoides Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 13, p. 357, 1914; 

Lonnberg, Arch. Zool., 12, No. 13, pp. 1-10, figs. 1-2, 1919. 
Canis (Dusicyon) lycoides Kraglievich, Physis, 10, p. 69, 1930. 
Pseudalopex culpaeui lycoides Cabrera, Journ. Mamm., 12, p. 63, 1931. 

This form, which is supposed to be confined to the island of Tierra 
del Fuego, is thought by Lonnberg (I.e.) to be distinguished from 


magellanicus of the mainland by larger size and by certain cranial 
characters among which a relatively narrow braincase is perhaps 
most important. 1 Material representing it is still very scanty and 
its obviously close relationship to magettanicus is at best indicated 
by the subspecific status given it by Cabrera. During several 
weeks spent on Tierra del Fuego, Mr. Sanborn and myself could 
only learn that it is now very scarce although a few skins from remote 
parts of the island annually come into the fur market. A mounted 
skin is in the Museo Regional Salesiano at Punta Arenas. 

Dusicyon griseus griseus Gray. PAMPA Fox; CHILLA. 

Cants griseus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 88, 1836 nomen nudum. 
Vulpes griseus Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. (Charlesworth), 1, p. 578, 1837 Straits 

of Magellan. 
Cants patagonicus Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 32, (1), p. 116, 1866 Straits of 


Pseudalopex griseus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 512, 1868. 
Cerdocyon griseus Allen, Mamm. Patagonia, p. 157, pi. 23, 1905. 
P[seudalopex] griseus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 7, p. 384, 1921. 
Cants (Pseudalopex) patagonicus Kraglievich, Physis, 10, p. 49, pi. 146, 1930. 
Pseudalopex gracilis patagonicus Cabrera, Journ. Mamm., 12, p. 66, 1931. 
Dusicyon (Dusicyon) griseus Osgood, Journ. Mamm., 15, p. 49, 1934. 

A small foxlike canid with a well-marked black chin; legs pale tawny, the 
thighs with a transverse patch of black; under side of tail mixed pale tawny and 
black. Total length 800-900; tail 300-360; hind foot 120-135. 

Range. Pampas of western Argentina from the Straits of 
Magellan northward at least to Chubut; passes into Chile locally 
along the eastern base of the Andes. 

The occurrence of the typical pampa "fox" within Chilean ter- 
ritory is attested by one specimen obtained by Field Museum's 
expedition at Rio Nirehuao. Doubtless it crosses the boundary at 
various localities similarly situated along the eastern base of the 
Andes; in the Province of Magallanes it has a considerable range in 
Chile. As judged by the single skin from Chile, griseus is consider- 
ably paler than any of its northern races. The skull of this specimen 
and various others from southern Patagonia seem to indicate also 
that griseus has a heavier dentition and a shorter facial region than 
domeykoanus. In these respects griseus agrees quite closely with a 

1 Lonnberg's comparisons are made with a skull in the Stockholm Museum 
"from Chile," no exact locality being mentioned, and with a figure and measure- 
ments published by Mivart (Monog. Canidae, p. 55, fig. 21, 1890) of a skull which 
may have been from northern Chile. Until comparisons of skulls from Tierra del 
Fuego are compared with others from the mainland directly opposite, some doubt 
may attach to the distinction of lycoides from magellanicus. 


skull in Field Museum from Valle Santa Morina, Catamarca, which 
presumably represents gracilis. This suggests a possible general 
distinction between east Andean and west Andean forms, but it 
needs confirmation with large series. Gradation between eastern 
and western forms, as stated elsewhere, may not be impossible in 
northeastern Chile, but it is more likely to be found in the intersect- 
ing valleys between the Argentine Province of Neuquen and the 
adjoining Chilean provinces. 

The above-mentioned skull from Catamarca, which is of normal 
size, raises doubts as to the validity of Pseudalopex zorrula (Thomas, 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 7, p. 383, 1921), also from Catamarca. 
That the single specimen upon which this name is based is more 
than an exceptionally small female of gracilis seems very doubtful. 

The adoption of the name patagonicus by Kraglievich and Cab- 
rera on the grounds that griseus was preoccupied does not appear 
to be justified. Gray's Canis griseus of 1836 was a nomen nudum 
without status, and the first valid name for the species is Vulpes 
griseus Gray 1837, which is not affected by the earlier Canis griseus 
of Boddaert and others. 

The great abundance of this animal throughout its range, and 
especially in southern Patagonia, is attested by all early writers. 
Old sheep men recall how "foxes" were seen by dozens at every turn, 
how they surrounded camps at night, and how they pilfered and 
marauded at every opportunity. In recent years there has been a 
great change and, although the little dogs have by no means gone, 
their numbers are greatly reduced. Although the pelt commands 
but a small price, trapping, nevertheless, is carried on very actively, 
since there is a long season when a considerable population is other- 
wise unemployed. In 1939 about 1,000 skins, probably including a 
few culpeos, were reported as being brought to market in Punta 
Arenas. The range of this form is quite strictly limited to the open 
grass lands and the ocean beaches, and it scarcely enters even the 
foothills of the Andes. It does not extend to Tierra del Fuego, 
although large parts of the island are well suited to it and although 
its abundance and its littoral habits would seem to favor its making 
the crossing of the Straits more easily than some other mammals 
that have done so. 

Specimens examined. Total 12: CHILE: Rio Ciaike, Magallanes, 
7 (skulls only); Rio Nirehuao, 1. ARGENTINA: Puerto Deseado and 
Province of Santa Cruz, 4 (skulls only). 




Dusicyon griseus domeykoanus 1 Philippi. 

Cants domeykoanus Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 108, p. 168, pi., 1901 Prov- 
ince of Copiapo, Chile. 

Cants rufipes Philippi, supra cit., pp. 168, 170, 1901 no locality. 

Pseudalopex domeykoanus Cabrera, Trab. Mus. Nac. Cienc. Nat., Madrid, 
31, p. 27, 1917. 

Pseudalopex gracilis domeykoanus Cabrera, Journ. Mamm., 12, p. 65, 1931. 

Distinguished from griseus by weaker dentition and from maullinicus by paler 

FIG. 4. Dusicyon griseus domeykoanus. F.M. No. 23926. X %. 

Range. Central Chile from Valparaiso northward to the south- 
ern part of the Province of Atacama and southward to the vicinity 
of Concepcion. 

The small, foxlike chilla is very abundant in central Chile. It 
even persists within the city of Santiago as I discovered by seeing 

1 Named for Ignacio Domeyko, Professor of Physics and Chemistry of the 
"Institute Nacional" and one of Philippi's earliest friends in Chile. 


several when walking in the evening in the parklike surroundings 
of the Cerro San Cristobal. Apparently it does not extend north- 
ward very far and does not range through the extremely arid parts 
of northern Chile. In the south it meets the range of the darker 
form of the Valdivian region and this doubtless grades into griseus 
through some of the lower Andean passes. Specimens of typical 
gracilis from the vicinity of Mendoza, Argentina, are not available 
and just how domeykoanus may differ from gracilis cannot be stated. 
Thomas (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 7, p. 384, 1921) has recorded 
from Tucuman, Cordova, and Mendoza specimens of gracilis which 
he states are "most doubtfully distinguishable" from the "foxes 
from west of the Andes." Some Chilean mammals probably extend 
across to the Mendoza region without change, but the chilla, being 
mainly a lowland animal, perhaps does not do so and the connection 
of gracilis and domeykoanus may be a southern one. 

Philippi's type of domeykoanus was not examined in Santiago 
although it is probably preserved there. Wolffsohn has referred to 
it as the earliest of the names applied by Philippi to the chilla. 
Specimens in Field Museum from Domeyko, Atacama, are con- 
sidered as typical. C. rufipes, mentioned in the text of the descrip- 
tion of domeykoanus, is no doubt a synonym. 

Specimens examined. Total 19: Domeyko, Atacama, 2; Limache, 
Valparaiso, 13; Marquesa, Coquimbo, 2; Papudo, Aconcagua, 1; 
Romero, Coquimbo, 1. 

Dusicyon griseus maullinicus Philippi. 

Canis maullinicus Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 69, (l),'p. 158 (middle of page), 
1903 "Nueva Braunau," west of Lake Llanquihue, Llanquihue, Chile. 

Canis trichodactylus Philippi, supra cit., p. 158 (bottom of page), 1903 
Province of Valdivia, Chile. 

Canis torquatus Philippi, supra cit., pp. 159-160, 1903 Puerto Montt, Chile. 

Distinguished from griseus by weaker dentition and from domeykoanus by 
darker color. 

Range. Valdivian forest region of south-central Chile, mainly 
in the provinces of Cautin, Valdivia, and Llanquihue. 

The chilla of the Valdivian forest region averages darker and 
more richly colored than domeykoanus of central Chile. The differ- 
ence between the two races is less than might be expected under 
the diverse physical conditions of their respective ranges. In the 
southern race the general color throughout is slightly more intense, 
the rufous markings on the ears and legs are richer, and especially 


the light areas on the under parts are reduced in extent. Cranial 
characters, if any, are not demonstrable with material at hand. 

Philippi's names, maullinicus, trichodactylus, and torquatus, appar- 
ently apply to the chilla since the distinctive black marking on the 
chin is mentioned in the description of each. The measurements, as 
compared with those of amblyodon and cdbigula, published in the 
same paper, are inconsistent and unreliable. The localities also 
have been questioned by Wolffsohn in a newspaper article to which 
reference is made by Cabrera (Journ. Mamm., 12, p. 66, footnote, 
1931). Thomas (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 7, p. 385, 1921) also 
has mentioned this matter as follows: "It has been asserted whether 
rightly or wrongly that the owners of a farm near Santiago amused 
themselves by sending in to the aged Director of the museum speci- 
mens of their local fox, which they labeled with various fictitious 
localities in distant parts of Chili, and that these became the basis 
of many of Philippi's species." It seems necessary, however, to 
regard this as hearsay and to accept the localities as published. 
Therefore, the name maullinicus, which has page priority, is adopted, 
with trichodactylus and torquatus as synonyms. The type specimens, 
if existing, have had no recent examination. 

Specimens examined. Total 15: Cabrero, Concepcion, 2 (skins 
only); Cayetue, Lake Todos Santos, 8 (coll. K. Wolfhiigel); Cura- 
cautin, Malleco, 3; Rinihue, Valdivia, 2. 

Dusicyon fulvipes Martin. DARWIN'S Fox. 

canisLagopus Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, p. 272, 1782. 

Vulpes fulvipes Martin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 11, 1837 Chiloe Island, 


Cants fulvipes Waterhouse, Zool. Voy. Beagle, Mamm., p. 12, pi. 6, 1839. 
Thous fulvipes Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 514, 1868. 
Cants azarae (var. fulvipes) Mivart, Monog. Canidae, p. 70, figs. 25-27 (skull), 

Cants (Cerdocyari) azarae fulvipes Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Suppl., p. 233, 

Pseudalopex fulvipes Cabrera, Journ. Mamm., 12, p. 66, 1931. 

A small, short- tailed and very dark-colored fox. Total length 790; tail 248; 
hind foot 123. 

Range. Southern part of the island of Chiloe, Chile. 

That a small, dark-colored fox inhabited Chiloe Island was 
known to Molina in the eighteenth century. Its native name Payne- 
guru, meaning "blue fox," doubtless caused him to record it as Canis 


Lagopus. The species was really discovered by Charles Darwin, who 
obtained a specimen December 6, 1832, near the mouth of San Pedro 
channel on the southern end of Chiloe Island. In his "Naturalist's 
Voyage Round the World," Darwin gives the following account of 
the animal's capture: "In the evening we reached the island of San 
Pedro, where we found the Beagle at anchor. In doubling the point, 
two of the officers landed to take a round of angles with the theodo- 
lite. A fox (Canis fulvipes*) , of a kind said to be peculiar to the island 
and very rare in it, and which is a new species, was sitting on the 
rocks. He was so intently absorbed in watching the work of the 
officers that I was able, by quietly walking up behind, to knock 
him on the head with a geological hammer. This fox, more curious 
or more scientific, but less wise than the generality of his brethren, 
is now mounted in the museum of the zoological Society." In Dar- 
win's notes published by Waterhouse is the further statement: "I 
killed this animal on the sea-beach at the southern point of the 
island ; it is considered extremely rare in the northern and inhabited 
districts." Darwin's specimen became the type of Martin's Vulpes 
fulvipes and for nearly a century was the only example of the species 
known to 1 be preserved. 

In 1922, when Field Museum's expedition visited Chiloe Island, 
our first stop was at the village of Quellon on the east coast and near 
the southern frontier of the well-settled part of the island. Inquiry 
among natives and settlers here elicited only negative information 
as to the occurrence of any species of fox on the island. One well- 
educated and well-informed Chilean, holding a responsible position 
with a lumber company, produced a Spanish translation of Darwin's 
"Voyage" in which he had marked the passage about the fox. This, 
he insisted, was obvious proof that the great English naturalist had 
no regard for the truth, first because the idea of killing a free, wild 
fox with a hammer was preposterous and second, because no such 
fox had since been seen on the island. He stated that he had been 
especially interested and had carefully questioned many natives. 
Nevertheless, it was only a short time afterward that I found fox 
tracks on a sandy beach at the extreme south end of the island near 
the mouth of the Rio Inio and within twenty miles of the spot 
described by Darwin. I set a short line of traps along the beach, 
baited them with fresh fish, and a few days later two fine foxes were 
in hand, one male and one female, both fully adult. Still later I 
learned, of course, that the few natives who hunt about the south 
coast of the island were by no means unaware of the occurrence of 


the fox there, but the testimony from Quellon is of considerable 
interest as indicating the scarcity of the animal and the restriction 
of its range. Apparently it was but little more numerous in Darwin's 
time, for he remarks on its rarity. The same is indicated by Philippi, 
who states that he was never able to obtain a specimen. 1 

The two specimens in Field Museum show the same dark rich 
color described for the type. In general, all dark markings are 
intensified and all light ones reduced. The sub terminal light bands 
on the hairs of the upper parts are narrow, and the effect is of a 
finer grizzling than in related forms. The color of the basal part of 
the hairs is very dark, not far from the Bone Brown and Clove 
Brown of Ridgway, whereas in domeykoanus and maullinicus it is 
no darker than Snuff Brown. The rufescent areas on the head, ears, 
and legs are of deep, rich shades, Warm Sepia rather than Hazel or 
Cinnamon Rufous. The tail is very dark and, although somewhat 
grizzled proximally, the heavily black-tipped hairs predominate 
above and below except for a limited light area at the base below. 
The transverse dark marking on the hind legs is intense black with- 
out rufescent mixture. The feet have a somewhat pied appearance 
with a tendency to the development of a blackish spot above the 
digits, this being somewhat connected with the body on the foreleg 
but fully isolated on the hind leg. Such markings occasionally are 
faintly suggested in other members of the griseus series. The light 
area on the throat is whitish and continuous with a line running 
along the upper lip to the rhinarium. The bases of the hairs in this 
area, however, are very dark and the whitish tips narrow. The dark 
grizzled areas from the sides of the neck are extensive but do not 
quite meet to form a continuous dark neck-band. A dark band is 
practically continuous just in front of the axillae. Light hairs with 
pale brownish bases are narrowly scattered down the middle of the 
thorax and connect with an expanded area of similar color on the 
hind belly from which narrow but very distinct whitish lines extend 
along the inner sides of the legs to the middle of the foot. The 
inguinal area is dull rufescent. The dark area on the chin is well 
marked on the male specimen but on the female it is less extensive 
than in griseus, being bordered by a fairly marked light line around 
the lower lips. 

In addition to its rather marked peculiarities of color, fulvipes 
has cranial characters which distinguish it quite sharply from main- 

1 Two living examples have been exhibited in the zoological gardens of Val- 
divia, Chile, as noted by Carl Junge (Zool. Gart., Leipzig, 6, p. 280, 1933). 


land forms. As compared with that of domeykoanus or maullinicus, 
the skull is much shorter and broader in the facial region, the audital 
bullae are decidedly less inflated, the dentition is slightly heavier, the 
occlusion of the premolars is more nearly complete, and the angle of 
the mandible is much deeper and heavier. Some of these characters 

FIG. 5. Dusicyon fulvipes. F.M. No. 23815. X M- 

are at least partially repeated in sechurae of northern Peru, which, 
like fulvipes, is a beach fox, whereas griseus is mainly a plains animal. 
It is possible, therefore, to speculate as to a former connection of 
fulvipes with sechurae rather than with griseus. In its heavy angular 
process and its almost complete occlusion of the upper and lower 
premolars fulvipes shows some parallelism with Cerdocyon. This is, 
perhaps, of no great significance, but since fulvipes is probably quite 
as much a "crab-eater" in habits as Cerdocyon it cannot be wholly 

In view of its geographical position and its agreement in most 
general features with griseus and subspecies, the conclusion that 


fulvipes is an offshoot of the griseus group is certainly the most 
natural and logical one. However, since it is so well characterized 
and since its distribution apparently is limited to the southern end 
of Chiloe Island, its status as a separate species perhaps should not 
be disturbed. It is to be remembered, nevertheless, that the main- 
land coasts in the latitude of Chiloe are practically unexplored zoo- 
logically and if foxes should be found there it is not unlikely that 
they might be much nearer to fulvipes than is maullinicus, in which 
the approach to fulvipes is very slight. 

The male fox collected on Chiloe had a weight of 1% pounds and 
the female 5J^ pounds. External measurements are, for male and 
female, respectively: total length 790, 665; tail 248, 175; hind foot 
123, 100; ear from crown 77, . Those of the skulls, with cor- 
responding ones of comparable skulls of domeykoanus (in paren- 
theses), are as follows: greatest length 129, 113 (131, 123.5) ; condylo- 
basal length 122.5, 108.6 (127, 119) ; facio-cranial ratio 1 48.1, 46.9 
(48.9, 48.9); zygomatic width 68.3, 63 (63, 58.5); least interorbital 
width 22.1, 20.9 (20.9, 20.2) ; median length of nasals 41.5, 35.2 (43.6, 
40.8); width of braincase 43.8, 43 (42.4, 42.6); width of rostrum at 
base of canines 22.8, 20.1 (18.6, 16.6) ; palatal length 66, 58.6 (71, 64) ; 
length of upper carnassial 12.1, 10.6 (12.7, 10.7); combined length 
of two upper molars 15.6, 13.1 (14.7, 13.2). 

Specimens examined. Near mouth of Rio Inio, Chiloe Island, 2. 

Felis concolor puma Molina. PUMA; LEON. 

Felis puma Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, pp. 295-299, 341, 1782 Chile 

(vicinity of Santiago, by later selection); Merriam, Proc. Wash. Acad. 

Sci., 3, p. 597, 1901 description of headskin and skull from Santiago. 
Felis concolor puma Cabrera, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 33, pp. 312-320, pi. 19, 

fig. A (skull), 1929; Nelson and Goldman, Journ. Mamm., 10, p. 346, 

1929 vicinity of Santiago selected as type locality. 

A large, long-tailed and plain-colored cat. Total length about seven feet 
(=200 cm.) including tail, which is about one-third the total length. Said to be 
larger and more grayish than the Brazilian variety and to have a larger skull and 
heavier teeth. Length of crown of upper carnassial in adult male about 24. 

Range. Central Chile, mainly in the cordillera. Exact limits 
of range unknown; probably extending at least from lat. 30 in the 
north to lat. 40 in the south. 

The name puma appears to be of Peruvian origin and taken from 
the language of the native Quechuas. The Araucanian name is 

1 Length from posterior end of nasals to alveolus of middle incisors multi- 
plied by 100 and divided by condylo-basal length. 


pagi, pagui, or pangui, but in recent times puma has become generally 
used throughout Chile as well as in Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, and 
Argentina. Although well known, fairly common, and generally 
distributed, the Chilean puma has usually been described only in 
general terms and exact records of local distribution are but few. 
It has retreated largely from the more populous parts of the country 
and now appears mainly in the cordillera; as suggested by Cabrera, 
it probably crosses from one side of the Andes to the other. 

Preserved specimens are few. A headskin and skull from Santi- 
ago have been described by Merriam and a series of skulls from 
mountains near Mendoza, Argentina, assumed to belong to the same 
race, have been discussed by Cabrera. 

A specimen in the museum of Valparaiso collected at Cauquenes 
in 1878 is recorded by Wolffsohn and Porter (1908). Two skulls are 
recorded by Wolffsohn (1923) from La Chacarilla, Chilicauquen, and 
Catapilco, San Alfonso. 

Specimen examined. "Santiago," 1 (skull and headskin, U.S. 

Felis concolor patagonica Merriam. SOUTH ANDEAN PUMA. 

Felis puma patagonica Merriam, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3, p. 598, 1901 
near Lake Pueyrredon, lat. 47 30' S., northwestern Santa Cruz, Argen- 

Felis concolor puma Cabrera, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 33, pp. 312-320, 1929 

Felis concolor patagonica Nelson and Goldman, Journ. Mamm., 10, p. 346, 

A supposed southern variety of puma said to have larger teeth than F. c. 
puma. Length of crown of upper carnassial 25-27. 

Range. East base of cordillera of south-central Chile and east- 
ward into Argentina, at least between parallels 48 and 44 S. lat.; 
exact limits unknown. 

The validity of this variety of the puma is not well established, 
but since it is recognized by Nelson and Goldman after a study of 
the entire concolor group, it is given a place here. Material repre- 
senting it is scanty, as well as in the case of F. c. puma, but, so far 
as examined, it indicates fairly pronounced increase in size of the 
teeth in the more southern specimens. 

Cabrera (I.e.) has expressed the opinion that patagonica is the 
same as puma and has made comparisons between skulls from the 
vicinity of Mendoza representing puma and one from Aysen repre- 


senting patagonica. He calls attention to the nearness of Mendoza 
to the cordillera rising west of Santiago, and the probability that 
the animals pass from one side of the Andes to the other, doubtless 
ranging without interruption from north to south. Therefore, he 
finds no obvious reason for a division of northern and southern or 
eastern and western forms. In this he is at least partly correct and 
his reference of the Mendoza skulls to puma is open to no question. 
However, the measurements which he publishes for parallel con- 
trast of adult male skulls from Mendoza and Rio Aysen do not show 
complete agreement. The length of the upper carnassial in the Men- 
doza skull he gives as 22.3 and that of the Aysen skull as 27. Since 
one of the principal distinctions claimed for patagonica is the large 
size of the carnassial, it must be concluded that the evidence adduced 
is indecisive or that it even strengthens the opinions of Merriam and 
Nelson and Goldman based on comparison of skulls from animals 
not fully mature. At least the need for further study with more 
material is indicated. In a skull of a young male from Rio Nirehuao, 
obtained by myself in 1923, the upper carnassial has a crown length 
of 26 and its alveolar length is 24, indicating agreement with the 
type of patagonica and with the Aysen skull measured by Cabrera. 

Felis puma pearsoni appears to be confined to the coast and 
treeless parts of southeastern Patagonia and, so far as known, does 
not reach Chile. Pumas were reported by Darwin as occurring on 
Tierra del Fuego but other authors do not mention them. My own 
experience on Tierra del Fuego leads to the belief that they never 
occurred there, and doubtless Darwin was misinformed. 

The abundance of pumas along the east base of the cordillera 
has been noted by various authors. Prichard (1902) writes: "The 
distribution of this animal extends over the entire country. It is to 
be found in the cordillera as on the pampas. The number of pumas 
in Patagonia is very great, more so than any zoologist has yet given 
any idea of. During one winter two pioneers killed seventy-three 
near Lake Argentine. Near San Julian immense numbers are yearly 
destroyed but, lately, owing to the advent of settlers, they are 
becoming less numerous." 

Specimens examined. Rio Nirehuao, Llanquihue, 2 (1 skin and 
skull, 1 skull only). 

Felis concolor araucanus subsp. nov. CHILEAN FOREST PUMA. 

Type from "Fundo Maitenuhue," Sierra Nahuelbuta, west of 
Angol, Malleco, Chile. No. 50048 Field Museum of Natural 


History. Immature male, skin and skull. Collected January 3, 
1940, by Dillman S. Bullock. 

Diagnosis. A relatively small, dark, and richly colored puma. 
Size not greater than in F. c. puma, considerably less than in F. c. 
patagonica; length of upper carnassial in adult male about 22 mm. 
Color much darker and more mixed with black or blackish than in 
puma or patagonica; "red" phase predominant. 

Range. Humid forest of the Valdivian district of south-central 
Chile, mainly in the provinces of Angol, Valdivia, and Llanquihue. 

Color. General color of upper parts Ochraceous Tawny heavily 
mixed with black along middle line, producing a general effect of 
Cinnamon Brown which becomes somewhat paler laterally; under 
parts Cinnamon with restricted white areas on the inner sides of the 
legs and on the chin and throat; upper side of tail like middle of 
back; tip of tail blackish brown approaching pure black; ears mainly 
Blackish Brown, grayish basally and on the edges and faintly so in 
the middle; base of whiskers sharply blackish; sides of face and 
supraorbital region grayish. 

Measurements. Skulls of adult male and female paratypes, 
respectively: greatest length 193, 174; condylo-basal length 171, 
158; zygomatic width 140.2, 120.5; interorbital width 39.7, 37.3; 
postorbital width 52.3, 52.1; median nasal length 45.2, 40.7; length 
of upper toothrow from front of canine 67.7, 55.9; length of upper 
carnassial 22.2, 21.2. 

Remarks. This form is represented in Field Museum by three 
skins with skulls, one skin without skull, and one skull without 
skin, all obtained through the co-operation of Dr. Dillman S. Bul- 
lock of Angol. The specimen selected as type is a skin with skull of 
a young male apparently in its second year, but the characters of 
the adult male are shown by the skull without skin. 

My attention was called to the existence of this form during 
several weeks spent in various parts of its range in 1939. At that 
time a number of skins in the possession of local owners were exam- 
ined and their uniformly dark coloration was especially noted. 
At least a dozen skins were seen, including a considerable number in 
use as rugs. Most of them had been taken in the vicinity of Lake 
Todos Santos, which is in the heart of the humid, heavily forested 
Valdivian district. At Cayetue, on an arm of this lake, several com- 
plete specimens were seen in the collection of Professor Kurt Wolf hii- 
gel. All of these were small and dark except one which was of very 
large size and grayish coloration as in the race patagonica. Its exact 


source was not known, but it may easily have come from the Argen- 
tine side of the mountains only a few miles away or, as suggested 
by Professor Wolfhiigel, it may have been an accidental intruder 
from that region. 

The relationship of this form to F. c. puma is doubtless very 
close, its principal distinction being its dark color in keeping with 
the climatic conditions of its habitat where nearly all mammals are 
somewhat differentiated from those of other parts of Chile. The 
only available representative of puma for comparison is the skull 
with headskin from the vicinity of Santiago described by Merriam 
(Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3, p. 597, 1901), which has been lent by 
the United States National Museum. The general color of the head- 
skin is much paler than in araucanus and the ears are wholly light 
gray without the dark areas which are so pronounced in araucanus 
and at least partly indicated in patagonica. In the Santiago skull 
the teeth are all larger and heavier than in araucanus, the carnassial 
being 24 mm. in length as against 22 in araucanus. Material is 
insufficient to demonstrate any cranial characters. 

Whether or not the distinction of patagonica from puma proves 
to be justified, there seems little doubt that this dark forest form 
should be recognized. Its relationship to patagonica is much the 
same as that of the North American form olympus to hippolestes. 

Felis pajeros colocolo Molina. CHILEAN PAMPA CAT. 

felis colocola Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, pp. 295, 341, 1782 forests of 
Chile. Province of Valparaiso here selected. 

felis colocolo Molina, supra cit., ed. 2, Bologna, p. 245, 1810. 

Felis colocola Desmarest, Mamm., 1, p. 234, note 3, 1822. 1 

Felis pajeros Gay, Hist. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 69, 1847. 

Panthera Maracaya albescens Fitzinger, Sitzungsber. K. Akad. Wiss., Wien, 
59, p. 232, 1869 renaming of Felis colocolo Molina, which was regarded 
"als eine der zahlreichen Abanderungen des Maracaya Panthers"; pre- 
occupied name. 

Felis colocolo Wolffsohn, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 12, pp. 165-172, pi. 10, 1908. 

Lynchailurus colocolus colocolus Cabrera, Notas Mus. La Plata, 5, Zool., No. 
29, p. 12, 1940. 

Lynchailurus pajeros huina Pocock, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (11), 7, p. 261, 

Felis colocolo Thomas, according to his identification of specimens in the 
British Museum (fide Pocock, I.e.). 


1 "M. Cuvier pense que le colocolla pourroit bien n'etre que 1'ocelot. Nous 
ons qu'il seroit aussi possible de le regarder comme le chibigouazou." 


A moderate-sized cat with irregular markings on the back and sides forming 
elongated areas of alternating fulvous and grayish white; legs with transverse 
bands of brownish or blackish ; tail at least partially ringed with blackish or brown- 
ish, the under side usually plain. Head and body 567-642; tail 295-322; hind 
foot 118-139; ear 61-65 (fide Wolffsohn). 

Range. West-central Chile, probably from Coquimbo to Con- 
ception; at present known principally from Valparaiso and vicinity. 

This is the Chilean variety of the well-known pampa cat of 
eastern and southern Argentina. Although common in central 
Chile, few specimens have been preserved in museums. It is some- 
what darker and more distinctly marked than the Argentine variety 
(F. colocolo pajeros). 1 

Under the name Lynchailurus pajeros huina, Pocock (I.e.), who 
had several specimens collected by Wolffsohn in the Valparaiso 
district, states that it is "distinguished from typical pajeros by the 
much darker, more varied hue of the upper side, which shows dis- 
tinct pattern on the back and flanks, and by the invariably ochra- 
ceous, rusty or brown hue of the pattern on the underside." 

The exact relationship of this form to the several northern varie- 
ties (garleppi, thomasi, budini, steinbachi) which have been described 
is uncertain. An immature example in Field Museum from Co- 
quimbo is paler than the one illustrated by Wolffsohn and those 
described by Pocock. Another, also immature, from Putre, Tacna, 
cannot be identified satisfactorily as to subspecies, but perhaps will 
prove to be nearer to garleppi than to colocolo. 

The name colocolo, which is here applied to it, has had an extraor- 
dinary history, appearing and reappearing in literature in many 
connections and being the subject of much difference of opinion. 
Originally proposed by Molina in 1782, it was something of a puzzle 
to early authors who knew nothing of any Chilean cats. Then in 
1827 it was adopted by Hamilton Smith (Griffith's Cuvier, 2, p. 
479, 1827) for a supposed species from Guiana. This animal was 
described by Smith from reports received from a traveler rather 
than from a specimen and his description was accompanied by a 
figure having no better basis than a hunter's tale and an artist's 
imagination. The Felis colocolo of Hamilton Smith, therefore, is 
quite unidentifiable and if it had been so regarded from the begin- 
ning much misunderstanding would have been avoided. Unfortu- 
nately, it was taken up by various authors to such an extent that the 
original Felis colocolo of Molina was almost forgotten. This so 

1 It is not unlikely that this variety occurs occasionally within Chilean limits 
on the eastern side of the Andes. In fact, Pocock (op. cit., p. 363, footnote) 
mentions a skull from Last Hope Inlet, which may constitute a record. 


prejudiced the case that even down to very recent dates conclusions 
in regard to it are subject to suspicion and further analysis. 

The whole history has been quite thoroughly reviewed in a 
recent paper by Cabrera (I.e.), who seems to be the first to 
understand fully all the factors involved and who does not omit 
reference to any important previous author. He finds that Felis 
colocolo should either be regarded as unidentifiable or applied to 
one of the two commoner small cats of Chile, namely, the one 
described by Gay in 1847 under the name Felis pajeros. In this he 
agrees with Wolff sohn (I.e.) who published a figure (photo) of 
the animal and based his conclusion on a first-hand field knowledge 
of Chilean mammals. He is also in agreement with Thomas, who 
published nothing on the subject but whose views are known through 
labeled specimens in the British Museum. 

On the other hand, Allen (1919) came to a different conclusion 
and applied colocolo to the cat named jacobita by Cornalia in 1865. 
He makes no mention of Wolffsohn's important paper and his text 
indicates that he had no specimens from Chile except those of Felis 
guigna. He was much influenced by the action of Philippi, who in 
1869 and 1870 had identified Molina's colocolo with the species which, 
unbeknown to him, had been called jacobita in 1865. Philippi's 
opinion, however, was deeply tinged with the pernicious influence of 
the mythical colocolo of Hamilton Smith. Without this influence, 
and because he was ignorant of the discovery by Cornalia, it is 
probable that he would have seen the case as later authors, nota- 
bly Wolffsohn, have done. In fact, Cabrera has adduced some 
evidence that Philippi's earliest opinion was contrary to his pub- 
lished accounts, since a cat labeled by him as colocolo and sent to 
the museum of Madrid, in 1863, proves to be of the form allied to 
F. pajeros. 

Finally, Pocock (op. cit., p. 269) comes to essentially the same 
conclusions as Allen, but he makes no mention of the papers by 
Wolffsohn and Cabrera. That he had not seen them is evident, 
since he proposes a new generic name Colocolo, which is the exact 
equivalent of Oreailurus Cabrera. 

In agreeing with Wolffsohn, Thomas, and Cabrera rather than 
with Allen and Pocock, more reliance is placed upon a general study 
of all Molina's work than upon arguments over details. It is known 
that Molina's descriptions were usually colored by hearsay, that such 
specimens as he may have seen were not in his hands at the time of 
writing, and that scarcely any of his descriptions will bear close 


analysis without revealing at least slight conflict with reality. Some 
of his names must be rejected as wholly unidentifiable, and others 
can be accepted on the basis of the general characters indicated 
without regard to minor discrepancies. This has been done accepta- 
bly in other cases and should be in this one. 

Having in mind Molina's shortcomings, and wholly disregarding 
the confusion caused by Hamilton Smith, the case is greatly simpli- 
fied. There are three spotted cats native to Chile: one of larger size, 
very rare, and apparently confined to limited areas in the highlands; 
the other two smaller, fairly common, and generally distributed in 
the most populous parts of the country. They differ in numerous 
details, but they have some characters in common and are subject 
to some variation in color and markings. Molina gave names to 
only two spotted cats, one of which he called Felis guigna and the 
other Felis colocolo. He describes them in a single paragraph in 
which they are contrasted with each other. An English translation 
is as follows: "The guigna (felis guigna) and the colocolo (felis colo- 
colo) are two species of beautifully pelaged wild cats which inhabit 
the forest of Chile. They resemble the domestic cat, but are a little 
larger, the head and the tail a little larger. The guigna is of a fulvous 
color varied with rounded black spots four or five lines in diameter, 
extending to the end of the tail. The colocolo is white, irregularly 
spotted with black and yellowish. Its tail is annulated with black 
to the tip." 

The general distinctions made here are those of the two common 
Chilean cats, guigna, with small rounded black spots, and colocolo, 
with irregular markings of black and yellowish. So far as they go, 
and especially from the contemporary standpoint, they furnish a 
sufficient distinction. 1 The indication that the animals were similar 
in size, somewhat larger than a house cat, may be significant, but 
everything else can be disregarded as due to the author's demon- 
strated unreliability. The white ground color and the annulated 
tail, under the broad interpretation necessary with Molina's descrip- 
tions, might apply to either of the common species as well as to the 
rare one (jacobitd) which it is unlikely Molina had ever seen. If he 
had had any knowledge of it, he could scarcely have failed to men- 

1 In his summary catalogue concluding his volume (1782, p. 341) Molina 
omits reference to the annulated tail and gives Latin diagnoses of the two species 
indicating what he evidently considered their most important distinctions, as 

Felis guigna cauda elongata, corpore maculis omnibus orbiculatis. 

Felis colocolo cauda elongata, corpore albo maculis irreg. atris, flavique. 


tion its larger size. 1 It considerably exceeds both the common 
species and, as Cabrera has noted, it is several times larger than a 
house cat. 

Molina's name guigna has always been accepted for one of the 
common cats of Chile and his colocolo would almost certainly have 
been used for the other except for the curse that was laid upon it by 
its early misuse by Hamilton Smith. Therefore, it seems logical 
now to ignore all the misunderstanding connected with this curse 
and to judge the case as if none of this had happened. This is 
essentially what was done by Wolffsohn (I.e.), whose knowledge 
of Chilean mammals was extensive and whose opinion is very impor- 
tant, but whose paper on the subject has not been widely consulted. 
He describes several specimens, illustrating one with a photograph 
(in which the tail shows at least five well-marked blackish rings or 
semi-rings), and discusses the habits and distribution of the form. 
He reports it as the most common species in central Chile, where he 
found it, especially in the vicinity of Valparaiso, Santiago, and 
Quillota. He expresses the opinion that it may extend southward 
as far as Concepcion, but no southern specimens have been recorded. 
He mentions two phases of color, one called "plomo" and the other 

According to Wolffsohn and Philippi, the names guina or huina 
and gato montes are applied in some parts of Chile to one of the 
common cats and elsewhere to the other. That the name colocolo 
was in use for any cat by the natives of Molina's time is doubtful. 
The Araucanian name was kudmu or kodkod, which Wolffsohn 
believed was corrupted by the Spaniards to colocolo. Although not 
mentioned in the original edition of Molina's work, there is indica- 
tion in the second Italian edition (1810, p. 245) that the name was 
connected with the proper name of the early Araucanian hero, Colo- 
colo. 2 The spelling colocola of the first edition is changed in the 
second to colocolo, so a typographical error may be inferred. This 
is mentioned by Philippi (1870, p. 41, footnote), who says: "Colo- 
cola ist offenbar ein Druck odor vielmehr Schreibfehler, und ist nur 
sonderbar, dass man hb'rt in Chile immer Colocolo und niemals 
Colocola." He also refers to the use of the name colocolo for the 

1 In his second edition (1810, p. 245) Molina plainly states that the colocolo 
is about the same size as guigna and that its markings are "come quello delle 
gato domestiche." 

2 "II quale col suo nome rinuoya la memoria del Gran Colocolo promotore e 
sostegno della liberta degli Araucani." 


mouse opossum and the singing house mouse, which Wolffsohn 
thinks may have meant the coruro (Spalacopus) . 

Specimens examined. Total 3: Limache, Valparaiso, 1 (skull 
only) ; Marquesa, Coquimbo, 1 (skin only) ; Province of Valparaiso, 
1 (skull only). 

Felis guigna guigna Molina. GUINA; GATO MONTES. 

felis guigna Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, pp. 295, 341, 1782 forests of 
Chile; Poeppig, Froriep's Notizen, 25, p. 7, 1829; Thomas, Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist., (7), 12, p. 240, 1903 selected type locality Valdivia, Chile. 

Felis tigrillo "Poeppig," Schinz, Syn. Mamm., 1, p. 470, 1844 Chile. 

Felis guina Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 36, (1), pp. 41-43, 1870; 39, (1), pp. 
8-12, pi. 2, 1873. 

Herpailurus guigna Pocock, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 20, pp. 346-347, 1917. 

Noctifelis guigna Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 41, p. 361, 1919. 

A medium-sized cat heavily spotted with rounded blackish spots on both 
upper and under parts; ground color buffy or brownish; slight tendency to streak- 
ing on head and shoulders; tail narrowly ringed with blackish. Head and body 
390-450; tail 195-230; hind foot 89-96. 

Range. Forested region of south-central Chile from the Province 
of Cautin to the island of Chiloe and the Guaitecas. 

Although fairly common in easily accessible parts of Chile, this 
cat was for many years very imperfectly known, and even at the 
present time well-preserved specimens are comparatively rare. 
After being named by Molina as early as 1782, only one reliable 
reference (Poeppig, I.e.) concerning it appeared, until a century 
later, in 1873, when Philippi described and figured specimens from 
Valdivia. He mentions its abundance and refers to the frequent 
occurrence of melanism. In 1919, in speaking of Philippi's account, 
Allen says: "So far as I am aware, no later report based on actual 
material has been published." However, in 1908 Wolffsohn and 
Porter (1908, p. 76) had recorded two specimens in the Valparaiso 
Museum, one from Valdivia and one from the Guaiteca Islands. 
Allen describes a series of eight specimens from Marquhue, Temuco, 
Cautin, and remarks that there is "considerable variation in color, 
some being much darker than others, possibly tending toward 

As a species F. guigna is probably distinct, being characterized 
by small size, dark color, and almost wholly spotted pattern of 
markings; but it is obviously very closely related to F. geoffroyi, 
and Allen's recognition of the genus Noctifelis for its exclusive recep- 
tion seems quite unjustified. The pattern of markings in guigna 


is essentially as in geoffroyi except on the occiput and nape where 
dark lines are broken and indistinct in guigna but fully coalesced 
and well defined in geoffroyi. The feet in guigna are usually un- 
spotted. The skulls are similar in all general characters. In the 
two specimens in Field Museum the small second upper premolar is 
absent as was the case in seven skulls examined by Allen. These 

FIG. 6. Felts guigna guigna. F.M. No. 24359. X H- 

two specimens are from Valdivia and Chiloe Island, one being wholly 
black and the other spotted. 

Specimens examined. Total 11: Cayetue, Lake Todos Santos, 9 
(coll. K. Wolfhiigel); mouth of Rio Inio, Chiloe Island, 1; Rinihue, 
Valdivia, 1. 

Felis guigna molinae subsp. nov. 

Type from vicinity of Valparaiso, Chile. No. 24369 Field 
Museum of Natural History. Collected (purchased in mounted 
condition) December, 1922, by Colin C. Sanborn. Orig. No. 585. 

Diagnosis. Decidedly larger than F. g. guigna; coloration prob- 
ably averaging considerably paler. 

Color. Markings as in F. g. guigna; ground color in type speci- 
men Cinnamon Buff to Clay Color; dark spots Snuff Brown to 
Mummy Brown; forehead without stripes; feet unspotted. 

Skull. Larger than in F. g. guigna; mesopterygoid fossa narrow 
and pointed in front; posterior lateral shelves of palate only slightly 


emarginate; teeth much heavier than in guigna, equaling or slightly 
exceeding those of salinarum although considerably weaker than 
those of geoffroyi; anterior upper premolars absent in one specimen, 
present in another. 

Measurements. Paratype measured in flesh by J. A. Wolffsohn: 
total length 722; tail 229; hind foot 116. Skull of type and an adult 
male of F. g. guigna from Chiloe Island: greatest length 92.8, 84.6; 
zygomatic width 62, 53.6; least interorbital width 17.9, 15.8; post- 
orbital constriction 27.9, 25; width of braincase 41.6, 38.1; upper 
toothrow, canine to molar 27.8, 24.8; length of last upper premolar 
11.4, 9.3. 

Remarks. Only one skin and two skulls of this form are avail- 
able, both from the vicinity of Valparaiso. The type was obtained 
by Sanborn by purchase, through the assistance of J. A. Wolffsohn. 
It was in mounted condition and had been in the hands of a private 
owner at Vina del Mar, a suburb of Valparaiso. After receipt at 
Field Museum it was dismounted and the skull previously included 
in the skin was found to be entire and in excellent condition. A 
second skull later received from Wolffsohn is slightly larger but 
otherwise agrees closely with that of the type. This second skull 
is from Hacienda Limache and its label carries the flesh measure- 
ments and the notation "Skull only. Skin spoilt. This specimen 
is the largest of the few I have measured." 

Although the material is scanty and it is necessary to take as 
type a somewhat damaged specimen, the differentiation of this form 
seems so fully evident that its recognition need not be delayed. 
Doubtless it ranges throughout central Chile from Coquimbo to 
Concepcion in a region faunally different from that inhabited by 
typical guigna. 

Apparently it is less common than F. colocolo and further speci- 
mens are much to be desired. Between its range and that of F. 
geoffroyi salinarum there is a very wide gap, including most of north- 
eastern Chile from which no specimens are known. At least in some 
parts of this region it is probable that spotted cats will be found, but 
whether or not they will establish a connection between molinae and 
salinarum (i.e. guigna and geoffroyi) cannot be predicted at this time. 

Felis (Oreailurus) jacobita Cornalia. ANDEAN HIGHLAND CAT. 

Felis jacobita Cornalia, Mem. Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat., Milano, 1, No. 1, pp. 3-7, 
one pi. unnumbered, 1865 mountains near Humachaca, near Chilean 
boundary, Argentina. 


Felis colocolo Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 33, pi. 205, 1869; Arch. Naturg., 
36, p. 43, pi. 1, fig. 7, 1870; 39, pp. 11-14, pi. 3, figs. 1-2 (skull), 1873; 
Burmeister, Descr. Phys. Repub. Argentina, 3, p. 126, 1879. 

Oncifelis colocolo Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 41, p. 371, 1919. 

Oreailurus [jacobita] Cabrera, Notas Mus. La Plata, 5, Zool., No. 29, p. 16, 

Colocolo colocola Pocock, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (11), 7, p. 272, 1941. 

A spotted cat of larger size than F. colocolo and F. guigna, with long, soft and 
thick pelage; color pale gray spotted and transversely striped with blackish or 
brownish; under parts white; tail with about nine blackish or brownish rings and 
a light tip. Skull with audital bullae divided into two chambers indicated by a 
deep external sulcus. Head and body 600; tail 430; height 350 (ex Cornalia). 1 

Range. High Andes of northeastern Chile, from the latitude of 
Santiago northward to southern Bolivia and northwestern Argentina. 

This is the rarest of Chilean cats and, so far as known, only five 
(or possibly six) specimens are existing. These are the type, which 
may be still in Milan or elsewhere in Italy; the specimen described 
by Philippi in 1870 and 1873 from Infernillo, Hacienda de la Dehesa, 
cordillera of Santiago; 2 and three trade skins in the British Museum, 
described by Pocock, two without locality, received from the whole- 
sale furrier Ernest Poland, and the third labeled "Bolivia" and pre- 
sented by Rowland Ward. Of these last Pocock says: "In general 
coloration and coat, these specimens are reminiscent of the Snow 
Leopard ( Undo), suggesting rocky hills, not jungle or forest, as 
their habitat. The coat is very full and soft, about 40 mm. long on 
the back and 35 mm. on the uniformly bushy tail." A possible sixth 
specimen is one in the Argentine Museo Nacional, recorded by Yepes 
(1929) from Sarso, western Aconquija, Tucuman, Argentina. 

The only skull so far known is the one described and figured by 
Philippi from his menagerie specimen. Cornalia's description does 
not mention a skull and it seems probable there was none. The very 
peculiar double-chambered audital bulla, shown in Philippi's figure, 
combined with the external peculiarities of the animal, indicates a 
high degree of differentiation doubtless warranting the generic or 

1 No measurements are available except those of the original describer. In 
the supposed race called neumeyeri by Matschie, the body length is given as 850 
and the tail 410. Pocock's reference of neumeyeri to his "colocola," without 
examination of the type, is open to question, since its locality is very distant and 
climatically very different. 

2 This specimen is doubtless one which is now mounted and on exhibition in 
the Museo Nacional in Santiago where I saw it last in 1939. Time did not permit 
its removal from the case for careful examination, but its general agreement with 
Cornalia's figure was evident. It carries the number 131 and the locality "Los 
Andes, Prov. Santiago." I was not then aware of the importance of the skull 
and regret very much that no search was made for it. 


subgeneric separation advocated by Cabrera and Pocock. The range 
of the species is one characterized by a high degree of endemism. 
It corresponds roughly to that of the chinchilla and various other 
markedly distinct types. 

Specimens examined. Cordillera of Santiago, 1 (Mus. Nac. 

Lutra provocax Thomas. LARGE RIVER OTTER; HUILLIN. 

Lutra huidobrius of some authors, not Castor huidobrius of Molina, which is 


Lutra paranensis Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 198, footnote, 1889. 
Lutra provocax Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 1, p. 391, 1908 south of 

Lake Nahuelhuapi, Argentina. 

A good-sized otter with the upper parts rich, dark brown and the under 
parts silvery whitish in considerable contrast. Total length 1,010 (male), 920 
(female); tail 400 (male), 350 (female); hind foot 125 (male), 108 (female). 

Range. Rivers and estuaries of central and southern Chile, at 
least from the Rio Cachapoal (Province of Colchagua) in the north 
to the Straits of Magellan in the south; extending through the Andes 
to western Argentina at least in the Nahuelhuapi region. 

The large river otter of southern Chile, known as the huillin, 
was found to be fairly common in the lower reaches of the Rio Inio 
near the south end of Chiloe Island. Several were seen and one 
adult male was shot by Sanborn as it swam near the boat in which 
we were rowing a few miles above the mouth of the river. Measure- 
ments of this specimen are: total length 1,010; tail 400; hind foot 
125; circumference of neck 320; circumference of chest 390. An 
adult female brought to us later by natives was also preserved. 

Thomas records this species from Temuco and from the Straits 
of Magellan. Wolffsohn (1921) also records it from Temuco, and 
Wolffsohn and Porter (1908) mention two specimens from Valdivia. 
E. C. Reed (1877) states that an otter of this species was seen at 
the mouth of the Rio Cauquenes at its junction with the Cachapoal 
and he expresses his belief that this river is the northern limit of the 
animal's range in Chile. 

Molina's name Castor huidobrius has sometimes been used for 
this species, but Molina's account is so obviously composite and 
contradictory that it cannot be accepted for any known animal. 
The native name guillino, which he uses in connection with it, 
indicates only that reports of this otter were probably among those 
entering into his confused description. In the second edition of 


Molina's work are some additional statements to which Fontecilla 
(1929) has called attention, with the implication that they are cor- 
rections sufficient to establish the name for an otter. Careful reading 
of them, however, seems to indicate as much confusion as the original 
description. Molina says, in effect, that the supposed species was 
placed in the genus Castor because its dentition resembled that of 
the beaver, and he adds that the beaver differs in not eating fish. 

FIG. 7. Lutra provocax. F.M. No. 24224. X %. 

The technical name Castor huidobrius, which appeared in the first 
edition, is omitted in the second, as well as reference to Molina's 
friend and patron Don Garcia Huidobro, whom he had desired to 
honor. This is significant of Molina's own doubt in the matter and 
is plain indication of his intention to suppress the name. He refers 
to the opinion of Sonnini that the animal might be an otter and he 
states he would not object to this although he continues to insist 
that its dentition would indicate a different genus. In other words, 
he continues to confuse hearsay accounts in which otter and coypu 
are inextricably combined. On the whole, therefore, I have no hesi- 
tation in agreeing to the conclusion of Thomas, who says: "I am not 
prepared to recognize as an otter a species described as having long 
rodent incisors and unpalmated forefeet, and think that in view of 


the insoluble mixture of local names, habits, and characters con- 
tained in Molina's description, the name Castor huidobrius should be 
set aside as indeterminable." (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 58, p. 225, 

Lesson's Guillinomys chilensis (Nouv. Tabl. Regne Anim., 
Mamm., p. 126, 1842) is merely a renaming of the unidentifiable 
Castor huidobrius and, moreover, it is antedated by Mustela chilensis 
Kerr 1792. 

Specimens examined. Total 5: Lake Todos Santos, Llanquihue, 
3 (coll. K. Wolfhiigel); mouth of Rio Inio, Chiloe Island, 2. 

Lutra felina Molina. MARINE OTTER; CHUNGUNGO. 

mustela felina Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, pp. 284, 342, 1782 Chile. 
Mustela (Lutra) chilensis Kerr, Anim. Kingd., Mamm., p. 172, 1792 coasts 
of Chile. 

FIG. 8. Lutra felina. F.M. No. 24226. X % 

Lutra chilensis Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pp. 1-2, 1832 Chile. 

Lutra calif ornica Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. (Charlesworth), 1, p. 580, 1837 said 

to be from California; probably from Chile. 
Lutra brachydactyla Wagner, Suppl. Schreber's Saugeth., 2, p. 261, footnote, 

1841 "West Amerika." 

A small otter of nearly uniform coloration, the under parts scarcely or not at 
all paler than the upper parts. Total length 910; tail 340; hind foot with claw 97. 

Range. Entire coast of Chile south to Tierra del Fuego, practi- 
cally to Cape Horn; northward to the coast of northern Peru. 


This is the small brown otter which the Chileans call chungungo 
or gato del mar. It appears to be mainly marine or littoral in habits 
and, although it lives side by side with the larger species, it is less 
fluviatile. It is especially abundant among the numerous islands 
from Chiloe southward. Two specimens from the arid coast of 
northern Chile at Caldera are only slightly paler on the under parts 
than others from the southern islands and the distinction of a 
northern form is doubtful. Should such a form prove demonstrable, 
it might take the name peruviensis (Gervais, Zool. Voy. Bonite, 1, 
Mamm., pp. 15-17, pi. 3, 1841) based on material from San Lorenzo 
Island, near Callao, Peru. 

During the voyage of the Beagle, Darwin found this otter abun- 
dant, especially in the Chonos Archipelago and among the islands off 
the southwestern shores of Tierra del Fuego. Since his time it has 
been greatly diminished in numbers, but doubtless remains in a 
fairly secure retreat on the long uninhabited coast between Chiloe 
and the Straits of Magellan. In 1923, Field Museum's expedition 
found it rather common about the southern end of Chiloe Island. 
An adult male taken there had a weight of nine pounds. 

Specimens examined. Total 8: Ayentema, Chiloe Island, 1; 
Caldera, Atacama, 2; Cucao, Chiloe Island, 2; Guaiteca Islands, 1; 
Papudo, Aconcagua, 1 (skull only); Rio Aconcagua, Valparaiso, 
1 (skin only). 

Grison (Grisonella) cuja Molina. QUIQUE. 

mustela Cuja Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, pp. 291-292, 342, 1782; ed. 2, 
p. 242, 1810 Chile, more in the south than in the north. 

mustela Quiqui Molina, supra cit., pp. 292, 342; ed. 2, p. 242, 1810 southern 

provinces of Chile. 
Galictis vittata var. Chilensis Nehring, Zool. Jahrb., Syst., 1, p. 190, 1886 

Grison (Grisonella) cuja Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 10, p. 46, 1912 

specimens from Temuco, Chile, regarded as typical. 

(l)Grison furax melinus Thomas, supra cit., p. 47, 1912 Quillota, Valparaiso, 

Grisonella melina Thomas, supra cit., (9), 8, p. 213, 1921. 

A short-tailed, loosely pelaged, ferret-like musteline with the upper parts 
yellowish buff or grayish mixed with black; under parts, feet, legs, and nose black. 
Total length 550-650; tail 150-200; hind foot 50-60. 

Range. Central Chile from the Province of Coquimbo to the 
Province of Valdivia. 


The small kiki or cuja is generally distributed in central Chile 
but is nowhere common. That there is more than one Chilean 
species is very doubtful. Thomas has restricted the name cuja to 
three specimens of unusually small size from Temuco and proposed 
the new name melinus for specimens from the vicinity of Valparaiso. 
Material in Field Museum is not sufficient to be wholly conclusive, 
but, so far as it goes, it supports the inference that this division is 

FIG. 9. Orison cuja. F.M. No. 23441. X %. 

questionable. Specimens from Papudo, although apparently quite 
adult, are not so large as the type and other examples of melinus 
examined by Thomas. On the other hand, a skin from Rinihue, 
Valdivia, in the region assigned to cuja, appears not to differ in 
color or size from more northern specimens. Unfortunately it has no 
skull and no flesh measurements, but it is difficult to believe that it 
represents a species different from that of more northern localities. 
Variation in size and color is considerable in the small series 
examined. Two immature specimens are much more heavily buff- 
colored than adults, and their tails are very short and light-colored. 

Comparison of Chilean specimens with others from Argentina 
(huronax) shows scarcely any difference in color or size, and it is 
unlikely that more than subspecific distinction is justified. It seems 
probable, therefore, that the subgenus Grisonella contains but one 
species for which the earliest name is Molina's cuja. The names 
furax (Minas, Brazil), huronax (Mar del Plata, Argentina), ratel- 
linus (San Juan, Argentina), shiptoni (Concepcion, Tucuman, 
Argentina), and luteolus (Chulumani, Bolivia) are in most cases 


based on very scanty material and the characters assigned to them 
are of a kind to indicate, at the most, differences of subspecific 

While G. cuja reaches the northern part of the forested Valdivian 
region, it does not penetrate very far and its main range seems to 
be in the well-defined area between Coquimbo and Concepcion in 
which faunal conditions are fairly uniform. 

Probably it crosses the Andes through the passes of the lake 
region to meet eastern forms. In fact, Thomas has referred speci- 
mens "from Tucuman to Chubut" to his melinus, thus giving that 
subspecies an interrupted range in which his cuja would stand 
between melinus of Valparaiso and others regarded as the same from 
east of the Andes. 

Writing in 1846, Thomas Bridges states that "the native hunters 
of this little animal [the chinchilla] domesticate the Quique of Molina 
which they term here Huron, the Spanish for ferret; the Huron 
enters the crevices and holes made by the Chinchilla, and drives 
them out, when they are either killed with sticks by the hunters or 
taken by the dogs trained for that purpose." 

Specimens examined. Total 16: Lake Todos Santos, 4 (coll. K. 
Wolfhiigel); Paiguano, Coquimbo, 2; Papudo, Aconcagua, 6 (2 skins 
with skulls, 4 skulls without skins) ; Rinihue, Valdivia, 1 (skin only) ; 
Santiago, 2 (skins only); "southern" Chile, 1 (skin only). 

Lyncodon patagonica Blainville. HURONCITO. 

Mustela patagonica Blainville, Osteog. Mamm. Rec. Foss., Atlas, 2, fasc. 10, 
pi. 12 (Mustela); text, 2, fasc. 4, p. 42 (Putois du Chili), p. 81 (Putois 
du Paraguay), 1842 Rio Negro, Argentina ("rapporte de 1'Amerique du 
Sud par M. d'Orbigny"). 

Mustela (Lyncodon) patagonica Gervais, Diet. Univ. d'Hist. Nat., 4, p. 685, 

Lyncodon patagonica Burmeister, Descr. Phys. Repub. Argentina, 3, pp. 160- 
162, 1879. 

A small slender-bodied musteline externally somewhat similar to Grison, but 
with the top of the head creamy or white, which extends as a broad stripe to the 
shoulders; dentition reduced to 28 teeth; length of head and body about 350; tail 
70-90; hind foot 35. 

Range. Known from scattered localities mainly in western 
Argentina from the Province of Rioja to the Province of Santa 
Cruz; intrusive in Chile along the southern Argentine border. 

Two specimens of this very rare carnivore are recorded by Wolff - 
sohn (1921, p. 515) from Puerto Prat, Last Hope Inlet. Although 


this locality is actually on the coast of Chile the climate there is 
relatively dry and conditions closely approximate those of the pam- 
pas to the eastward; so it is not strange that a wide-ranging pampas 
animal should be found there. The specimens, which were probably 
collected by Wolffsohn himself, are said to be preserved in the Semi- 
nario de San Rafael, Avenida de las Delicias, Valparaiso. 

Conepatus chinga chinga Molina. CHILEAN SKUNK; CHINGUE. 

viverra chinga Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, pp. 288-291, 342, 1782 Chile. 
Viverra chilensis Link, Beytr. Nat., 1, p. 85, 1795 Chile. 
Mephitis chilensis Geoffrey, Cat. Mamm. Mus. Paris, pp. 109-110, 1803. 
Mephitis dimidiata G. Fischer, Zoogn., 3, pp. 203-204, 1814 Chile. 
^ Mephitis (Thiosmus) molinae Lichtenstein, Abhandl. Akad. Wiss., Berlin, 

p. 272, (1836), 1838 Chile. 
Mephitis furcata Wagner, Suppl. Schreber's Saugeth., 2, pp. 192-193, 1841 

M. chilensis of Lichtenstein renamed. 

A black and white skunk with the terminal half of the tail with hairs wholly 
white to the roots; dorsal white stripes narrow but continuous from the occiput 
to the base of the tail. 

Range. Central Chile probably from Coquimbo to Concepcion, 
mainly in the coast region. 

Although Molina's description mentions white spots instead of 
stripes, his general account applies wholly to the skunk and there 
is no good reason for not accepting the name chinga. No exact 
locality has been assigned to it, but central Chile in the vicinity 
of Valparaiso is the logical choice. It appears to be not very com- 
mon, and prepared specimens are scarce. Thomas has a passing 
reference (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 58, p. 224, 1920) doubtless based 
on specimens and to the effect that C. chinga has the white stripes 
reaching fully to the base of the tail. This is confirmed by the only 
specimen in Field Museum, in which the terminal half of the tail is 
wholly white to the roots of the hairs. 

Specimen examined. Concepcion, 1 (skin only). 

Conepatus chinga mendosus Thomas. 

Conepatus suffocans mendosus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 8, p. 222, 

1921 Tupungato, Mendoza, Argentina. 
Conepatus suffocans enuchus Thomas, supra cit., (9), 19, p. 651, 1927 San 

Martin de los Andes, Neuquen, Argentina. 

Similar to C. chinga, but with the white stripes on the back usually inter- 
rupted; tail with terminal white reduced to one-fourth or less. 


Range. Western Argentina from the Province of Mendoza 
southward to Neuquen and thence into Chile at least locally. 

Two specimens taken by Sanborn at Rinihue, Valdivia, appear 
to furnish the expected connection between C. chinga and various 
forms which have been associated with C. suffocans. Their characters 
closely approximate those described for C. s. enuchus, from which 
they are not far removed geographically. This last, therefore, is 
interpreted as intermediate between chinga and mendosus. The 
Chilean skins have the white stripes extending only halfway down 
the back but reappearing as two white areas on either side of the 
base of the tail, reaching in one case for a few inches on the rump. 
The ends of the tails are wholly whitish but not so extensively as 
in chinga, although perhaps more so than in enuchus and clearly 
much more so than in typical mendosus. Especially in this character 
of the relative amount of white on the tail there is gradation from 
chinga to mendosus. There is no apparent difference in size, but 
mendosus, enuchus, and the specimens from Rinihue are collectively 
distinguishable from chinga by the reduction of the white dorsal 
stripes. Therefore, until specimens come in to indicate more clearly 
where lines should be drawn, it seems best to throw mendosus and 
enuchus together and link suffocans with chinga as a subspecies. 

Specimens examined. Total 4: Cayetue, Lake Todos Santos, 
2 (coll. K. Wolfhiigel) ; Rinihue, Valdivia, 2. 

Conepatus humboldti Gray. PATAGONIAN SKUNK. 

Conepatus humboldtii Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. (Charlesworth), 1, p. 581, 1837 
Straits of Magellan; Milne-Edwards, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, Zool., 
Mamm., pp. 6-14, pi. 1 (col.), 1890; Allen, Mamm. Patagonia, pp. 144- 
147, pi. 22, figs, l-ld, 2-2d, (skulls), 1905. 

Mephitis (Thiosmus) patagonica Lichtenstein, Abhandl. Akad. Wiss., Berlin, 
p. 275, (1836), 1838 Straits of Magellan. 

A skunk of medium size and rather soft silky pelage; color blackish brown, 
cinnamon brown, or even partly ochraceous buff, usually with two narrow white 
stripes united on the head but well separated on the back and passing to the proxi- 
mal part of the tail; tail with hairs of two lengths, very long ones wholly white, 
and shorter ones broadly white at base and blackish or brownish terminally. 
Total length 500-540; tail 150-180; hind foot 55-60. 

Range. Southwestern Argentina and adjacent parts of Chile 
from the Straits of Magellan northward to Chubut and western Rio 

This is the common skunk of southern Patagonia, still fairly 
numerous, and confined mainly to open, unforested regions. Dealers 
in raw furs in Punta Arenas report handling some 15,000 skunk skins 


in the season of 1939. The species does not extend to Tierra del 
Fuego and its connections in the north have not been worked out. 
Allen (I.e.) mentions specimens from Santa Cruz, Rio Gallegos, 
"Basalt Canyons" southeast of Lake Buenos Aires, and Swan Lake. 
Thomas (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (10), 4, p. 38, 1929) records others 
from Alta Vista (Lake Argentine), La Concepcion, Chubut, and 
Pico Salamanca, Chubut. Two adults and two young taken within 
Chilean boundaries at Rio Nirehuao are in Field Museum as well 

FIG. 10. Conepatus humboldti. F.M. No. 34193. X %. 

as a similar specimen from Huanuluan, Rio Negro, Argentina. 
These northern specimens have the dentition slightly weaker than 
typical, but material is not at hand to indicate whether or not this 
is a tendency toward distinguishable northern forms. 

Present material is insufficient to establish connection between 
humboldti and chinga, and perhaps there is none. In our northern 
specimens, however, one has the white joined on the head and the 
other has it narrowly divided, thus differing in the character which 
Thomas (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 19, p. 651, 1927) has especially 
mentioned as distinguishing humboldti from suffocans. 

Four trade skins purchased in Punta Arenas are quite constant 
as to markings but somewhat variable in color. Three have the 
ground color dark Bone Brown and the fourth is much lighter, the 
median under parts and head light Bone Brown, the sides Natal 
Brown and the mid-dorsum bright Ochraceous Buff. An imperfect 
trade skin from "Chubut" is almost without white, only a few traces 
showing on the shoulders. 


Specimens examined. Total 12: ARGENTINA: "Chubut," 1 (skin 
only); Huanuluan, Rio Negro, 1. CHILE: Punta Arenas, 6 (4 skins, 
2 skulls); Rio Nirehuao, 4. 

Conepatus rex Thomas. ANDEAN HIGHLAND SKUNK. 

Conepatus rex Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), 1, p. 278, 1898 Tambo 

Esperanza, near Mount Sajama, Bolivia. 
Conepatus arequipae Thomas, supra cit., (7), 6, p. 466, 1900 Sumbay, Are- 

quipa, Peru; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 58, pp. 224-225, 1920. 
Conepatus chorensis Thomas, supra cit., (7), 9, p. 126, 1902 Choro, paramos 

northwest of Cochabamba, Bolivia. 
Conepatus porcinus Thomas, supra cit., (7), 9, p. 128, 1902 Cochabamba, 

Conepatus huntii Thomas, supra cit., (7), 12, p. 461, 1903 Caylloma, "on the 

Sumbay road," Arequipa, Peru. 

A large heavily pelaged, glossy black skunk, with very broad variable white 
areas on the back. The white may form two broad stripes joined only in front 
on the head or may extend as a broad area across the neck and shoulders diverging 
into diminishing stripes posteriorly and frequently enclosing one or more black 
spots or short stripes on the neck. Usually the white extends only to the middle 
of the back, but occasionally it continues as weak stripes to the base of the tail. 
Tail black at base but with numerous thinly scattered white hairs on terminal 
half. Total length 638 (580-720); tail vertebrae 219 (195-265); hind foot with 
claws 75 (73-82). 

Range. Elevated and semi-arid regions of northern Chile, 
southern Peru, and adjacent parts of Bolivia and Argentina. 

That the highland Andean skunk enters Chile is attested by two 
skins without skulls purchased at Arica, Province of Tacna, by Mr. 
Sanborn. They were said to be from the highlands of Tacna in a 
region of about the same latitude as the type locality of C. rex and 
less than one hundred miles west. These skins, together with a very 
fine series recently obtained by Field Museum from southern Peru, 
furnish fairly conclusive evidence that various names proposed for 
skunks from Peru and Bolivia should be assigned to C. rex. There 
is no geographic reason for finding more than one skunk in the region 
and present evidence fails to demonstrate that there is more than 
one. Variation in series from several localities covers all the sup- 
posed distinctions. Thomas himself (I.e. 1920) has discredited 
chorensis and porcinus, placing them as probable synonyms of 
arequipae. A topotype of arequipae and several others from nearby 
localities are indistinguishable from rex. To these there may now 
be added hunti, of which three topotypes are in hand showing three 
different types of markings. One of the Tacna specimens and 
various others duplicate the character supposed to define hunti, that 


is, the complete enclosure of a short black stripe on the shoulders 
between the broad white stripes. C. ajax of Jujuy, Argentina, also 
belongs in this series and may be recognizable on the basis of average 
characters, but its description offers nothing by which to distin- 
guish it. A few other names, which it is not practical to consider, 
may apply to the same group. 

Specimens examined. Total 17: CHILE: Province of Tacna, 
2 (skins only). PERU: Cailloma, Arequipa, 3; Hacienda Collacachi, 
Puno, 8; Huacallani, Puno, 1; Salinas, Arequipa, 2; Sumbay, Are- 
quipa, 1. 

Leptonychotes weddelli Lesson. 

Otaria weddellii Lesson, Ferussac's Bull. Sci. Nat., Geol., 7, pp. 437-438, 
1826 South Orkney Islands, southeast of Cape Horn; based on "le 
leopard de mer" of Weddell. 

Leptonychotes weddellii Allen, N. Amer. Pinnipeds, p. 467, 1880. 

A large phocid seal without external ears and with hind limbs incapable of 
being turned forward. Coloration spotted and marbled yellowish white and 
bluish gray. Total length about eight feet (= 2,300 mm.). 

According to Albert (1902) a specimen of this mainly Antarctic 
seal was taken at Juan Fernandez Island in 1865 and Reiche (1905), 
in his extensive general account of the island of Mocha, states that 
the species is occasionally reported there. These records are not 
substantiated by any others and it must be concluded that at best 
the occurrence of the species in these waters is rare or exceptional. 

Hydrurga leptonyx Blainville. 

Phoca leptonyx Blainville, Journ. Phys., 91, pp. 287, 288, 1820 Falkland 

The leopard seal is given by Gay (1847, p. 79) as a Chilean species 
but no actual records of its occurrence are mentioned. 

Although frequently reported from the Falkland Islands, it does 
not reach the continental coast and otherwise is confined to the 
Antarctic. A specimen is said to have been brought from the vicinity 
of Cape Horn by the French Antarctic Expedition of 1837-40. 

Mirounga leonina Linnaeus. ELEPHANT SEAL. 

Phoca leonina Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. 37, 1758 based on the "Sea 

Lyon" of Anson from Juan Fernandez Island. 
Phoca elephantina Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, pp. 280-282, 341, 1782 new 

name for Phoca leonina Linnaeus 1758, regarded as inappropriate. 


Phoca ansoni Desmarest, Mamm., 1, pp. 239-240, pi. 109, fig. 2, 1820 Juan 

Fernandez Island. 

Macrorhinus leoninus Allen, N. Amer. Pinnipeds, p. 466, 1880. 
Mirounga leonina Allen, Mamm. Patagonia, p. 95, 1905. 

Largest of the earless or phocid seals, adult males reaching a length of nearly 
twenty feet (six meters ). Snout with a short inflatable proboscis. Color plain. 

The elephant seal, once common about the Juan Fernandez 
Islands and southward to the Cape Horn Islands and the Falklands 
seems wholly extirpated on the Chilean coast. After verging on 
extinction, the species is now somewhat rehabilitated on the island 
of South Georgia (see Matthews, 1929, and Kellogg, 1942) and 
stragglers are reported northward on the Argentine coast, but no 
recent reports have been received of occurrences in Chilean waters. 

Otaria flavescens Shaw. 1 SOUTHERN SEA LION; LOBO DEL MAR. 

Lion marins Pernetty, Voy. lies Malouines, 2, p. 447, pi. 8, 1769 Falkland 

Phoca jubata Schreber, Saugeth., 3, p. 300, pi. 73 (ex Pernetty), 1776 in 
part only; based on mixed references to both southern and northern forms; 
later restricted to the northern sea lion. 

Phoca jubata of Erxleben 1777 and many authors. 

Phoca leonina Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, p. 282, 1782 coast of Chile; 
preoccupied by Phoca leonina Linnaeus 1758 (=Mirounga leonina). 

Phoca scont Boddaert, Elenchus Anim., 1, p. 172, 1784 in part only; based 
on references to Erxleben, Buffon, Pennant and Pernetty, all except the 
last having a mixed basis; hence essentially a renaming of P. jubata and 
here restricted to the northern sea lion as a synonym of jubata. 

Eared Seal Pennant, Hist. Quad., 2, p. 278, No. 481, 1793 Straits of Magel- 
lan; based on a specimen in the Leverian Museum, apparently the one 
figured with a condor by Shaw in 1792 (Mus. Leverianum, pi. opp. p. 4). 

Phoca flavescens Shaw, Gen. Zool., 1, pt. 2, pp. 260-261, 1800 based on 

Phoca aurita Bechstein, Allgem. Uebers. Vierf. Thiere, 2, p. 590, 1800 based 
on Pennant. 

Otaria leonina Peron, Voy. Terr. Austr., 2, pp. 40, 55, 1816 Falkland Islands; 
antedated by Phoca leonina Molina 1782, which is preoccupied by Phoca 
leonina Linnaeus 1758 (=Mirounga). First definite recognition of the 
distinction of the northern and southern sea lions, the name leonina being 
applied to the southern one and jubata assigned to the northern. 

P[hoca\ byronia Blainville, Journ. Phys., 91, p. 287, pp. 300 (named), 419, 
1820 based on a skull now in the British Museum erroneously stated to 

1 Besides those mentioned below, other names proposed for this species are: 
Otaria godeffroyi Peters, Otaria guerin Quoy and Gaimard, Otaria minor Gray, 
Otaria molossina Lesson and Garnot, Otaria pernettyi Lesson, Otaria pygmaea 
Gray, Otaria ulloae Tschudi, and Platyrhynchus uraniae Lesson. 


be from the island of Tinian, one of the Ladrones where the species does 

not occur. 

Otaria chilensis Miiller, Arch. Naturg., 7, (1), pp. 333-334, 1841 Chile. 
Otariajubata Allen, N. Amer. Pinnipeds, p. 208, 1880. 
Otaria velutina Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, (1), Zool., pp. 14-17, 1892 

coast of Province of Atacama, Chile. 
Otaria fulva Philippi, supra cit., pp. 17-22, pis. 2-5, 1892 Algarrobo, Province 

of Valparaiso, Chile. 
Otaria rufa Philippi, supra cit., pp. 28-29, pi. 13, 1892 no locality; probably 

from Chile. 

Otaria chonotica Philippi, supra cit., p. 49, 1892 Chonos Archipelago, Chile. 
Otaria byronia Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 16, p. 114, 1902; Mamm. 

Patagonia, p. 113, pis. 20-21, 1905 adopted for the southern sea lion 

on the basis of the restriction of jubato to the northern one by Peron in 

Otaria flavescens Cabrera, Notas Mus. La Plata, 5, Zool., No. 29, pp. 17-22, 

1940 chosen in preference to aurita Bechstein because better known in 

literature; 1 Cabrera and Yepes, Mam. Sud. Amer. Hist. Nat. Ediar, pp. 

177-180, pi. 33, 1940. 

A large marine mammal with small external ears and coarse pelage without 
under fur. Skull large and heavy with a broad deeply excavated palate extending 
far back nearly to pterygoid bones. 

Range. Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America from the 
Galapagos Islands southward along the entire Chilean coast to 
Tierra del Fuego and the Falkland Islands; thence northward in 
widely scattered colonies to the coast of Uruguay. 

The southern sea lion has maintained itself better than the other 
pinnipeds of the Chilean coast and in fact appears to be the only one 
now remaining there. Its colonies, however, are small and widely 
scattered. During Field Museum's expedition in 1939-40, occasional 
animals were seen swimming in the channels between Puerto Montt 
and Punta Arenas not more than a dozen altogether. A small 
colony of less than one hundred was observed at Cape Penas on the 
north shore of Tierra del Fuego and reports were received of a some- 
what larger one on the Brunswick Peninsula on the north side of 
the Straits of Magellan. 

1 Dr. Remington Kellogg has called my attention to Phoca flavescens Retzius 
(Faunae Suecicae, Pars prima sistens Mammalia, etc., Lipsiae, p. 9, 1800), apply- 
ing, at least in part, to the gray seal (Halichoerus), a name which has rarely been 
quoted. Since it is of even date with flavescens of Shaw and aurita of Bechstein, 
it is subject to action by a first reviser. It was not considered by Cabrera, who 
made his choice only between flavescens of Shaw and aurita of Bechstein. Although 
it is doubtful if further action is necessary it may now be stated that flavescens of 
Shaw is preferred to flavescens of Retzius for the same reasons that caused it to 
be adopted by Cabrera. Therefore, unless or until one of the three names can be 
shown to have actual priority, flavescens of Shaw may be used and the other two 
have a status essentially the same as they would have if antedated. 


Apparently the largest colonies now remaining are those of the 
Falkland Islands, where killing has been regulated under a license 
system. According to Hamilton (Discovery Reports, 7, pp. 313-314, 
1934) a take of 4,563 was reported in 1930. The same author states 
that "the sea-lion herd in the Falklands is very large; it is not out- 
side the bounds of possibility that it may exceed 100,000 head." 
Considerable numbers also remain on islands off the coast of Peru 
and the Galapagos Islands. Recent reports from Juan Fernandez 
and other islands off the coast of Chile are lacking. 

Kellogg (1942, pp. 454^455), reviewing the former abundance 
of this animal, quotes Balch to the effect "that at least 52,000 sea 
lion skins were taken in 1821-22 by the shore crews of the American 
brigs Alabama and Frederick on the islands of Mocha and St. Mary's 
off the coast of Chile." 

Cabrera's contention that flavescens of Shaw is the proper name 
for this species seems well founded. Although this name was dis- 
carded by Allen as "not determinable," he was obliged to admit 
that it "probably =0. jubata" (North American Pinnipeds, p. 194, 
1880), and "from its size, color, and habitat it is presumably refera- 
ble to Otaria jubata." (p. 215.) Later (Mammals of Southern Pata- 
gonia, pp. 111-112, 1905), while insisting that it is "indeterminable 
from the description," he found it necessary to add: "But the local- 
ity, if correctly indicated, leads to the inference that it was more 
likely a sea lion than a fur seal; and this being the case, it may be 
hypothetically referred to the genus Otaria, to which it has been 
provisionally assigned by the majority of writers for the last fifty 

As shown by Cabrera, it was not even indeterminable from the 
description, for the color is quite sufficient to indicate to which of 
the two eared seals of the Straits of Magellan it applies. It was 
based on a preserved specimen and, although the description is lack- 
ing in details, it contains no contradictory matter. 1 

Arctocephalus australis Zimmermann. SOUTHERN FUR SEAL; 

Falkland Isle Seal Pennant, Hist. Quad., 2, p. 521, 1781. 
Phoca australis Zimmermann, Geog. Gesch., 3, p. 276, 1782 based on 

1 What constitutes an indeterminable description is left by codes of nomen- 
clature to individual opinion. Purely as a "reviser," Allen had no power to reject 
a name of this kind and the opinions of subsequent authors are entitled to full 


(t)Phoca lupina Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, pp. 275-279, 341, 1782 coast 

and islands of Chile; Juan Fernandez Island here selected. 
(l)Phoca porcina Molina, supra cit., p. 279, 1782 based on a young animal 

not positively identifiable. 
(l)Otaria (Arctophoca) philippii Peters, Monatsber. Akad. Wiss., Berlin, p. 276, 

pi. 2, A.B.C., 1865 Juan Fernandez Island, Chile. 
(1) Arctocephalus philippii Peters, supra cit., pp. 393-399, 1875; pp. 505-507, 

1877; Allen, Mamm. Patagonia, p. 131, pi. 16, fig. 1, pi. 17, fig. 1, 1905. 
(?)Otaria (Arctophoca) argentata Philippi in Peters, Monatsber. Akad. Wiss., 

Berlin, p. 560, pis. 1-2, 1871 Juan Fernandez Island, Chile. 
(l)Otaria philippii Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, 1, Zool., pp. 6, 33, pis. 

14-19, 1892. 
(l)Otaria brachydactyla Philippi, supra cit., pp. 6, 43, pis. 13, 22, 1892 Chonos* 

Archipelago, Chile. 
(l)Otaria leucostoma Philippi, supra cit., pp. 6, 46, pi. 23, 1892 Mas Afuera 

Island, Chile. 
Arctocephalus australis Allen, N. Amer. Pinnipeds, pp. 193, 210, 1880; Mamm. 

Patagonia, pp. 124-130, pi. 15, fig. 2, pi. 16, fig. 2, pi. 17, fig. 2, 1905. 
Phoca falklandica, Otaria aurita, 0. hauvillii, O. shawii, Arctocephalus nigres- 

cens, A. grayii, A. gracilis, and Euotaria latirostris of various authors. 

A large marine mammal with small external ears and short thick pelage com- 
posed of relatively stiff outer hairs and soft dense under fur. Skull with a short 
flat palate ending about halfway between last molars and pterygoid processes; 
zygomata broad and heavy. 

Range. Formerly the coasts of Tierra del Fuego, the Straits of 
Magellan and northward for an unknown distance on the coast of 
Chile; probably at least to the Juan Fernandez Islands; also the 
Falkland Islands and the east coast of Argentina north to Uruguay; 
now extirpated except on islands of Uruguay, where a small herd 
is maintained under protection. 

The southern fur seal which once lived in hordes from the Falk- 
land Islands northward along both coasts of South America now 
appears to be gone from all Chilean waters. The paleontologist, 
Dr. Barnum Brown, reported (see Allen, I.e., 1905, p. 130) seeing 
considerable numbers off the south coast of Tierra del Fuego in 1899. 
Near Cape Hall, a herd estimated to contain 1,500 animals was seen 
and several hundred others were observed south of Lennox Island. 
The last reported catch of commercial sealers was of 936 skins taken 
near Cape Horn and carried to Nova Scotia in 1906 by the Canadian 
schooner Edith B. Balcom (Kellogg, 1942, p. 460). The following 
extract from Kellogg's review of southern sealing gives some indi- 
cation of the former abundance of the animal. 

"From then [1793] on to 1807, the business of killing fur seals 
along the Chilean coast was prosecuted with unremitting vigor, and 


at times shore crews from as many as 12 to 15 vessels had camps at 
Mas Afuera Island. Gangs of men put ashore in 1798 on Mas Afuera 
by three American vessels killed some 60,000 fur seals. By 1801, the 
sealing fleet on the coast of Chile numbered upwards of 30 vessels. 
A few of these ships carried 60,000 and one at least 100,000 fur seal 
skins to the market at Canton, China, where they were exchanged 
for merchandise to be sold in the United States. 

"The rookeries on these islands had been so thoroughly ransacked 
in a period of 15 years that sealers could no longer expect to make a 
profit by going there, and by 1824 fur seals were practically extermi- 
nated on both Juan Fernandez and Mas Afuera. Estimates of the 
number of fur seals killed on Mas Afuera and Juan Fernandez islands 
during this period range from a million to more than three million. 
Although the virtual destruction of this portion of the southern fur 
seal herd was accomplished at the beginning of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, a few persisted for many years on inaccessible rocky ledges. 
As late as 1898, fifty fur seal pelts taken on Juan Fernandez were 
sold in London." 

Material is not available to determine whether or not the fur 
seal of Juan Fernandez is separable from that of the Falklands. 
Various names have been applied to the northern one and numerous 
skulls figured, mostly those of immature animals, but that any of 
these skulls were "matched" with skins is uncertain. Allen in his 
extensive account (Mammals of Patagonia, pp. 120-143, 1905) has 
recognized a supposed northern species under the name Arctocephalus 
philippii, basing his conclusions on a series of skulls from the Gala- 
pagos Islands in the American Museum of Natural History which 
he found to be very similar to the figures of philippii published by 
Peters and Philippi. The Galapagos skulls, however, as I am 
informed (in litt.) by Dr. Remington Kellogg and Mr. Gerrit S. 
Miller, Jr., who have examined Allen's specimens, are referable not 
to Arctocephalus but to Zalophus. They agree with skulls in Field 
Museum collected by myself on the Galapagos in 1940, at which 
time many of the same species were observed although no entire 
specimens were preserved. The conclusion that Zalophus occurs in 
Chilean waters as well as those of the Galapagos is perhaps not 
justified without examination of specimens, but it is evident that 
Allen's recognition of philippii is not to be relied upon, and when 
conditions are favorable the whole subject should be reinvestigated. 

If the fur seal of Juan Fernandez is distinguishable, as is not 
unlikely, it is probable that Molina's name lupina will need serious 


consideration. Molina gave four names to seals and accompanied 
them with lengthy descriptions. One of them, porcina, must be 
regarded as unidentifiable since its description indicates a young 
animal which may have been either a fur seal or a sea lion. The 
other three, however, apply very satisfactorily to the three common 
seals of the Chilean coast, the sea lion, which he called leonina, the 
elephant seal, which he called elephantina, and the fur seal, which he 
named lupina. The descriptions in all cases include certain inac- 
curacies, but the three species are well distinguished by general 
characters, and there is no serious room for doubt as to the applica- 
tion of the names. In the case of lupina, the one wholly diagnostic 
character is clearly given in the statement (translation): "It is 
covered with two kinds of hair, one stiff, and the other soft." Else- 
where it is stated that "they are common upon all the coast of Chile 
and in the islands, where every year the inhabitants kill a vast 
number of them with clubs." 

Besides these statements, which very definitely indicate the fur 
seal, there are some others, as in most of Molina's descriptions, which 
do not apply to it, or, in fact, to any other seal. Thus it is declared 
that "each of these [fore] feet has four toes, which distinguishes this 
from the other species of phoca." A few statements indicate possible 
confusion with some other seal but may quite as well be interpreted 
as inaccuracies in detail, which are always to be expected from 
Molina. One of these which has been seized upon by some authors 
as suggesting a phocid rather than an otary is as follows: "The 
head is large and round and resembles that of a dog with the ears 
cut, and instead of the latter it has two margined holes (buchi 
marginati) which serve for the same purpose." This might be more 
serious if phocid seals were common on the Chilean coast, but with 
the exception of the elephant seal, they were rare even in Molina's 

As a whole, Molina's description of lupina is preponderantly 
applicable to the fur seal, and it is quite sufficiently contrasted with 
the other common species of the region. Few, if any, of Molina's 
other names which have been accepted have better claims for 

Allen, in 1880 (N. Amer. Pinnipeds, p. 430), has a passing refer- 
ence to the name lupina and a parenthetical statement that it applies 
to "a Fur Seal, or at least an Otary." Later, however, in a very 
extensive account (1905, pp. 120-143) he is quite inexplicably silent 
in regard to it. Molina's other names are allocated in his very full 


synonymies, but there is no mention whatever of lupina. More 
recently, Cabrera (1940, p. 19) has referred to it with the observation 
"solo puede aplicarse a un Arctocephalus o lobo de dos pelos." 

Size large, total length more than 600 mm. 

Ears small and rounded; tail round, scaly, and nearly naked. Myocastor (coypu). 
Ears elongate; tail crested and densely hairy. .Lagidium (mountain viscachas). 
Size medium or small, total length less than 450 mm. 

No external tail Cavia (cavy). 

Tail well-developed. 

Hind feet with only three developed toes, the fourth rudimentary; tail 

crested; ears large and leafy Chinchilla. 

Hind feet with at least four well-developed toes. 

Soles of hind feet finely granulated without well-distinguished, smooth- 
surfaced pads. 
Front feet without vestige of a fifth toe; adult males with a naked pad 

on the breast ; Abrocoma. 

Front feet with a small fifth toe with a nail instead of a claw; no pad 

on breast Octodon. 

Soles of hind feet naked or partially hairy, with well-distinguished smooth- 
surfaced pads. 
Grinding teeth rootless, four in each row. 

Grinding teeth crescentic, without indentation on the inner side. 

Grinding teeth quadrate with a single deep indentation on both inner 

and outer sides. 
Color mainly brownish; indentations of grinding teeth meeting in 

the middle Aconaemys. 

Color mainly blackish; indentations of grinding teeth separated in 

the middle by a slight space Spalacopus. 

Grinding teeth rooted, three in each row. 

Upper front teeth distinctly grooved on front surface. 

First and fifth hind toes unequal, at least one of them reaching 
beyond base of middle toes. 

Tail much longer than head and body Irenomys. 

Tail shorter than head and body Euneomys. 

First and fifth hind toes short, about equal, not reaching to base of 

middle toes Reithrodon. 

Upper front teeth with front surfaces smooth, ungrooved. 

Soles of hind feet hairy in spaces between pads Eligmodontia. 

Soles of hind feet naked in spaces between pads. 
Ears large, more than 20 mm. in length. 

Tail about equal to or longer than head and body. . .Phyllotis. 

Tail shorter than head and body Phyllotis (Auliscomys) . 

Ears medium or small, less than 20 mm. in length. 

Tail decidedly longer than head and body Oryzomys. 

Tail about equal to or shorter than head and body. 


Front claws elongate, nearly or quite equaling free part of 

digits Notiomys. 

Claws moderate, much shorter than free part of digits. 
Last upper grinding tooth more than half as large as pre- 
ceding tooth and with a deep indentation on its inner 

side Phyllotis (micropus) . 

Last upper grinding tooth nearly round, less than half as 
large as preceding tooth and without deep indentation 
on its inner side . . . . Akodon. 

Abrocoma bennetti bennetti Waterhouse. 


Abrocoma bennetti Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 31, 1837; Zool. Voy. 
Beagle, Mamm., pp. 85-86, pi. 28, 1839 near old village of Aconcagua, 
Province of Aconcagua, Chile. 

FIG. 11. Abrocoma bennetti bennetti. F.M. No. 23148. X 1. 

Abrocoma cuvieri Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 32, 1837 Valpa- 
raiso; Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 19, p. 553, 1927 "Unquestion- 
ably the young of A. bennettii." 

Habrocoma helvina Wagner, Arch. Naturg., 8, Cl), pp. 7-8, 1842; Suppl. 
Schreber's Saugeth., 3, p. 314, 1843 Chile. 

Abrocoma laniger Prell, Zool. Gart., Leipzig, 7, p. 208, 1934. 

A brownish gray rat with tail slightly shorter than head and body; front feet 
with only four toes; soles of feet granulated; under parts mainly brownish rather 
than whitish gray. Length 350-398; tail 145-166; hind foot 36-39. 

Range. Coastal hills of central Chile and inland along the 
eastern base of the Andes, between lat. 32 and 34. 

Even a small series of this animal shows considerable variation 
in size and cranial characters, and it is evident that as in some other 
octodonts, there are growth changes in progress for a long period. 


Two large examples have the following measurements: total length 
398, 393; tail 166, 161; hind foot 39, 37. The specimen from Banos 
de Cauquenes has rather small ears and audital bullae, but the 
departure is very slight. 

Darwin says of the original specimens: "This animal was caught 
amongst some thickets in a valley on the flanks of the Cordillera, 
near Aconcagua. On the elevated plain, near the town of Santa 
Rosa, in front of the same part of the Andes, I saw two others." 
The old village has now disappeared and is represented only by a 
"fundo" called Plaza Vieja. This is some five kilometers west of the 
present town of Los Andes. 

The species appears to be at least partly arboreal in habits. 
Darwin mentions its facility in climbing trees, and E. C. Reed (1877) 
calls it the "Raton de los arboles." 

Specimens examined. Total 8: Banos de Cauquenes, O'Higgins, 
1; Limache, Valparaiso, 1; Olmue, Valparaiso, 5; Papudo, Aconca- 
gua, 1. 

Abrocoma bennetti murrayi Wolffsohn. 

Abrocoma Murrayi Wolffsohn, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 20, pp. 6-7, 1916; Act. 
Soc. Sci. Chili, 23, p. 78, 1916 mountains near Vallenar, Province of 

Similar to A. b. bennetti, but averaging paler and more deeply pelaged. Total 
length 382 (370-405); tail 167 (156-178); hind foot 36 (35-38). 

Range. North-central provinces of Chile west of the Andes and 
up to an altitude of about 4,000 feet. 

Although individual specimens of bennetti and murrayi may seem 
quite distinct, the series of both now available points to gradation 
between them. In murrayi the color is paler and more grayish, and 
the pelage is softer and somewhat lengthened. The ears probably 
average larger, but this is difficult to demonstrate from dry skins. 
The skull of murrayi averages smaller and more arched, while the 
audital bullae are decidedly larger, although even in this there may be 
specimens closely approaching each other. The rostrum is more slen- 
der, and the teeth, including the incisors, are weaker. 

Two specimens from the vicinity of Vallenar and presumably 
typical are practically the same in color as the large series from 
farther south in the Province of Coquimbo. Two others from Pai- 
guano, also in Coquimbo but at a higher altitude (3,300 ft.), are 
considerably paler. The series from Romero thus stands in an 
intermediate position between these pale specimens and typical 


bennetti. Two fragmentary skulls from the stomach of an owl, 
taken at Ramadilla (west of Copiapo) furnish evidence of the north- 
ward extension of the form. 

The skins of these rats are taken in considerable numbers by 
natives who obtain a very small price for them in local fur markets 
where they are known as chinchilla rats or false chinchillas. 

Specimens examined. Total 20: Domeyko, south of Vallenar, 
Atacama, 2; Ramadilla, Atacama, 2 (skull fragments); Paiguano, 
Coquimbo, 2; Romero, Coquimbo, 12; near Vallenar, Atacama, 2. 

Octodon degus Molina. DEGU. 

sciurus degus Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 303-304, 342, 1782 Santi- 
ago, Chile (St. Jago of Molina). 

Myoxus getulus Poeppig, Froriep's Notizen, Geb. Nat. Heilk., 23, No. 18, 
p. 278, footnote, 1829 Santiago, Chile. 

Octodon cumingii Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pp. 47-48, 1832 near Val- 
paraiso, Chile; Bridges, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 130, 1843 (habits); Gay, 
Hist. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 99, 1847. 

Dendrobius degus Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Leop.-Carol., 16, pt. 2, p. 601, 

Dendroleius degus Meyen, supra cit., pi. 44 and p. 610b (errata). 

Octodon degus Waterhouse, Nat. Hist. Mamm., 2, p. 253, pi. 11, fig. 2 (col.), 

Octodon pallidus Wagner, Arch. Naturg., 11, (2), p. 33, 1845 probably based 
on albinotic specimens. 

Octodon cummingii var. peruana Tschudi, Fauna Peruana, 1, Mamm., pp. 
172-173, pi. 12, 1845-46 Quebrada de San Mateo, near San Juan de 
Matucana, Peru; probably based on an escaped pet (Thomas, 1927a). 

Octodon degus var. alba Fitzinger, Sitzungsber. K. Akad. Wiss., Wien, 56, 
p. 131, 1867 nomen nudum. 

Octodon degus clivorum Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 19, p. 556, 1927 
Puente Alto, south of Santiago, Chile. 

A diurnal rodent with short leafy ears, a tufted black-tipped tail, and feet 
with finely granulated soles; breast without a naked pad; forefeet with four well- 
developed toes and a rudimentary fifth bearing a nail instead of a claw. Total 
length 295 (284-310); tail 117 (106-130); hind foot 36 (35-38). 

Range. Central Chile mainly in the coastal region from Vallenar 
to Curico; inland to Santiago and neighboring mountains to an 
altitude of about 4,000 feet. 

The degu has a considerable range from the southern part of the 
Province of Atacama to the vicinity of Curico. Bridges (Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., p. 130, 1843) says: "I have seen it as far north as lat. 
28, and in south 35, and it may probably extend further." San- 




born collected a series at Vallenar and in the vicinity of Coquimbo, 
while Wolffsohn has taken it at numerous localities between Val- 
paraiso and Santiago. Other records are very few. It was not seen 
in the Province of Maule nor at Concepcion, so it evidently does 
not reach southern Chile. There are records from slightly east and 
south of Santiago, and E. C. Reed (1877, pp. 537-541) states that 
it is common "baja de la hacienda" near Banos de Cauquenes in the 
Province of O'Higgins but not extending higher than 100 meters. 
During several days spent at the Banos, in 1923, I did not see it, 
perhaps because I was mainly above its range. 

FIG. 12. Octodon degus. F.M. No. 35904. X 9/10 . 

Examination of a large series of specimens fails to disclose 
any marked geographic variation in the species. Even seasonal 
differences in color are slight and the coloration of the young approxi- 
mates that of the adults. Slight white spots in the axillary region 
are occasionally found, but the under parts are usually uniform 
whereas in bridgesi and lunatus white axillary and inguinal areas 
are the rule. In very old examples the size is often larger than that 
of average maturity. 

The name clivorum was proposed by Thomas in the belief that 
a highland and a lowland form could be distinguished. This, how- 
ever, is not borne out by the geography or by the specimens in 
Field Museum and the British Museum, which have been re-exam- 
ined in this connection. Puente Alto, the type locality of clivorum, 
is but a short distance from Santiago and but little higher, so there 
can be little doubt that clivorum is a synonym of degus. In case any 
such separation should prove possible, it would involve the recogni- 
tion of cumingi, which is from the coast at Valparaiso, rather than 
clivorum, from practically the same region as degus. In fact, it is 


probable that Thomas, in proposing clivorum, intended to assign 
degus to Valparaiso, overlooking the unusual action of Molina in 
giving an exact locality for one of his species. 

Specimens examined. Total 46 : Buen Retire, Calera, Valparaiso, 
2; Limache, Valparaiso, 6; Longotoma, Aconcagua, 2; Maipu, Santi- 
ago, 1; Olmue, Valparaiso, 9; Papudo, Aconcagua, 8; Puente Alto, 
Santiago, 8 (B.M.); Romero, Coquimbo, 3; Santiago, 2; Tambillos, 
Coquimbo, 2; Vallenar, Coquimbo, 3. 

Octodon bridges! Waterhouse. 

Octodon bridgesi Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 155, 1844; p. 7, 1846 
River Teno, near Curico, Province of Curico, Chile; Thomas, Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 19, p. 553, 1927 lectotype designated; Yepes, Rev. 
Chil. Hist. Nat., 34, p. 323, 1930. 

A dark grayish rat with a rounded and slightly pencilled tail which is shorter 
than the head and body; forefeet with a rudimentary fifth toe; hind feet with 
granulated soles; last upper grinding tooth with a deep indentation on the inner 
side. Total length 344; tail 150; hind foot 40 (one specimen). 

Range. Western base of the Chilean Andes in the provinces of 
O'Higgins, Colchagua, and Curico. 

Although discovered many years ago, this animal is still rare 
and poorly represented in museums. It has been reported by Chilean 
writers, but preserved specimens are few. Yepes mentions examples 
from Colchagua in the Santiago Museum. In the British Museum 
are at least the lectotype and one paratype from Rio Teno, Col- 
chagua, and possibly a third specimen mentioned by Waterhouse. 
The one adult in Field Museum was taken by myself at Banos de 
Cauquenes, Province of O'Higgins. 

Octodon lunatus sp. nov. 

Type from Olmue, Province of Valparaiso, Chile. No. 23204 
Field Museum of Natural History. Adolescent female. Collected 
May 30, 1923, by Colin C. Sanborn. Orig. No. 334. 

Diagnosis. External and general characters as in 0. bridgesi; 
last upper molar with its grinding surface crescentic, quite without 
indentation on its inner border. 

Color. Practically as in 0. bridgesi, but perhaps with the general 
tone of the upper parts more brownish; under side of tail variable, 
but often wholly or at least for half its length blackish. 

Skull. Much as in bridgesi; interorbital space apparently a little 
wider; audital bullae slightly larger; anterior cheekteeth with deep 


internal indentations as in bridgesi; last upper molar of simple cres- 
centic shape with its postero-external element directed outward and 
its inner border with scarcely a trace of an indentation, the tooth 
being somewhat longer but essentially as in 0. degus; last lower molar 
also much as in 0. degus, shorter than in 0. bridgesi. 

Measurements. Average of four topotypes: total length 360 
(328-382) ; tail 157 (152-161) ; hind foot 40.7 (40-42). Skull of type 
and a more mature specimen: greatest length 45.8, 46.5; basilar 
length 36.8, 38.3; zygomatic width 24.3, 24.9; interorbital constric- 
tion 8.7, 8.5; nasals 16.8 X 5.7, 17.9 X 5.9; diastema 10.5, 10.8; 
toothrow (crowns) 9.7, 10.4. 

FIG. 13. Maxillary teeth of Ociodon degus (left, F.M. No. 23175), O. lunatus 
(middle, No. 23204, type), and O. bridgesi (right, No. 23213). X 2. 

Remarks. The discovery of this species was somewhat unex- 
pected, since specimens of it are much more numerous than those of 
typical bridgesi, with which, not unnaturally, it has been confused. 
It might be described succinctly by saying that it is like bridgesi in 
all except its last molar, which is nearly like that of degus. That it 
intergrades with bridgesi is doubtful, for the tooth distinction is a 
trenchant one and no specimens have appeared from the region 
between the two ranges although it is in the best known and most 
populous part of Chile. 

Apparently bridgesi is confined to the base of the Andes, east 
of the central valley, while lunatus inhabits the coastal hills on the 
other side of the valley. In each case the known range is limited to 
a very small area. 

A series of eight specimens from Olmue and Papudo, collected 
by Sanborn, represents lunatus in Field Museum. These have been 
compared with but a single example of bridgesi. That this is not ab- 
normal as to its last upper molar is indicated by Waterhouse (Nat. 
Hist. Mamm., 2, p. 261, 1848), who describes this tooth in the origi- 
nal specimens of bridgesi and notes its distinction from that of degus. 


Aconaemys fuscus fuscus Waterhouse. 

Schizodon fuscus Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pp. 91-92, 1841; Nat. 
Hist. Mamm., 2, pp. 265-267, pi. 11, fig. 1, 1848 Valle de las Cuevas, 
near Volcan Peteroa, alt. 6,000 ft., near Chile-Argentine boundary, lat. 
35 15' S. 

Aconaemys fuscus Ameghino, Rev. Arg. Hist. Nat., 1, Ent. 4a, p. 245, 1891; 
Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 19, p. 553, 1927 lectotype desig- 
nated; Wolffsohn, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 31, p. 98, 1927. 

A short-tailed, burrowing, octodont rodent of uniformly dark brown color 
above and below; external ears moderately developed; front claws considerably 
lengthened. Skull with a large infraorbital foramen, a wide flat interorbital space 
and usually an open fronto-parietal fontanelle. Cheekteeth prismatic, presenting 
an 8-shaped pattern with the inner and outer indentations meeting in the middle. 
Total length 232 (217-247); tail 62 (57-73); hind foot 30.8 (30-32). 

FIG. 14. Aconaemys fuscus fuscus. A.M.N.H. No. 91656. XI. 

Range. High slopes of the Andes of south-central Chile (lat. 
35-40) and in the coastal cordillera of Nahuelbuta. 

Aside from the unique type of the doubtful species porteri, this 
rare octodont has heretofore been known only from the original 
series taken a century ago in the Valle de las Cuevas, described by 
Bridges as some six leagues from the volcano of Peteroa and appar- 
ently on the eastern side of the Andes in Argentine territory, at an 
elevation of about 6,000 feet. According to Bridges, it was "very 
common on the eastern side of the Andes, where it completely under- 
mines the face of the country, especially in dry places, making it 
very disagreeable for the rider, as the horses are continually plung- 
ing into the burrows." 

Thomas (1917) notes that "the British Museum contains eleven 
specimens of Aconaemys fuscus, received at different dates from 
Mr. T. Bridges, but whether all were from the Valle de las Cuevas 
where Mr. Bridges discovered the species, there is, unfortunately, 
no evidence to show." 


In 1929 Dr. H. E. Anthony found the species in the Sierra Nahuel- 
buta and collected three subadult specimens now in the American 
Museum of Natural History. Field Museum's expedition in 1939- 
40 also visited the Sierra Nahuelbuta and obtained an excellent 
series of Aconaemys numbering eleven specimens. A further record 
is that of a specimen from "Pinares," Lonquimai, Province of Cautin, 
seen in the collection of D. S. Bullock at El Vergel, Angol. This last, 
like those from Nahuelbuta, was taken in a scattered forest of 
Araucarias. This association is perhaps of some significance, for 
Aconaemys appears to be an ancient type now reduced to a few 
small colonies and obviously on its way out, like the great trees 
under which it makes its burrows. 

It is still abundant in the Sierra Nahuelbuta, but only in the 
higher parts of the range, scarcely descending beyond the lower 
limits of the "pines." In some places the ground was honeycombed 
with its burrows. These in most cases open flush with the ground 
and below are divided into several diverging tunnels. They are 
relatively shallow and although loose earth thrown out was often 
seen it was seldom fresh and probably most of it dated from winter, 
for it is evident the animals are active under the snow at that season. 
One burrow was noted with a large accumulation of scats around it 
apparently deposited in winter. The burrows are frequently con- 
nected by runways either quite open or only covered by roots and 
interlaced vegetation. The workings were always on high, jpell- 
drained ground, on slopes or knolls, and frequently about rock 
ledges or boulders of which there were many scattered through the 
forest. Although mainly nocturnal, the animals are somewhat 
active by day, as several specimens were caught during daylight. 

Among the specimens taken (in early November) are several 
small young but a few days or weeks old, and an old female contain- 
ing two very large foetuses, each about two inches long. 

There is nothing in our series to indicate any distinction from 
typical A. fuscus, but this conclusion is based only on published 
descriptions, since actual comparison of specimens has not been 
possible. The tails, in most cases, are wholly dark brown above and 
below although in several the proximal half of the lower side is 
slightly paler. 

Measurements of the skull of an adult male are as follows: 
greatest length 40.4; basilar length 32.8; zygomatic breadth 23.3; 
nasals 14.8 X 5.4; least interorbital breadth 8.3; height of infra- 
orbital foramen 6.9; diastema 9.6; upper cheekteeth (crowns) 8.5. 


Aconaemys fuscus porteri Thomas. 

Aconaemys porteri Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 19, p. 281, 1917 
received from Osorno, Llanquihue, Chile; exact locality unknown. 

This is said to differ from A. fuscus in having the pelage "more 
woolly" and the tail "completely bicolor, black above and creamy 
whitish below for its whole length." Until its unique type is sup- 
plemented by further specimens, its status must remain uncertain. 
As suggested by Thomas, this type doubtless was not collected at 
Osorno but in some of the mountains east of it. These mountains 
are rapidly becoming more and more accessible and furnish an inter- 
esting and little-known field for work by local naturalists. 

Spalacopus cyanus cyanus Molina. CORURO. 

mus cyanus Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, pp. 300-301, 342, 1782 Chile; 

Province of Valparaiso by present selection. 
Bathyergus maritimus Poeppig, Froriep's Notizen, Geb. Nat. Heilk., 23, 

p. 279, 1829 nomen nudum. 
Spalacopus poeppigii Wagler, Isis, pp. 1219-1220, 1832 foot of the Andes, 

Chile; Waterhouse, Nat. Hist. Mamm., 2, p. 269, pi. 9, fig. 1, 1848. 
Poephagomys ater F. Cuvier, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool., (2), 1, pp. 323-326, pi. 13, 

1834 Coquimbo, Chile. 
Psammomys noctivagus Poeppig, Reise in Chile, Peru, und Amaz., 1, p. 166. 

1835 sand dunes on coast of northern Chile. 
Psammoryctes noctivagus Poeppig, Arch. Naturg., 1, (1), pp. 252-255, 397, 

Spalacopus cyaneus Wolffsohn, Act. Soc. Sci. Chile, 23, p. 64, 1913; Cabrera, 

Trab. Mus. Nat. Cienc. Nat., Madrid, 31, p. 52, 1917. 

A small, thickset, short-tailed, burrowing rodent wholly deep brownish black 
in color; grinding teeth quadrate with a single deep indentation on inner and outer 
sides. Total length 201 (195-204); tail 45.6 (43-48); hind foot 29 (28-30). 

Range. In typical form confined to the coastal region of central 
Chile mainly in the provinces of Valparaiso and Aconcagua. 

This very peculiar rodent, which the Chileans call coruro, is 
known mainly from the coastal region extending northward at least 
to the central part of the Province of Atacama and south ward 'to 
Maule. This statement of range is based more upon reports than 
specimens, for material representing the species is almost entirely 
from one region in the vicinity of Valparaiso. Molina's name cyanus 
may be restricted to the animal of this region. A southern form from 
Maule appears to be distinguishable, but whether or not a northern 
one can be characterized must await the acquisition of specimens. 
A small series of typical cyanus from Papudo is in Field Museum, 


and others from the same vicinity are reported to be in the British 
Museum. At Calera, in the Province of Atacama, Sanborn saw 
numerous deserted burrows attributed to the coruro and, since 
Poeppig also reported it from this region, there can be no doubt 
of its occurrence as far north as lat. 27 S. Three specimens from the 

FIG. 15. Spalacopus cyanus cyanus. F.M. No. 23018. X 1. 

"Cordillera de Santiago" are recorded by Wolffsohn and Porter 

Specimens from localities removed from the coast are not avail- 
able, but Bridges stated (Waterhouse, Nat. Hist. Mamm., 2, p. 271, 
1848) that "it generally selects slopes of hills and mountains, where 
bulbs are found, especially in the interior parts of the country" and 
E. C. Reed (1877, pp. 537-541), in notes from Cauquenes, says: 
"Se enquentra en varias partes de las faldas de la cordillera." 
Wolffsohn (in litt.) states that he has found it up to 3,000 meters. 

Spalacopus cyanus maulinus subsp. nov. 

Type from Quirihue, Province of Maule, Chile. No. 23010 Field 
Museum of Natural History. Adult male. Collected May 2, 1923, 
by Colin C. Sanborn. Orig. No. 279. 


Diagnosis. Size and color about as in S. cyanus; skull narrower 
interorbitally; lambdoid crest with a pronounced, median, forward 
flexure instead of being evenly transverse; bony base of upper incisors 
reaching to level of middle of third cheektooth instead of only to 
second cheektooth; incisors less proodont than in cyanus; cheek- 
teeth decidedly weaker and with narrower surfaces than in cyanus. 

Measurements. Type and two topotypes, measured by the col- 
lector: total length 185, 187, 197; tail 45, 47, 42; hind foot 30, 30, 31. 
Skull of type: 1 greatest length 40.5 (41.2); condylo-basal length 38 
(37.7); zygomatic width 24.2 (25); nasals 14.2 X 4.6 (12.6 X 5); 
least interorbital width 7.9 (9.2); diastema 11.9 (12.3); postpalatilar 
length 14.5 (15); upper toothrow (crowns) 6.3 (8.1), (alveoli) 7.4 
(8.8); width of first cheektooth 1.6 (2.3). 

Remarks. Three specimens from Maule differ so markedly from 
typical cyanus in cranial and dental characters that a separate name 
for them seems imperative. The most pronounced distinction is in 
the narrow, weak cheekteeth, but several cranial peculiarities are 
marked and constant. The description of S. tabanus indicates that 
it differs even more from this form than from cyanus, so it needs 
but scant consideration in this connection even though it was said 
to come from "South" Chile. 

The cheekteeth in Spalacopus appear to be subject to changes 
during growth and wear which cause considerable variation in the 
area of their horizontal surfaces, but these seem insufficient for the 
marked reduction shown in this form. 

Spalacopus cyanus tabanus Thomas. 

Spalacopus tabanus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 15, p. 585, 1925 
"South" Chile. 

This name is based upon a single specimen of unusually large 
size from an unknown locality. That it came from "South" Chile 
appears to have been an assumption without proper foundation, for 
the only southern specimens from a known locality are smaller 
instead of larger than typical cyanus. The published measurements 2 
of the type of tabanus exceed those of any specimen of cyanus exam- 
ined and there is no certainty that it does not represent a different 

1 Measurements in parentheses are those of an adult of cyanus from Papudo, 

2 Some of these are as follows: "Skull: condylo-basal length 42; condylo- 
incisive length 44; zygomatic breadth 27; nasals 14.2; interorbital breadth 8.8; 
upper toothrow series (crowns) 8." 


form. It may be only an exceptionally large example of cyanus 
or it may be from the northern coast where a definable form 
possibly may be found. In this latter case the name tabanus would 
become a synonym of ater or noctivagus. In fact, there is scarcely 
more reason for recognizing tabanus than ater or noctivagus, and its 
appearance as late as 1925, with a type of unknown source, is 

Ctenomys magellanicus magellanicus Bennett. PATAGONIAN 
Tuco Tuco. 

Ctenomys magellanicus Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 190, 1835 Port 
Gregory (or Bahia San Gregorio), near eastern end of north side of Straits 
of Magellan, Chile; Phil. Mag. Journ. Sci., (3), 9, pp. 68-69, 1836; Trans. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 2, p. 84, pi. 17, 1841; Allen, Mamm. Patagonia, p. 34, 
1905; Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (10), 4, p. 43, 1929. 

Ctenomys neglectus Nehring, Zool. Anz., 23, pp. 535-537, fig. 1, 1900 Pata- 

A rather large, light-colored species, with pale grizzled grayish buff upper 
parts and clear Cinnamon Buff under parts. Skull notably angular with many 
sharp ridges and pointed processes. Size as in C. m. fueginus. 

Range. Extreme southern Patagonia east of the mountains, from 
the Straits of Magellan northward to the vicinity of the Santa Cruz 
River on the east and Lake Argentine on the west. Rare or extir- 
pated over most of this area. 

This animal, the first Chilean Ctenomys to be described, is now 
either quite extinct or so near it that its preservation beyond a few 
years is very unlikely. As late as the summer of 1927-28 when 
Budin collected at Punta Arenas and elsewhere within its range it 
had become so scarce that he was unable to find it except at one 
locality considerably north of the Straits at Rio Perro, at the north 
end of Lake Argentine, as recorded by Thomas (I.e.) who notes that 
"the type, nearly a century old, is almost precisely the same colour 
as Sr. Budin's beautiful fresh specimen, and matches it closely in 
every respect." In 1940 Mr. Sanborn and myself made every effort 
to find it at various localities but without success. Everywhere we 
received reports of its former abundance and, in some cases, explicit 
testimony as to its occurrence in small numbers at specific localities 
within five years, but on visiting these places only abandoned bur- 
rows were found. One such place was on the bay of San Gregorio, 
the type locality, where it seems to have persisted until very recently. 
According to report, one of the regions where it was once excessively 
numerous was toward the northern end of the Straits near the bound- 
ary between Chile and Argentina, on the estancia Monte Dinero. 


Practically the whole of southern Patagonia east of the mountains 
is now in private ownership completely fenced and devoted to sheep- 
raising. That the extinction of an animal like Ctenomys is welcomed 
by the sheep owners is natural, not only because of its effect on the 
forage, but because its burrows are a hazard to horsemen. The 
extinction, however, has required no effort on their part, the mere 
presence of the sheep being sufficient to accomplish it. It might be 
supposed that the rodents would retreat into the few areas not fre- 
quented by the sheep, but there is little evidence that this has 
taken place with much success. During the summer season a certain 
number may be trampled to death by the sheep, but the burrows, 
in most cases, seem too deep to fail to give considerable protection. 
In drives of sheep as many as 50,000 closely packed animals 
often passed over long stretches of grassland, and, in such cases, 
according to report, the pugnacious Ctenomys sometimes came out 
of their burrows and actually attempted to attack the sheep. It is 
related as not uncommon to see a sheep with a wriggling Ctenomys 
dangling from its nose, probably to the great discomfort of the sheep 
and doubtless with ultimate fatality for the rodent. No doubt the 
highest mortality comes in winter and early spring when the passing 
hoofs would open up the burrows sufficiently to let in snow water, 
and what this did not accomplish directly would soon be finished by 
alternate freezing and thawing. 

Recorded specimens of the species are very few. They include 
the type and several others in the British Museum, namely, two 
alcoholics from Port Gregory and two skulls from Punta Arenas. 
Five weathered skulls, mostly imperfect and incomplete, from the 
vicinity of Punta Arenas are in the United States National Museum, 
and in the American Museum of Natural History there is one skin 
and skull and one imperfect skull from "30 miles south of the Port 
of Santa Cruz," recorded by Allen in 1905. These and the speci- 
men taken by Budin at Lake Argentine complete the list and it 
seems that additions to it are not very probable. 

The specimens in the United States National Museum and the 
American Museum of Natural History have been lent for examina- 
tion, but they do not furnish a very satisfactory basis for definition 
of the species, except as to general characters. The skin from Santa 
Cruz is very similar in color to specimens from Tierra del Fuego, 
although taken at a different season. The under parts are a shade 
paler and less vinaceous and the upper parts slightly paler, but 
whether or not this is wholly due to season is uncertain. The skulls 


from Punta Arenas and Santa Cruz agree in having narrower, less 
inflated audital bullae than in fueginus, and most of them have the 
interorbital space wider than in any of the considerable series avail- 
able from Tierra del Fuego. None of the skulls from the mainland 
are equal in size to the larger examples of fueginus, but with due 
allowance for age and sex, there is no clear evidence of difference in 
size between magellanicus and fueginus. 

A skull from Santa Cruz (A.M.N.H. No. 17444) and another from 
Punta Arenas (U.S.N.M. No. 23410), both unsexed, yield the follow- 
ing measurements, respectively: basilar length 42.5, 44.3; zygomatic 
width 30.6, 28; diastema 14.5, 14.8; least interorbital width 9.9, 
10.3; greatest width of premaxillaries 11.4, 11.3; maxillary toothrow 
(alveoli) 10.3, 11.4. 

Specimens examined. Total 7. CHILE: Punta Arenas, 5 (one 
nearly complete skull, three very imperfect, one pair of jaws, 
U.S.N.M.). ARGENTINA: 30 miles south of Santa Cruz, 2 (one 
skin and skull, one broken skull, A.M.N.H.). 

Ctenomys magellanicus fueginus Philippi. 

Ctenomys fueginus Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 46, (1), pp. 276-279, pi. 13, figs. 
1-3, 6, 1880 Tierra del Fuego ("ostlichen Insel"). 

Similar in size and color to C. magellanicus of the Patagonian mainland. Skull 
similar to that of magellanicus, but with audital bullae slightly more swollen and 
bulbous, interorbital space wider, and rostral or antemolar part of skull broader. 
Total length 304 (male), 276 (female); tail vertebrae 82, 79; hind foot 41, 37. 

Range. Northern and eastern Tierra del Fuego, now reduced 
to small, scattered, and greatly isolated colonies. 

Although Ctenomys were not found on the north side of the Straits 
in 1940, they were discovered in some numbers at a few localities 
on Tierra del Fuego. Here they have persisted longer than on the 
mainland but their fate is sealed and within a very few years doubt- 
less they will be gone. A small colony of some two dozen burrows 
was found occupying a gravel ridge just back of the beach between 
Cape Penas and Via Monte on the north shore of the island. Another 
group, slightly smaller, was encountered near the road leading from 
Via Monte to Lake Fagnano and about ten miles north of the east 
end of the lake. Signs of considerable numbers were seen also just 
west of San Sebastian on the road leading to Cullen. Otherwise, 
during several hundred miles of travel on Tierra del Fuego no signs 
of Ctenomys were seen. According to the testimony of residents 
of the island their numbers in former years were incalculable. 


A sufficient series of specimens of this form is available to make 
it reasonably certain that it merits at least subspecific distinction 
from the mainland form. The very swollen audital bullae and the 
narrow rostral part of the skull are constant throughout this series 
but are not found in any of the few specimens of true magellanicus 
that have been examined. The skulls available representing magel- 
lanicus are mostly without designation of sex, which must be con- 
sidered in making comparisons, since the series of fueginus shows 
males to be markedly larger than females. Skulls of an adult male 
and female, respectively, yield the following measurements : greatest 
length 56.3, 49.9; occipito-nasal length 52, 47.2; basilar length 46.1, 
41.1; zygomatic width 32, 27.7; interorbital width 11, 9.2; mastoid 
width 29, 27.3; nasals 20.3 X 8, 17.6 X 6.6; diastema 16.6, 14; upper 
toothrow (alveoli) 10.5, 9.7; width of upper incisors 7, 6.2. 

The skull of the original type of fueginus is preserved in fair 
condition in the Chilean national collection. It agrees well with 
Philippi's figures, which are quite good. In the lateral view the 
bullae appear too deep but the top view is natural size and essentially 
as in the specimen. A mounted skin in the museum is labeled C. 
fueginus but it is obviously not a Ctenomys and doubtless had a 
later origin than the type, of which the skin is probably lost. 

No comparisons of the skull were possible, but the following 
measurements were taken: greatest length 49; occipito-nasal length 
46.3; basilar length 40; zygomatic width 27; mastoid width 26; nasals 
18 X 6; diastema 13.5; upper toothrow 10; width of upper incisors 
6.1; width across postorbital processes 11.2; depth of infraorbital 
fossa 9.5; greatest mandibular width 36. 

The vernacular name coruro is universally applied to this 
animal on Tierra del Fuego as well as elsewhere in the vicinity of 
the Straits of Magellan, evidently having been brought there from 
northern and central Chile where it is used for a different animal 
of similar habits, belonging to the genus Spalacopus. In northern 
Patagonia and Argentina generally the name tuco tuco is more 
frequently applied to it. 

Specimens examined. Total 17: Tierra del Fuego: north coast 
near Estancia Via Monte, 11; near east end of Lake Fagnano, 4; no 
exact locality, 2 (mounted in Salesian Museum, Punta Arenas). 

Ctenomys magellanicus osgoodi J. A. Allen. 

Ctenomys robustus Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 19, p. 185, 1903 
Mayer Basin, west of upper Rio Chico, Santa Cruz, Patagonia. 

MAP 4. Distribution of Chilean forms of the genus Ctenomys. 



Ctenomys osgoodi Allen, Mamm. Patagonia, p. 191, postscript, pi. 7, figs. 2- 
26, 3-36, 1905 substitute for C. robustus, preoccupied. 

Ctenomys fodax Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 5, p. 243, 1910 Valle 
del Lago Blanco, Chubut, Argentina. 

Ctenomys talarum fodax Rusconi, Anal. Soc. Arg. Est. Geog., 3, p. 243, 1928. 

Similar in size and general characters to C. magellanicus, but prevailing color 
much darker, brownish ochraceous rather than grayish buff. Skull also similar, 
but with audital bullae narrower, more laterally compressed. 

Range. Valleys along the eastern base of the Andes from west- 
central Santa Cruz, Argentina, northward to west-central Chubut, 
passing locally into Chilean territory. 

This form has heretofore been regarded as a species distinct from 
C. magellanicus, but its obviously close relationship seems best 
indicated by the subspecific status. It differs mainly and rather 
markedly in color, but this, as noted by Allen in his report on the 
original series of 23 specimens, is subject to some variation. A con- 
siderable area, unrepresented by specimens, lies between the south- 
ernmost localities for osgoodi and the northernmost ones for magel- 
lanicus. Whether or not actual intergradation will be found in this 
area is of course uncertain, but probabilities seem to favor it. The 
skulls of osgoodi are characterized by narrow audital bullae which are 
notably different from those of fueginus, but which are approached 
by those in the few available skulls of magellanicus. 

Although stated to be from the "Rio Chico near the Cordilleras," 
it is clear from the "Narrative of the Princeton Expeditions," quoted 
by Allen himself (1905, p. 40), that the type of robustus (= osgoodi) 
was taken in the basin of the Mayer River, which is somewhat 
farther west. Since this river traverses Chilean territory for some 
distance before emptying into a northern arm of Lake San Martin, 
it is altogether probable that the species extends into Chile in this 

Three specimens in Field Museum collected by myself at Rio 
Nirehuao (Casa Richards) in eastern Chile and one from Valle del 
Lago Blanco, Chubut, the last a topotype of C. fodax, are here 
referred to osgoodi. The various slight characters enumerated in 
the description of fodax seem to be of a kind that may be found in 
any local colony of the animals, but which have no stability beyond 
the limits of effective close breeding. Such characters have been 
noted frequently in the North American Thomomys and at least in 
some cases have been referred to as indicating a "differentiate" 
rather than a subspecies in the usual sense. In this case, some of 
the characters are found in the topotype from Valle del Lago Blanco, 


but are not repeated in specimens from Rio Nirehuao, indicating 
that they are very local and probably unstable. 

Specimens examined. Total 4: ARGENTINA: Valle del Lago 
Blanco, Chubut, 1. CHILE: Rio Nirehuao, 3. 

Gtenomys magellanicus dicki subsp. nov. 

Type from Estancia Ponsonby, east end of Riesco Island, Magal- 
lanes, Chile. No. 50734 Field Museum of Natural History. Adult 
male. Collected February 2, 1940, by Colin C. Sanborn. Orig. 
No. 2401. 

Diagnosis. Similar in general to C. m. magellanicus, but differing 
widely in color, being wholly mixed blackish and buffy Smoke Gray 
both above and below. 

Color. Upper parts and sides mixed buffy Smoke Gray and 
black, the mixture about evenly divided anteriorly, the black pre- 
dominating on the lower back; under parts scarcely lighter but with 
slight brownish tone; forehead and sides of nose at base of whiskers 
almost entirely black; cheeks and orbital region slightly grayer than 
elsewhere; fore and hind feet largely blackish or brownish with toes 
lighter; tail mixed black and gray except in apical fourth where there 
is a sharply contrasted narrow white line above and below, ending in 
a short white pencil. 

Skull. Essentially as in C. m. fueginus, but the audital bullae 
slightly smaller and shorter; interorbital space slightly wider as in 

Measurements. Adult male (type) and female respectively: total 
length 290, 275; tail 80, 72; hind foot 40, 37. Skull: greatest length 
53, 47.7; occipito-nasal length 48.5, 46.3; basilar length 44.3, 40.2; 
zygomatic width 29.5, 26.8; interorbital width 10.7, 9.7; mastoid 
width 26.5, 25.4; nasals 19 X 7.3, 17.3 X 6.9; diastema 15.6, 13.5; 
upper toothrow (alveoli) 10.8, 10.2, (crowns) 9.8, 9.5. 

Remarks. This very distinct form is doubtless confined to the 
eastern part of Riesco Island where it is already rare and difficult 
to obtain. Although this part of the island is not forested, it has 
but little open grassland, being largely covered with a heavy growth 
of the "mata negra" or black brush (Chiliotrichum diffusum). 

During a few days' stay in this region we were able to obtain 
only two specimens, an adult male and female, these apparently 
being the only occupants of a small area where about a dozen bur- 
rows were found. The two specimens are essentially alike in color 


with the dark bluish black predominating but everywhere mixed 
with lighter, giving them a uniform speckled appearance. It is, of 
course, possible that these specimens may represent some form of 
melanism, but the island habitat, the regularity of markings, and 
the absence of anything of the sort in the close relatives seems to 
make this unlikely. The channel separating Riesco Island from the 
mainland is deep and permits the passage of vessels of considerable 
size, but at one or two points it is quite narrow, perhaps not more 
than a few hundred feet. 

The new form is named in honor of Mr. John Dick, prominent 
and well-known citizen of Punta Arenas, through whom our brief 
visit to Riesco Island was made possible, and to whom we are 
indebted for much other assistance. 

Ctenomys maulinus maulinus Philippi. 

Ctenomys maulinus Philippi, Zeitsch. gesammt. Naturw., Berlin, Neue Folge, 
6, pp. 442-445, 1872 Laguna de Maule, lat. 36 S., Province of Talca, 

A medium-sized, uniformly colored, light brown (Snuff Brown) tuco tuco; 
tail with a short white pencil at the tip. Skull with a persistent fronto-parietal 
fontanelle, a wide flat interorbital space and scarcely evident postorbital processes; 
audital bullae relatively short and swollen. Total length 275-300; tail 83-90; 
hind foot 38-40. Skull length 49; zygomatic breadth 27.6; cheekteeth 10. 1 

Range. Known only from the type locality. 

Since Philippics description of Ctenomys maulinus, some seventy 
years ago, no specimens certainly representing it had been critically 
examined. Therefore, in November, 1939, Mr. Sanborn made a 
somewhat hurried trip into the Province of Talca for the purpose 
of obtaining topotypical material. At that time snow was still heavy 
on the mountains and travel conditions somewhat difficult, but he 
succeeded in obtaining three specimens, all females, on the upper 
Rio Maule, two from Arroyo del Valle and one from a locality some 
fourteen kilometers above the settlement of Curillanque. 

The species proves to be a very distinct one not greatly inferior 
in size to C. magellanicus osgoodi of northwestern Argentina, but it 
shows many detailed differences making it uncertain whether or not 
it should be regarded as a northern representative of the magellani- 
cus series. Among these differences are its duller color, its broader 
interorbital space, open fronto-parietal fontanelle and the reduction 
or absence of the "petro-tympanic bulb" between the squamosal, 
parietal, and supraoccipital. Although much darker in color, it is 

1 Measurements are of females only, no males being available. 


possible that it may be somewhat related to C. emilianus, which is 
found in the same latitude on the eastern side of the Andes. 

In one of his later papers (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 20, p. 210, 
1927), Thomas adopted the name maulinus, "on the ground of 
locality," for a small tuco tuco of the mendocinus group from Chos 
Malal, Neuquen, Argentina. 1 Chos Malal, however, is well east of 
the cordillera, open to the pampas, whereas Laguna Maule, although 
in about the same latitude, is on the west side in a more or less 
forested region. So far as known, the mendocinus group does not 
extend into Chile at any point, being almost wholly confined to the 
open pampas where it has developed numerous subspecific forms. 
The one from Chos Malal, if recognizable, is thus without a name, 
but it does not seem advisable to supply one until further work has 
been done on the group. 

The type of maulinus has disappeared, but from its published 
measurements it is evident that the specimen was immature. Phil- 
ippi, himself, says: "Ich muss librigens bemerken, dass nach Herrn 
Medina bedeutend grossere Exemplare vorkommen." In his account 
of maulinus, Philippi also reports tuco tucos from the "Termas de 
Chilian" somewhat farther south than Laguna Maule. 

The skull of an adult female furnishes the following measure- 
ments: greatest length 49; basilar length 41.5; zygomatic breadth 
27.6; interorbital breadth 9.9; nasals 17 X 8.2; diastema 13.3; upper 
cheekteeth (crowns) 10. 

Ctenomys maulinus brunneus subsp. nov. 

Type from Rio Colorado, Province of Malleco, Chile. Alt. 3,000 
ft. No. 23215 Field Museum of Natural History. Young adult 
male. Collected February 5, 1924, by Colin C. Sanborn. Orig. 
No. 691. 

Diagnosis. Similar to C. m. maulinus, but much darker, browner, 
and more richly colored. Upper parts Cinnamon Brown to Prout's 
Brown; under parts Cinnamon Rufous to Hazel; feet dull buffy 
white; tail brown above, pale buffy below with a buffy white pencil 
at the tip. Skull with audital bullae narrow and elongate instead of 
short and swollen. 

Measurements. Two males: total length 305, 282; tail 95, 78; 
hind foot 42, 37. Skull of adult male: greatest length 51; zygomatic 

1 The combination Ctenomys mendocinus maulinus is used by Yepes (Rev. 
Cent. Est. Cienc. Nat., 2, No. 4, p. 12, 1938). 


breadth 29.4; width across postorbital processes 12.7; least inter- 
orbital width 10.4; nasals 20 X 7.7; diastema 14; upper cheekteeth 
(crowns) 10.8. 

This form is represented by two adults and two immatures from 
a locality some two hundred miles south of Laguna Maule and on 

FIG. 16. Ctenomys maulinus brunneus. F.M. No. 23214. X 1. 

the same western slope of the Andes. In the intervening region 
tuco tucos have been reported, but no specimens are extant. It is 
decidedly darker in color than typical maulinus and, although it is 
necessary to compare males of one with females of the other, the 
skulls show such pronounced difference in the size and shape of the 
audital bullae that further cranial characters may be expected when 
adult males of both forms are available. 

It is also represented by two specimens in the American Museum 
of Natural History, obtained by H. E. Anthony "west of Lonquimai" 


in the Province of Cautin. Although not directly compared, these 
appear the same as those in Field Museum. 

Ctenomys fulvus Philippi. 

Ctenomys fulvus Philippi, Reise durch die Wiiste Atacama, pp. 157-158, Zool., 
pi. 1, 1860 vicinity of Pingo Pingo, about lat. 24 S., alt. 9,000-11,000 
ft., Atacama Desert, Chile. 

Ctenomys atacamensis Philippi, supra cit., pp. 158-159, Zool., pi. 2, fig. 1, 
1860 Tilpozo, about lat. 23 20' S., Atacama Desert, Chile. 

Ctenomys pallidus Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 13a, pp. 13-15, 
pi. 4, fig. 1 (col.), pi. 5, figs. 3a, 36, 3c (skull figured under name brasilien- 
sis), 1896 Breas, southwest of Antofagasta de la Sierra, about lat. 26 
3' S. and long. 67 56' W., alt. 9,000-10,000 ft., Chile. 

Ctenomys pernix Philippi, supra cit., pp. 15-16, pi. 5, fig. 5 (skull), pi. 6, fig. 2 
(col.), 1896 Aguas Calientes, near Socaire, east of Salar de Atacama, 
about lat. 23 S., long. 68 16' W., Chile. 

Ctenomys chilensis Philippi, supra cit., pp. 16-17, pi. 6, fig. 1, 1896 said to 
be from Cordillera of Linares, but probably from Atacama Desert, Chile. 

Similar to C. robustiis, but smaller, shorter-tailed and somewhat darker 
colored especially on the head and upper side of tail. Total length 282-335; 
tail 84-96; hind foot 42-46. 

Range. High altitudes in the eastern part of the Province of 
Antofagasta near the Bolivian and Argentine boundaries. 

Eight fine specimens taken by Sanborn near San Pedro de Ata- 
cama appear to represent this species. They are the only modern 
specimens from the Atacama region and have not been compared 
directly with Philippi's types, but they agree in all general respects 
with his descriptions and figures and the locality is in the region 
from which his material came. 

The species is one of large size, although smaller than robustus, 
and the color is not excessively pale. The upper parts are slightly 
grizzled Clay Color, the sides considerably paler than the back; the 
under parts are uniform, clear Cinnamon Buff; the forehead and a 
narrow line around the mouth are definitely darkened or even 
slightly blackish; the tail is blackish brown above with a light 
pencil; the feet are whitish buff with some darkening medially and 
proximally. Flesh measurements of a good-sized male are: total 
length 335; tail 96; hind foot 46. 

The relationship of fulvus to later described forms from Bolivia 
and Argentina remains to be determined, but such material as is 
at hand seems to indicate fairly close affinity to coludo, famosus, 
and johannis of Catamarca, Rioja, and San Juan, Argentina. All 


of these have relatively small feet, but it is not unlikely that they 
will be found eventually to be no more than subspecies of fulvus. 

The types of fulvus, atacamensis, pallidus, and pernix were found 
in the museum at Santiago in a fairly good state of preservation 
although all are mounted and exposed to light. No material was 
available for comparison and only general notes could be taken, 
the skulls in several cases being inside the skins. So far as all general 
characters are concerned, however, they offer no evidence that all 
are not one and the same species. Since the localities are all in the 
same region, some of them quite close to each other, the only reason- 
able course at this time is to unite them all under one name. 

The following is a transcript of the notes made when the speci- 
mens were examined : 

"Ctenomys fulvus. Type existing and identifiable from posture, 
which agrees with plate. Skull inside and could be removed. Color 
on back much as in plate, sides paler, more whitish. Hind foot 
measures 43. Tail quite hairy as in plate but not expanded at tip, 
this being because it is split. Width of upper incisors 5.5." 

"Ctenomys atacamensis. Type existing and identifiable from 
posture. Skull inside. Color and all general characters as in fulvus. 
Hind foot now 31. Width of upper incisors 4.5. In all probability 
it is only the young of fulvus.' 1 

"Ctenomys pallidus. Type existing and identifiable. Skull 
removed and cleaned. It is the one mistakenly indicated as brasilien- 
sis on Philippi's plate (I.e., 1896, pi. 5, fig. 36-c), which in his text 
(p. 14) he indicates is his pallidus. The color is considerably like 
that in Philippi's figure, though of course the feet are plain buffy 
like the under parts. The color is a little darker than that of fulvus, 
but the general appearance is similar and probably there is close 
relationship. Hind foot 45. The skull is fairly adult but doubtless 
there could be larger examples. Skull measurements : greatest length 
54; basilar length 45.5; occipito-nasal length 53; zygomatic width 
33.5; mastoid width 32; nasals 19 X 8; diastema 15; upper tooth- 
row 11.3; width upper incisors 7.3; width across postorbital processes 
14.5; depth infraorbital fossa 11; greatest mandibular breadth 47.2." 

"Ctenomys pernix. Type existing. Skull removed and cleaned. 
Apparently this is the skull figured by Philippi, but more of it is 
broken away now. The color is much like that of pallidus. It may 
well be only the young of pallidus. Hind foot 34. Toothrow 8, 
nasals 13.5 X 6, zygomatic width 25. Skull is young and lacks 
postorbital processes. Philippi's figure gives entirely erroneous idea 


of the color and size. The color should be about like pallidus, shown 
on preceding plate." 

As to the authenticity of these types there can be scarcely any 
doubt unless possibly it be in the case of pernix. All the others 
coincide so precisely with the figures as far as attitude and details 
of position are concerned that they are unmistakable. My notes on 
the supposed type of pernix are not specific as to agreement with the 
figure and the matter is complicated by Philippi's statement (I.e., 
1896, p. 15) that the specimen figured was lost. If it was not in 
his hands when the description was written, doubtless the one 
examined by me and now labeled pernix formed the basis of the 
description and might be regarded as the type. On the other hand, 
the specimen may have been only temporarily mislaid, or, if mis- 
appropriated, it may have been surreptitiously returned, as I was 
informed has happened in several other cases. Wolff sohn has 
published a note (1921, p. 525) in which he states that the types of 
pallidus and pernix were collected by a Sr. Carlos F. Rahmer who 
expressed the opinion that one was the female and the other the male 
of the same species. This coincides to some extent with information 
which I, myself, received directly from employees of the museum in 
Santiago who entertained me with what they said had long been a 
stock story among themselves to the effect that Philippi had given 
separate names to several Ctenomys, all of which were caught at one 
burrow. So far as published records and present labels go, however, 
different localities are assigned to them, but since these are all in the 
same region the conclusion that all are synonyms of fulvus is not 
likely to be affected. 

Ctenomys chilensis offers a further complication for, although 
it is said to come from the cordillera of Linares in a distant and very 
different region, the unmistakable type specimen is indistinguishable 
by external characters from the others from Atacama. The inference 
is very strong, therefore, that Philippi was wrong in assigning this 
specimen to Linares. This leads to the possibility of a transposition 
in which it might be assumed that the one from Linares, if there was 
one, was the specimen mentioned under pernix as lost, and the one 
called chilensis is really from Atacama as its characters seem to 
indicate. Obviously the specimens were mounted by taxidermists 
before being described and figured, and labels, if there were any, 
were subject to easy transposition. In the case of pernix it may be 
best under the circumstances to disregard the figure and consider 
the name based on the description and the specimens known to be 


in hand when it was written. As for chilensis, it stands or falls with 
its type specimen. That it came from Atacama needs confirmation 
by removal and careful examination of its skull, but until this is 
done it may be regarded, like the others, as a synonym of fulvus. 
The type of chilensis is mounted in a unique position with the head 
greatly elevated. This position is faithfully reproduced in Philippi's 
figure so the identification of the specimen is in no doubt. My notes 
upon it are brief but quite conclusive, as follows: 

"Ctenomys chilensis. Type existing and readily identifiable from 
posture. Skull inside. It is evidently a young animal and slightly 
darker than pallidus and pernix but not nearly so dark as shown in 
Philippi's figure, which is all wrong as to color. It is simply a pale 
buff animal with rather long, soft fur like the northern ones and 
might even be the lost specimen of pernix mentioned by Philippi. 
The under parts are fulvous except a somewhat lighter patch on 
the throat. The feet are whitish buff." 

Specimens examined. Total 15 : Twenty miles east of San Pedro 
de Atacama, at 12,000 feet, 8; Chilean boundary near Silalo, Bolivia, 
at 14,000 feet, 1; Atacama Desert, 6 (Santiago Museum, including 
types of fulvus, atacamensis, pallidus, pernix, and chilensis) . 

Ctenomys robustus Philippi. 

Ctenomys robustus Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 13a, pp. 11-13, 
pi. 4, fig. 2, pi. 5, figs, la-d, 1896 near Pica, Tarapaca, Chile. 

A large, short-tailed and thickset burrowing rodent of uniformly pale buffy 
color. Total length 360; tail 111; hind foot 55. 

Range. Known only from moderate elevations in central 

Four specimens in Field Museum from Canchones, which is in 
the open plain between Pica and Noria, might almost be regarded 
as topotypes, since the exact locality of Philippi's type is unknown. 
The species appears to be quite distinct, of very large size, pale, 
sandy, uniform coloration, and having a large, heavily ridged skull 
with swollen audital bullae and broad, cuneate nasals. The pelage 
is ample but somewhat coarser and harsher than in fulvus. The 
largest of the recent specimens does not quite equal the type, but 
its skull agrees with the figure of the type in all general respects. 
Notes on the type are as follows: 

"Ctenomys robustus. Type existing and identifiable from posture. 
It is mounted in a small group with another specimen which is shown 
emerging from its burrow. Skull removed and cleaned and agrees 


with Philippi's figures, which are quite good except the side view, 
which is confused in the postorbital region. The skin is much paler 
than Philippi's figure (which is reduced size), but darker than palli- 
dus, fulvus, etc., and with shorter and slightly coarser hair. Doubtless 
a good species. Hind foot 48. Skull: greatest length 61; occi- 
pito-nasal length 57; zygomatic width 42; mastoid width 39; nasals 
23 X 10; diastema 18; upper toothrow 12.3; width of upper incisors 
10.5; width across postorbital processes 21; depth of infraorbital 
foramen 13; greatest mandibular width 56.6." 

Specimens examined. Total 5: Canchones, Salar de Pintados, 
Tarapaca, 4; near Pica, Tarapaca, 1 (type). 

Ctenomys opimus Wagner. 

Ctenomys opimus Wagner, Arch. Naturg., 14, (1), pp. 75-78, 1848; Thomas, 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), 6, p. 1900 (locality) Sahama, Bolivia. 

Pelage long and soft; general color buffy gray with the top of the head and 
sometimes the mid-dorsal line blackish. Total length 295-395; tail 85-100; hind 
foot 37-42. 

A specimen taken by Sanborn at Choquelimpie, Tacna, at an 
altitude of 15,000 feet furnishes the only Chilean record. It agrees 
closely with a series from Mount Sahama. 

Myocastor coypus coypus Molina. COYPU. 

mus coypus Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, pp. 287-288, 342, 1782 rivers of 

Myopotamus Coypus Commerson MS., Geoffroy, Ann. Mus. Paris, 6, p. 81, 

Myopotamus coypu albomaculatus Fitzinger, Sitzungsber. K. Akad. Wiss., 

Wien, Math.-Naturw. Cl., 56, p. 134, 1867 Chile. 
Myopotamus coypu dorsalis Fitzinger, supra cit. no locality. 

A very large heavily pelaged aquatic rodent with a long, rounded, tapering, 
and thinly haired tail; middle toes of hind feet connected by a basal web; mammae 
situated high on the sides near the middle line of the back rather than on the 
abdomen. Total length 800-900; tail 350-400; hind foot 130-140. 

Range. Rivers and lakes of central Chile west of the Andes 
from the Province of Coquimbo and the vicinity of Valparaiso to 
the vicinity of Concepcion and the Bio Bio River. 

The coypu of central Chile is doubtless the one to which Molina's 
name coypus should be restricted. Although still found in some 
numbers near populous districts, it is doubtless much less common 
than formerly. Bridges (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1843, p. .130) 
says: "The places where the Coypo most abounds in Chile are the 


borders of the river Maypo near Santiago, the capital of the country, 
also in the lakes of Aculeo and Quintero." Specimens from this region 
are lacking in Field Museum, but it seems fair to assume that they 
would be at least as pale in color as those from Malleco and Cautin 
which have been used to represent the typical form of the species. 
Four examples from Valparaiso taken in 1880 and 1887 are listed by 
Wolffsohn and Porter (1908). Wolffsohn (1923) records specimens 
from Penco, Concepcion, and Cachapoal collected in 1901 and 1907. 
There are also in Field Museum two specimens from Santa Cruz, 
Bolivia, which obviously belong to a distinct form. These are exceed- 
ingly large and dark colored, the upper parts almost wholly clear 
blackish brown. At least until further information about its type 
specimen is forthcoming, the name popelairi (Mastonotus popelairi 
Wesmael, Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci., Bruxelles, 8, pt. 2, pp. 59-61, 1841 
Bobica, Bolivia) may be applied to this form. With this and the 
dark form of southern Chile described below, the subspecies of coypus 
will be as follows: 

Myocastor coypus coypus Molina, central Chile. 

Myocastor coypus melanops Osgood, southern Chile. 

Myocastor coypus santacruzae Hollister, southwestern Argentina. 

Myocastor coypus bonariensis Geoffrey, northeastern Argentina and Uruguay. 

Myocastor coypus popelairi Wesmael, southeastern Bolivia. 

The name Castor huidobrius of Molina and subsequent ones 
derived from it (as Guillinomys chilensis Lesson 1842) must be 
regarded as composite and unidentifiable. Molina's description is a 
hopeless combination of the characters of coypu and otter, plainly 
being derived from confused reports from natives (see under Lutra 
provocax, p. 88). 

Specimens examined. Total 8: Lake Malleco, Cautin, 5; Bio 
Bio River, near Concepcion, 1; Rio Andalien, Concepcion, 2. 

Myocastor coypus melanops subsp. nov. 

Type from Quellon, Chiloe Island. No. 24338 Field Museum of 
Natural History. Young adult male. Collected January 30, 1923, 
by Wilfred H. Osgood. Orig. No. 5548. 

Diagnosis. Similar to M. c. coypus, but darker and more richly 
colored; top of head and sides of face mainly blackish brown (between 
Vandyke Brown and Black); forelegs very dark brown; light-tipped 
hairs of body and sides of neck rich Hazel or Sanford's Brown 
rather than Clay Color or Cinnamon. 

Skull and teeth. Essentially as in M. coypus. 




Measurements. Type : total length 880; tail 365; hind foot 135. 
Skull of type: greatest length 115; basilar length 90; zygomatic width 
67; nasals 42.5; interorbital width 24.3; upper toothrow (alveoli) 

Remarks. A series of seven coypus taken on Chiloe Island is 
uniformly rich colored in comparison with the few available speci- 

FIG. 17. Myocastor coypus melanops. F.M. No. 24338, type. X 

mens from central Chile. No specimens from the southern mainland 
have been examined, but it seems quite probable that a dark form 
may be found throughout the relatively cool, humid forest region 
from Valdivia southward, perhaps even to the Straits of Magellan. 
On Chiloe Island the animals were found about the mouths of 
streams in brackish water and they doubtless enter salt water freely. 
That the form here described is confined to the island, therefore, 
is improbable. The physical conditions in southern Chile are vastly 
different from those of the region inhabited by typical coypus and 
if a recognizable distinction were not found it would be exceptional. 
Specimens from the extreme south are not available. Some 3,000 
skins are reported as marketed at Punta Arenas in 1939. 


The weight of a freshly killed adult male was found to be 
pounds; of two females 1% and 8% pounds. 

Chinchilla chinchilla velligera Prell. CHILEAN CHINCHILLA. 

Chinchilla laniger or lanigera of various authors, not Mus laniger of Molina 
which is composite and unidentifiable (see Osgood, 1941). 

FIG. 18. Chinchilla chinchilla velligera. F.M. No. 44344. X 1. 

Chinchilla velligera Prell, Zool. Anz., 108, p. 100, 1934 (based on the Chin- 
chilla lanigera of Bennett, Gard. Menag. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1, p. 1, 1829) 
from Chile; vicinity of Coquimbo, by present selection. 

Chinchilla chinchilla velligera Osgood, Journ. Mamm., 22, p. 411, 1941. 

A medium-sized rodent with long, soft, and lax pelage, pale gray color, large 
rounded ears, five front toes, three well-developed hind toes and a rudimentary 
fourth. Length of head and body about 10 inches, of tail about 6 inches. Said 
to differ from northern and eastern varieties (Peru and Bolivia) in smaller size, 
longer tail, and more grayish color. 

Range. Coast hills of northern Chile from the vicinity of 
Coquimbo to the vicinity of Copiapo and northeastward in the 
cordillera for an unknown distance. 

Although greatly reduced by continued persecution for its fur, 
the chinchilla is still represented by isolated colonies which are 
scattered over much of its original range. This range was in the 
northern, more arid part of Chile from the southern part of the 
Province of Coquimbo northward. Gay states that it was more 
common in the coastal hills than in the cordillera, and its southern 
limit he gives as the Rio Choapa (lat. 32). In northern Chile, 
however, chinchillas undoubtedly enter the cordillera and pass into 


Argentina and Bolivia where they are found at very high altitudes. 
Records from the cordillera south of lat. 32 are lacking. Whether 
these northern animals belong to the so-called Chilean variety or to 
the Peruvian is doubtful, but it seems quite probable that there is 
gradation between them as in the case of other mammals of the 
same region. Tschudi states that the Peruvian form, in times when 
it was abundant, ranged from the coast near Lima to elevations as 
high as 11,000 feet. The Chilean one, therefore, may well have done 
the same. A difference in size, and especially in length of tail, 
between Chilean and Peruvian chinchillas was recognized by various 
early authors, especially by Waterhouse (Nat. Hist. Mamm., 2, pp. 
236-242, 1848), who calls the Chilean the "Smaller Chinchilla" and 
the Peruvian the "Short-tailed Chinchilla." More recently Brass 
(Aus dem Reich, der Pelze, Berlin, 2, p. 613, 1911) and Prell (I.e.) 
have added a third variety (boliviano) and stated that all three are 
commonly recognized in the fur trade. Prell states that the Peruvian 
and Bolivian forms differ only slightly in color and he implies that 
they may be no more than subspecifically separable, but he evidently 
believes the Chilean form to be quite distinct from them. Without 
well-docketed material it may not be possible to gainsay his conclu- 
sions, but the distinctions made in the fur trade, while doubtless 
related to definite taxonomic characters, do not furnish a sound 
basis for classification. In this case, however, the animal has become 
extinct over most of its original range and it is doubtful if any better 
basis will ever be available. 1 At least for the present, therefore, the 

1 A classification used in the fur trade is indicated by the following, received 
from the Pan American Chinchilla Corporation, Inc., of Calama, Chile: "Three 
species of chinchillas still in existence in South America [are] trade-named Chin- 
chilla boliviano,, Chinchilla cordillerana and Chinchilla costina. Without doubt a 
fourth species of chinchilla had formerly existed in certain sections of northern 
Chile, in southern Peru and in Bolivia, though very small in number. It was the 
least prolific one in the chinchilla family with but one young (and one litter) per 
year. In the old pelt trade it was trade-named Chinchilla realis, real, or fina. 
None of the former fur traders or the chinchilleros have seen a Chinchilla realis 
for approximately 25 years, or heard of one alive. 

"Therefore the boliviano species is the finest known alive in so far as breed 
and quality are concerned. This animal is exceedingly rare in captivity as well 
as in the wild state, and without doubt will be entirely extinct in the Cordilleras 
within a short time. 

"The cordillerana is smaller in size of body, the fur very fine in texture, but 
not quite as deep and dense as the fur of the boliviana. Its head is not quite as 
thick and stubby as that of the boliviana, the ears slightly closer together. 

"The costina presents a difference in appearance by having large, long ears, 
a long tail and a very pointed head; the pelt is considerably less dense and less 
deep than that of the other species. The costina exists in wild state at an eleva- 
tion ranging from 4,000 to 8,000 feet; a hundred years ago it lived down to the 
very sea coast of Chile (center north)." 


arrangement proposed by Prell may be accepted in which a Chilean, 
a Peruvian, and a Bolivian form are recognized. These may stand 
as follows: 


Eriomys chinchilla Lichtenstein, Darst. neu. o. wenig. bek. Saugeth., 2 pages 

(unnumbered), pi. 28, 1829 no exact locality; vicinity of Lima, Peru, 

by present selection. 1 
Chinchilla brevicaiidata Waterhouse, Nat. Hist. Mamm., 2, p. 241, 1848 

based on the same specimen as Eriomys chinchilla Lichtenstein; evidently 

a renaming to avoid tautonymy. 
Chinchilla major "Burmeister" Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., nov. ed., 3, p. 628, 

1897 under Chinchilla brevicaudata; apparently a latinization of "la 

variation grande" of Burmeister. 


Chinchilla lanigera Bennett, Card. Menag. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1, p. 1, 1829;Chin- 

chilla laniger Gray, Spicilegia Zool., p. 11, pi. 7, fig. 1, 1830 Coquimbo, 

Chinchilla velligera Prell, Zool. Anz., 108, p. 100, 1934 based on the Chinchilla 

lanigera of Bennett, from Chile, probably from Coquimbo (see Waterhouse, 

Nat. Hist. Mamm., 2, p. 239, footnote, 1848). 


Chinchilla boliviana Brass, Aus dem Reich, der Pelze, Berlin, 2, p. 613, 1911 

Chinchilla intermedia Dennler, Animates Peliferos, No. 12, Buenos Aires, 1939 

(fide Cabrera, in litt.) Andes of Bolivia and Argentina. 

Thus it appears, although chinchillas have been treated in literature 
for more than 150 years under many names and combinations, the 
Chilean form did not receive a valid specific name until 1934, the 
Bolivian one was not distinguished until 1911, and the Peruvian 
one retains the tautonymous name chinchilla, although it was not 
the basis of the generic name. All other names involve various 
combinations with or synonyms of Mus laniger Molina, which it 
now appears should be rejected as unidentifiable. The nomen- 
clatural tangle involved has been fully discussed elsewhere (Osgood, 

The present condition of the chinchilla in Chile is a precarious 
one, doubtless becoming more so from year to year. Although some 

1 Palmer's suggestion (Index Gen. Mamm., p. 270, 1904) that the locality 
was "probably Chile" does not accord with the characters of the specimens 


local legislation has been enacted attempting protection, enforce- 
ment is next to impossible. As far back as 1924, when Mr. Sanborn 
was in northern Chile, he found "chinchilleros," or native chinchilla 
hunters, active and boasting of ability to catch one or two animals 
per month, evidently enough to make it profitable from their stand- 
point. They worked in total disregard of law. At that time he 
found at least one man in La Serena, Coquimbo, who was attempting 
to breed the animals in captivity and had kept a small number for 
as many as six years. Others in the same vicinity are said to have 
been engaged in breeding experiments during the past twenty-five 
years, at least some of them under government license, but such 
reports as are available indicate little success. 1 

Two skins and skulls and two additional complete skeletons, pur- 
chased from natives in La Serena, are in Field Museum. These were 
said to have been taken near La Higuera in coast hills not exceeding 
2,000 feet in height and about sixty miles north of La Serena. 
Measurements taken by Sanborn from two freshly killed females 
are as follows: total length 425, 376; tail 151, 136; hind foot 59, 57; 
ear 63, 62. 

Lagidium viscacia viscacia Molina. MOUNTAIN VISCACHA. 

lepus viscacia Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, pp. 307-308, 342, 1782 Chilean 

Andes; cordillera of Santiago by present selection. 
Lepus chilensis Oken, Lehrb. Naturg., 3, Abt. 2, p. 836, 1816 Chile. 
Lagotis criniger Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Reg. Anim., Mamm., p. 105, 1842 

nomen nudum; Gay, Hist. Chile, Zool., 1, pp. 92-95, 1847; Atlas, pis. 

5-6, 1848 central provinces of Chile. 
Lagidium crassidens Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 13a, p. 10, 

pi. 3, fig. 1 (as L. peruanum), 1896 Chile. 

Viscaccia viscacia Lahille, Anal. Soc. Cient. Arg., 62, pp. 39-44, 1906. 
Viscaccia viscaccia Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), 19, p. 441, 1907. 
Lagidium viscaccia Thomas, supra cit., (9), 3, p. 500, 1919. 

. A large rodent with dense soft pelage, elongated ears, and a long, heavily 
crested tail. Total length 800; tail vertebrae 370; hind foot 112. 

Range. Andes of central Chile mainly in the provinces of 
Aconcagua, Santiago, and Valparaiso. 

This is the best known of the mountain viscachas of Chile, and 
the one to which Molina's name viscacia very properly has been 
restricted. It is characterized by fairly large size and dark, sooty 
gray color. The dorsal stripe is rather short and inconspicuous and 

1 For a good account of the present status of the chinchilla see Bidlingmaier 



the tail and feet are extensively sooty. Two adults measured by 
the collector have the following dimensions: total length 800, 795; 
tail 370, 365; hind foot 112. The skull is of good size with a long 
rostrum, premaxillae not greatly exceeding nasals, incisors ortho- 
dont and faintly or not at all pigmented, cheekteeth rather broad 
and heavy. 

A skull labeled crassidens was found in the museum at Santiago. 
It is clearly the one figured as peruanum by Philippi (I.e., pi. 3, 
fig. 1) and, as appears from his text, the one which was the sole 
basis of the name crassidens, Philippi mentions no locality for it 
but, as already concluded by Thomas (I.e., 1919), it no doubt 
belongs to the common form of central Chile. The skull is rather 
larger than usual and the incisors are unpigmented. My own 
measurements of it are as follows: greatest length 95; occipito-nasal 
length 92; basilar length 78; zygomatic width 48; nasals 37.5 X 13; 
diastema 27.5; width across postorbital processes 25.5; cheekteeth 

Specimens examined. Total 7: Near Limache, Valparaiso, 3; 
Palomar, Aconcagua, 1; Sewell, O'Higgins, 2 (B.M.); Sierra de los 
Condes, Santiago, 1. 

Lagidium viscacia cuvieri Bennett. 

Lagotis cuvieri Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 59, 1833 South America 
("In Peruvia?"); Tarapaca, Chile, by selection. 

Lagidium lutescens Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 13a, pp. 8-9, 
pi. 2, fig. 2 (col.), pi. 3, fig. 5, 1896 between Copacoya and Inacaliri, 
Tarapaca, Chile. 

V[iscaccia] Cuvieri Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), 19, p. 441, 1907. 

Similar to L. v. viscacia, but smaller, with general coloration buffy rather 
than grayish. Total length 565-649; tail 220-265; hind foot 93-100 (three speci- 

Range. Mountains of northern Chile from northern Antofa- 
gasta, through Tarapaca into Tacna; probably extending also into 
adjoining parts of Bolivia. 

The mountain viscacha of northern Chile is markedly different 
from L. viscacia of central Chile and direct evidence of intergrada- 
tion between the two is lacking, but it may take place through some 
of the numerous forms named from Bolivia and Argentina. The 
original type of cuvieri was without definite locality, but Thomas 
(I.e.) has assigned the name to specimens from Tarapaca, doubt- 
less after comparison with the type. L. pallipes is referred by 




Thomas "more doubtfully" to the same species, but this conclusion 
is questionable, for the type of pallipes, supposed to be from Chile, 
is in reality from Argentina, "at an elevation of 4,000 to 5,000 feet, 

FIG. 19. Lagidium viscacia cuvieri. F.M. No. 24099. X %. 

between Villa vicencia and Uspallata," as very definitely stated by 
its collector, Bridges (1843, p. 132). 

Another name for cuvieri is Philippi's lutescens, the type of which 
is well preserved, both skin and skull. The skin is mounted and 
identifiable by pose and color. The label states the date as 1885 
and the collector as C. Rahmer. It is paler and more buffy than 
Philippi's plate, and the tail is longer and more slender. The dorsal 
stripe is rufous or chestnut and probably never was black. The 


under parts are bright fulvous as he shows them, but the head is 
grayish buff or Isabella color, not reddish brown. The hind foot 
measures 95 and the ear from notch 60. The skull of the type agrees 
well with Philippi's figure (I.e., pi. 3, fig. 5). 

Measurements of the skull are: greatest length 80.5; occipi to- 
nasal length 77.5; basilar length 64; zygomatic width 40.5; mastoid 
width 30; nasals 30 X 9.2; diastema 23; interorbital width 18.5; 
upper toothrow (alveoli) 19. 

Among the specimens representing cuvieri in Field Museum are 
three from Silalo, Bolivia, a locality only a short distance from the 
Copacoya district in Chile from which the type of lutescens came. 
These serve to confirm the disposition of lutescens as a synonym of 
cuvieri. A further probable synonym is V. lutea (Thomas, I.e., p. 
443), since the description offers nothing to distinguish it and since 
the locality (Esperanza, Sahama, Bolivia) is very near southwestern 
Tacna whence Field Museum has specimens of cuvieri. 

As compared with other Chilean forms, cuvieri is rather small 
in size and "yellowish" in color. The hind foot is less instead of 
more than 100 mm. in length and the upper parts are suffused with 
the ochraceous tones which always prevail on the under parts. The 
skull has a short rostrum, the premaxillae are somewhat expanded 
behind and extend well beyond the nasals; the interlacrymal depres- 
sion is very pronounced, the audital bullae small, the incisors unpig- 
mented and somewhat proodont, and the cheekteeth rather narrow. 

Specimens examined. Total 9: Choquelimpie, near Lake Chun- 
gara, Tacna, 1 (skull) ; near Copacoya, Tarapaca, 1 (type of lutescens 
in Mus. Nac. Chile); 20 miles east of San Pedro, Antofagasta, 4 
(skulls) ; Silalo, Bolivia, lat. 22 S., near Chilean boundary, 3 (1 skull 
only) . 

Lagidium viscacia famatinae Thomas. 

Lagidium famatinae Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 6, p. 421, 1920 La 
Invernada, Famatina Range, Rioja, Argentina. 

Between the ranges of viscacia and cuvieri in north-central Chile 
a form is found which differs quite markedly from either. It is 
represented in Field Museum by a fine adult male obtained by San- 
born at Paiguano in the Province of Coquimbo. It is a large animal 
with the upper parts Pale Smoke Gray, broken by a sharply defined 
black dorsal stripe. Except for somewhat larger audital bullae, its 
skull is essentially as in L. viscacia, but its color leaves little doubt 
that its closest affinities are with some of the Argentine forms. But 


few specimens of these are at hand for comparison, so it has seemed 
best for the present to refer this specimen to famatinae, the one 
which is geographically nearest. 

The series of names which Thomas has applied to Argentine 
mountain viscachas includes vukani (Jujuy), tucumana (Tucuman), 
lockwoodi (Catamarca), famatinae (Rioja), tontalis (San Juan), and 
viatorum (Mendoza). This series, therefore, runs from north to 
south and there is one name for every province. The physical 
conditions under which the animals live in this region are fairly 
uniform and one finds it difficult to accept the assumption that all 
these names are well founded. At least, with the connection appar- 
ently established by the Paiguano specimen here recorded, it seems 
desirable to reduce all of these names to subspecific status. L. 
viatorum is almost certainly a synonym of pallipes, which came 
from the same region, and it would not be surprising to find that 
the specimen here referred to famatinae is very close to pallipes. 
Whether or not pallipes enters Chile is uncertain and further exami- 
nation of its type will be necessary to establish its distinction from 

Lagidium viscacia boxi Thomas. 

Lagidium boxi Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 7, p. 180, 1921 Pilcaneu, 
vicinity of Lake Nahuelhuapi, Argentina. 

Some assumption is necessary for giving this form a place in the 
Chilean fauna but, since the international boundary follows the 
heights of the mountains and this is the very region inhabited by 
Lagidium, the probabilities are entirely favorable. 

According to the original description, L. boxi is closely allied to 
moreni, "the colour above darker and more suffused with yellowish." 
From the next-named form on the north, sarae, it is also said to 
differ in its "buffy or yellowish suffusion." Ellerman (Fam. Gen. 
Rodents, 1, p. 232, 1941) gives it specific rank with sarae as a sub- 
species, apparently on the basis of its short ears and dark feet. 

Lagidium viscacia sarae Thomas and St. Leger. 

Lagidium sarae Thomas and St. Leger, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 18, p. 639, 
1926 Pino Hachado Pass, Argentine-Chilean boundary, lat. 38 30' S. 

This is said to be "distinguishable by its dark grey colour, short 
ears, large molars, and narrow mastoids." Apparently it stands 
between boxi on the south and viatorum (?= pallipes) on the north, 
being more grayish than boxi and slightly darker than viatorum. 


In the southern Andes, as in the north, there is a name for practically 
every locality from which specimens of Lagidium have been received. 
Ranges and relationships are matters for future determination. 

Lagidium viscacia moreni Thomas. 

Lagidium moreni Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), 19, p. 467, 1897 "Chu- 
but," Argentina. 

In 1921 (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 7, p. 181), Thomas remarked 
that "the exact locality of the type of L. moreni is unknown, as 
'Chubut' is a province of considerable size, and there is no evidence 
as to where in it the specimen was obtained." This is indeed 
unfortunate, but it is doubtless safe to assume that if the specimen 
came from any part of Chubut, it was from the western mountainous 
part sufficiently near the Chilean boundary to justify the inclusion 
of the form in the Chilean fauna. The type and only known speci- 
men is said to have the "general color above silvery or pale ashy 
gray, without yellowish suffusion." The name is one of the earliest 
in the group and doubtless will prove to be entitled to some sort of 

Lagidium viscacia wolffsohni Thomas. 

Viscaccia wolffsohni Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), 19, p. 440, 1907 Cerro 
Palique, Sierra de los Baguales y de las Viscachas, lat. 50 50' S., Argen- 
tine-Chilean boundary. 

This form, from the region just south of Lake Argentine, is the 
southernmost member of the genus and quite removed from others 
thus far recorded. Its published measurements indicate the size 
to be about the same as in moreni and boxi, and the description of 
the skull offers no unusual characters, but the color is distinctive. 
It is said to be "readily distinguishable from all other members of 
the genus by its large size, rich colour, long fur, immensely bushy 
tail, and short black ears." It has recently been accorded full 
specific rank by Ellerman (Fam. Gen. Rodents, 1, p. 232, 1941). 
Two much faded mounted specimens are in the Museo Regional 
Salesiano at Punta Arenas. 

Cavia (Microcavia) australis Geoffrey and d'Orbigny. SOUTHERN 

Cavia australis Geoffrey and d'Orbigny, Mag. Zool., 3, Cl. 1 (4 pp.), pi. 12, 
1833 Patagonia, south of the Rio Negro, Argentina. 


Cavia (Caviella) australis Osgood, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 10, pp. 

194-195, 1915. 
Caviella australis Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (10), 4, p. 44, 1929 Lower 

Rio Negro, Argentina (corrected type locality). 
Microcavia australis Kraglievich, Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat., Buenos Aires, 

36, pp. 67, 92, pi. 10, fig. 3, pi. 11, figs. 3-4, 1930. 

A plain grayish rodent with small rounded ears and no external tail; hind 
feet with only three toes. Total length 210-230; hind foot 49-52. 

Range. Pampas of central Argentina with racial representatives 
extending northward to Catamarca and southward to Santa Cruz. 

This typically Argentine animal doubtless crosses the boundary 
line into Chilean territory at least in a few places along the eastern 
base of the Andes. It was not found at Casa Richards on the Rio 
Nirehuao, but some fifty miles east near the Rio Verde a specimen, 
now in Field Museum, was taken by Boardman Conover. This 
actual record is within a few miles of the boundary. The species is 
recorded by Allen (Mamm. Patagonia, p. 26, 1905) from the upper 
Rio Chico and the Mayer Basin, also but a short distance from the 

Oryzomys longicaudatus longicaudatus Bennett. LONG-TAILED 

Mus longicaudatus Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 2, 1832 Chile (proba- 
bly Province of Valparaiso; type collected by Cuming). 

Mus exiguus Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 14a, p. 19, pi. 5, 
fig. 3 (col.), 1900 Andes of Province of Santiago, Chile. 

Mus macrocercus Philippi, supra cit., p. 30, pi. 10, fig. 2 (col.), 1900 Province 
of Colchagua, Chile. 

Mus nigribarbis Philippi, supra cit., p. 31, pi. 12, fig. 1 (col.), 1900 Talca- 
regue, near San Fernando, Colchagua, Chile. 

Mus saltator Philippi, supra cit., p. 32, pi. 12, fig. 3 (col.), 1900 Peine, 
Province of O'Higgins, Chile. 

Mus melanizon Philippi, supra cit., p. 39, pi. 16, fig. 2 (col.), 1900 no locality. 

Mus diminutivus Philippi, supra cit., p. 43, pi. 17, fig. 7 (col.), 1900 Illapel 
and Province of O'Higgins. 

Mus agilis Philippi, supra cit., p. 44, pi. 17, fig. 2 (col.), 1900 Illapel, Co- 
quimbo, Chile. 

Mus pernix Philippi, supra cit., p. 48, pi. 20, fig. 1 (col.), 1900 La Ligua, 
Province of Aconcagua, Chile. 

Mus peteroanus Philippi, supra cit., p. 56, pi. 24, fig. 2 (col.), 1900 Andes of 
Peteroa, Curico, Chile. 

Oryzomys longicaudatus Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., p. 527, 1897. 

A mouse with the tail longer than the head and body, the ears small, hind 
feet long; color buffy with fine lines of blackish, under parts paler, tail bicolor. 
Total length 232 (218-243); tail vertebrae 131 (126-140); hind foot 28.5 (27-30). 


Range. West-central Chile, mainly in the Province of Val- 
paraiso and northward through the Province of Coquimbo to the 
Copiapo Valley, Province of Atacama; extending through the Andes 
into western Argentina, at least in some localities. Passes insensibly 
into 0. I. philippii in southern Chile. 

A single species of Oryzomys is found throughout most of Chile 
except the deserts of the northwest. So far as known, no other 
species of this genus has been taken in the country. It belongs to 

the group of rather small long-tailed forms 
which probably has continuous distribution 
northward through the eastern Andes of 
northern Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, and per- 
haps still farther. The Peruvian form, 
long known as stolzmanni, has been referred 
to by Thomas as Oryzomys longicaudatus 
destructor (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (10), 2, 
FIG. 20 Oryzomys p> 261, 1928). The group seems to be 

1. longicaudatus. F.M. No. . . ' .. , ., 

23895. x 1. mainly western and Andean in distribu- 

tion, but its relationship to eastern forms, 

such as flavescens and eliurus, remains to be worked out. These in 
general are smaller, but in every series there is much variation in 
size, and in the present state of knowledge individual specimens are 
rather puzzling. One form, 0. delticola, of the lower Parana River, 
has been definitely regarded as an eastern representative of longi- 
caudatus, but it is quite isolated and its increased size may be only 
a parallelism. Specimens from Chimpay, on the Rio Negro well 
east of the Andes in Argentina, are scarcely distinguishable from 
typical longicaudatus. 

In Chile, longicaudatus divides into three principal forms dis- 
tinguished mainly by average differences in color and dimensions. 
The paler northern form, to which the name longicaudatus applies, 
naturally is palest in the extreme north in the provinces of Coquimbo 
and Atacama. Just where the line should be drawn between this 
form and the darker southern one is uncertain, for at present material 
is rather scanty from the provinces immediately south of Valparaiso 
and Santiago. In any case, the line will be a somewhat arbitrary one 
and as usual in such cases many specimens will fall so near it that 
their nomenclatural disposition is of no great consequence. In dis- 
posing of synonyms, localities in the provinces of Colchagua, O'Hig- 
gins, and Curico have been considered as representing the northern 
form and all those farther south have been assigned to the other. 


With the fairly certain knowledge that only one Oryzomys inhabits 
Chile, the various names proposed by Philippi offer no great diffi- 
culty whether the types are still preserved or not. Those which 
may be referred to typical longicaudatus are exiguus, macrocercus, 
nigribarbis, saltator, melanizon, diminutivus, agilis, pernix, and 
peteroanus. At the time of my visit in Santiago, only the type of 
macrocercus could be found. My notes on this specimen are as fol- 
lows: "Type existing in good condition. Skull inside. Unquestion- 
ably an Oryzomys of the longicaudatus group. The posture of the 
mounted specimen is entirely in agreement with that of the figure. 
It is labeled 'Raton. Mus macrocercus Ph. Colchagua.' Pencil 
number on top of stand 204; on bottom 336. Hind foot measures 

A cotype of M. diminutivus evidently was examined by Wolff- 
sohn (1910a, p. 101), who shows clearly that it is an immature 
example of longicaudatus badly prepared and discolored by having 
been immersed in alcohol before it was stuffed. Wolff sohn also 
assigns nigribarbis and saltator to longicaudatus but does not indicate 
whether or not the actual types were in his hands. 

The types of melanizon, agilis, pernix and peteroanus seem not 
to be in the Santiago museum at present, but the descriptions and 
figures at least indicate nothing known except Oryzomys. The figure 
of M . exiguus obviously represents an immature Oryzomys and there 
seems no better disposition of the name than as a synonym of 0. /. 
longicaudatus. The very differently appearing figure of M . melanizon 
is less conclusive, but the proportions of the ears, feet, and tail also 
point to Oryzomys, although the measurements of the text and the 
figure do not agree. 

Specimens examined. Total 47 : Bafios de Cauquenes, Colchagua, 
2; Buen Retire, Calera, 3; Colchagua, 1 (type of Mus macrocercus 
in Mus. Nac. Chile); La Palmilla, Papudo, 4; Limache, Valparaiso, 
1; Olmue, Valparaiso, 11; Paiguano, Coquimbo, 16; Quillota, 1; 
Ramadilla, Atacama, 5; Rio Maule, Talca, 2; Romero, Coquimbo, 1. 

Oryzomys longicaudatus philippii Landbeck. 

Mus Philippii "Landbeck," Philippi and Landbeck, Arch. Naturg., 24, (1), 
pp. 80-81, 1858; Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 14a, p. 26, 
1900 1 Valdivia, Valdivia, Chile. 

Hesperomys (Calomys) coppingeri Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 4, 1881 
Madre de Dios Island, Trinidad Channel, Chile. 

1 Cites "Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 14, p. 360, 1857," a reference which 
has not been verified. 


Oryzomys Philippii Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., p. 528, 1897. 

Mus dumetorum Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 14a, p. 14, pi. 3, 

fig. 1, 1900 Province of Valdivia. 

Mus commutatus Philippi, supra cit., p. 25, pi. 8, fig. 1, 1900 Valdivia. 
Mus amblyrrhynchus Philippi, supra cit., p. 36, pi. 25, fig. 1 (col.), 1900 

Province of Valdivia. 
Mus (Rhipidomys) araucanus Philippi, supra cit., p. 46, pi. 19, fig. 3 (col.), 

1 900 Concepcion. 
Mus glaphyrus Philippi, supra cit., p. 51, pi. 21, fig. 3 (col.), 1900 "Praedio 

Coroney," Province of Maule. 

Mus melaenus Philippi, supra cit., p. 62, 1900 Province of Maule. 
Oryzomys magellanicus mizurus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 17, p. 186, 

1916 Koslowsky Valley, Chubut, Argentina. 

Similar to O. I. longicaudatus, but averaging darker in color; under parts a 
deeper shade of buff; under side of tail often blackish toward the tip and frequently 
with a narrow median line as in 0. I. magellanicus. 

Range. Valdivian forest district of south-central Chile at least 
through the provinces of Chiloe and Llanquihue and probably south 
along the coast to lat. 50 S. Eastward through the mountains to 
wooded parts of Argentina in the provinces of Neuquen, Rio Negro, 
and Chubut. 

The southern form of Oryzomys longicaudatus, to which the name 
philippii applies, ranges through the southern provinces and crosses 
the Andes into Argentina. It is distinguished from typical longi- 
caudatus mainly by darker color. Variation in size and length of 
tail is found in nearly every series and no local forms are definable. 
Occasional specimens have tails longer (140-150) than in longi- 
caudatus, but averages do not differ greatly. Specimens from 
Chiloe Island (where it is relatively scarce) and the Guaiteca Islands 
show no appreciable differences from those of the mainland and the 
same is true of two from Mocha Island, although a larger series could 
be desired. Specimens from Concepcion are probably somewhat 
intermediate, but seem nearer philippii than longicaudatus. 

The southernmost coastal locality represented in our collections 
is Aysen at about lat. 45 50' S. Between this locality and the Straits 
of Magellan no specimens from the coast are known except the type 
of Hesperomys coppingeri from Trinidad Channel in lat. 50 S. The 
published dimensions of this specimen indicate that it has the long 
tail of philippii so it seems safe to conclude that the form ranges 
south at least to Trinidad Channel. Since the shorter-tailed magel- 
lanicus extends northward at least to Ultima Esperanza, only two 
degrees farther south, there is left but a short distance in which to 

MAP 5. Distribution of Oryzomys lonyicaudatiis and subspecies. 



expect intergradation. Specimens are at hand representing 0. m. 
mizurus from the type region and these are indistinguishable from 
philippii. That the name would fall as a synonym was forecast 
by Thomas himself in 1929 (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (10), 4, p. 38). 

Philippi's synonyms of the form which now bears his own name 
are dumetorum, amblyrrhynchus, araucanus, commutatus, glaphyrus, 
and melaenus. The type of melaenus was not found in the Santiago 
museum and doubtless was not preserved. It is not figured by 
Philippi and he states that it was received in alcohol in bad condition. 
His measurements indicate an Oryzomys, and his statement that it 
was entirely black in color is probably accounted for by its condition. 
Types of the others were found but, as explained below, that of 
dumetorum was in London and not in Santiago. The following is 
an exact transcript of notes made in Santiago: 

"Mus amblyrrhynchus Philippi. Type in fair condition and 
identifiable by posture, which agrees with Philippi's figure. Label 
'Raton. Mus amblyrrhynchus, San Juan, 1889,' to which Wolff sohn 
has added 'Oryzomys longicaudatus' and 'Prov. Valdivia.' Pencil 
number on stand, 175. Darker than fresh examples and hair a bit 
soft from age and alcohol. Undoubtedly Oryzomys and equal to 0. 
longicaudatus as concluded by Wolffsohn (Bol. Mus. Nac. Chile, 2, 
No. 1, p. 97, 1910)." 

"Mus (Rhipidomys) araucanus Philippi. From its posture, size 
and measurements, the probable type is a specimen labeled 'Raton. 
Mus peteroanus Ph. 1896, C.' on one side, and on the other (printed) 
'Raton de Campo. Oryzomys longicaudatus Bennet, Obs. Sr. Muller, 
Concepcion, 1892.' The posture, the measurements, and the fact 
that the locality Concepcion and the collector's name Muller are 
still associated with the specimen, all go to show that it is the type 
of araucanus. It is obviously not the one described as peteroanus 
although perhaps related to it, for it does not agree in measurements 
or in posture. The name peteroanus was evidently written on its 
label later and without care. It is obviously an Oryzomys and our 
Oryzomys from Concepcion (No. 232, C.C.S.) are clearly of the same 
common species. Its tail is curved but measures as it is 110 mm. 
The hind foot is bent and not well accessible, but an estimate of its 
length gives 27-28 at least. A loose skull in a paper box, labeled 
Mus araucanus, seems to be of Mus musculus and is doubtless 

"Mus glaphyrus Philippi. The type is still existing but in a very 
bad state of preservation. The size of the hind foot, the length of 


the tail, as well as the color, which is not totally gone, indicate 
beyond reasonable doubt that this is an Oryzomys of the longicau- 
datus group merely an immature specimen. It has a typewritten 
label, 'Raton, Mus glaphyrus Ph. Obs. S. Boedecker, Maule, 1895.' 
A penciled number, 195, is on the stand. There is no skull." 

Only one specimen bearing the name Mus dumetorum was found 
in Santiago in 1923. The name is typewritten on its label but has 
been lined out and overwritten Akodon longipilis. Apparently this 
was done by Wolffsohn, who refers dumetorum to longipilis in his 
paper of 1910 (Bol. Mus. Nac. Chile, 2, No. 1, p. 88). My own 
examination of this specimen leads to the conclusion that it is not 
the type of dumetorum but of trichotis (see p. 168), the latter a name 
which Wolffsohn correctly refers to Akodon olivaceus but apparently 
on the basis of another specimen that I was unable to find. The 
existing specimen is also an example of Akodon olivaceus and can 
scarcely be the type of dumetorum on account of its posture, which 
disagrees markedly from that shown in Philippi's figure. A further 
specimen, however, which may well be the true type of dumetorum, 
is now in the British Museum (No. among the specimens 
received there from Santiago in 1911. This bears the name dume- 
torum and has the tail with the terminal half missing as indicated 
in Philippi's figure; the skull, which the figure shows to be inside 
the skin, is present with the notation by Thomas, "Extracted here." 
This specimen is an Oryzomys and careful examination of Philippi's 
figure leaves little doubt it was the one used in making the drawing. 
Measurements of the skull are: greatest length 23.2; width of brain- 
case 10.9; nasals 7.9; interorbital constriction 3.5; palatine slits 4.2; 
cheekteeth 3.6. 

A second specimen of "araucanus," probably not the type, is in 
the British Museum (No. Its label, of the usual kind, 
reads: "Raton. Mus araucanus Ph. Obs. S. Muller. Concepcion 
92." It is a remade, discolored skin in poor condition, undoubtedly 
Oryzomys. The hind foot with claws measures 27. The tail, which 
is wired and not very straight, is about 101. 

Mus commutatus, of which no type is available, may also be 
referred here on the basis of the description and figure and especially 
because Landbeck, who sent it to Philippi, considered it the same as 
his philippii. 

Specimens examined. Total 145: CHILE: Angol, 2 (A.M.N.H.); 
Campo Bandera, Coihoique, 2 (A.M.N.H.); Concepcion, 16 (includ- 
ing type of M. araucanus in Mus. Nac. Chile); Curacautin, 


Malleco, 4; Lake Todos Santos, Llanquihue, 3 (A.M.N.H.); Mafil, 
Valdivia, 19; Province of Maule, 1 (type of M. glaphyrus in Mus. 
Nac. Chile); Melinka, Ascension Island, Guaiteca Islands, 6; Mocha 
Island, 2 (A.M.N.H.); Peulla, Lake Todos Santos, 14; Pilen Alto, 
Maule, 1; Puerto Montt, 1; Quellon, Chiloe Island, 2; Quirihue, 
Maule, 2; Rinihue, Valdivia, 8; mouth of Rio Aysen, 7; Rio 
Coihoique, Llanquihue, 5; Rio Maule, Talca, 2 (?approaching longi- 
caudatus); mouth of Rio Inio, Chiloe Island, 5; Rio Nirehuao, 
Llanquihue, 17; Province of Valdivia, 1 (type of M. amblyrrhynchus 
in Mus. Nac. Chile) ; summit of Sierra Nahuelbuta, 20. ARGENTINA: 
Bariloche, 1; Epuyan, Chubut, 2; Puesto Burros, near Maiten, 
Chubut, 1; Yacobacci, F. C. Nahuelhuapi, 1. 

Oryzomys longicaudatus magellanicus Bennett. 

Mus magellanicus Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 191, 1835 Port Famine, 

Straits of Magellan; Waterhouse, Zool. Beagle, Mamm., p. 47, pi. 14, 

pi. 24, fig. 6, 1839. 
Hesperomys (Oryzomys) longicaudatus Milne-Edwards, Miss. Scient. Cap 

Horn, 6, Zool., Mamm., p. 27, fig. 1, 1890. 
Oryzomys magellanicus Allen, Mamm. Patagonia, p. 47, pi. 9, fig. 2, pi. 10, 

figs. 4-5, 1905; Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 17, p. 186, 1916; 

(9), 19, p. 549, 1927 (lectotype designated); (10), 4, p. 38, 1929. 

Similar to O. I. philippii but with the tail decidedly shorter, only slightly 
longer than the head and body; tail usually with a narrow median blackish line 
dividing the light color of the under side. Total length 220 (209-227); tail verte- 
brae 110 (102-116); hind foot 29 (28-31). 

Range. Wooded parts of Tierra del Fuego and southern Pata- 
gonia north to the district of Ultima Esperanza. 

This southernmost form of the widely distributed genus Oryzomys 
is distinguished from longicaudatus and philippii mainly by its 
shorter tail. The interesting dark line on the under side of the tail 
is Uniformly present in specimens from Tierra del Fuego but is not 
always evident in specimens from the mainland. In philippii it 
may or may not be present. 

That magellanicus should be only subspecifically distinguishable 
is perhaps an indication that the extension of Oryzomys to the tip of 
the continent and across the Straits of Magellan was accomplished 
within comparatively recent times. At some localities on Tierra del 
Fuego it was fairly common, but in the vicinity of Punta Arenas 
and northward in western Patagonia it was found with difficulty and 
only in small numbers. In the forest it is associated with Akodon 
xanthorhinus, but it does not follow that species into the light bush 
and open pampa. 


Specimens examined. Total 46: Eastern end of Lake Fagnano, 
Tierra del Fuego, 15; Lake Yerwin, Tierra del Fuego, 13; Estancia 
Via Monte, Tierra del Fuego, 2; Laguna Lazo, near Lake Sarmiento, 
Ultima Esperanza, 5; Lake Sarmiento, 3; Punta Arenas, 5; Puerto 
Natales, 3. 

Notiomys valdivianus valdivianus Philippi. MOLE MOUSE; 

Oxymycterus valdivianus Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 24, (1), p. 303, 1858 Prov- 

vince of Valdivia, Chile. 

[Acodon] valdivianus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), 14, p. 363, 1894. 
Mus (Oxymycterus) valdivianus Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Ent. 14a, 

p. 21, pi. 6, fig. 1, 1900. 

Geoxus valdivianus Thomas, supra cit., (9), 3, p. 207, 1919 part. 
Notiomys valdivianus Osgood, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 115, 

pi. 10, 1 figs. 4-4a, 1925. 
Notiomys valdivianus araucanus Osgood, supra cit., p. 117, pi. 10, figs. 5-5a, 

1925 Tolhuaca, Malleco. 

A small molelike mouse with dense, short pelage, short tail and elongated 
front claws. Under parts dark-colored, nearly or quite the same as upper parts. 
Length 146, 139; tail 39, 40; foot 21; toothrow 3.3. 

Range. Mainland of south-central Chile in the humid, forested 
region of Valdivia and adjoining provinces. 

This was among the species especially sought by Mr. Sanborn in 
the Province of Valdivia within the restricted area from which 
doubtless came several of Philippi's types. Three specimens which 
he obtained at Mafil are the only existing well-prepared examples 
which represent the species in typical form. 

"A single mounted specimen examined in the Museo Nacional 
of Santiago is probably Philippi's type. It was compared directly 
with the specimens from Mafil and found to be in substantial agree- 
ment with them. It carries a typewritten label, which, of course, 
is not the original one, with the following inscription: 'Mus valdi- 
vianus, Ph. Obs. S. Landbeck, Valdivia.' In one corner of this label 
is the penciled number, 8. On top of the wooden block upon which 
the specimen is mounted is an impressed number, 117, and another, 
evidently fairly recent, in pencil, 239. This last corresponds to the 
number given in Quijada's Catalogue (Bol. Mus. Nac. Chile, 1, No. 
7, p. 113, 1909-10). The specimen is mounted with its tail more 

1 The legends on this plate for N. valdivianus and N. v. araucanus were acci- 
dentally transposed. The skull figured as 4-4o is that of valdivianus and 5-5a 
is araucanus. 



elevated than in Philippi's figure (I.e., 1900, pi. 6, fig. 1), but other- 
wise its posture is similar. It is of a faded brown color considerably 
lighter than in the published figure. Although described in 1858, 
the continued association of Landbeck's name with this specimen 
and the various numbers it has received seem to indicate that it 
has been preserved for a long period, and it may well be the actual 
type and basis of the name valdivianus. In any case, the application 
of the name is secure, for Philippi's description and figure are suffi- 
ciently accurate to leave no room for doubt." 1 

This was the first to be described of a considerable series of inter- 
grading forms several of which are found in southern Chile, and the 
remainder in Argentina. The group is a southern one and has not 
been recorded north of the thirty-seventh parallel. One of its mem- 
bers (/ossor) has been taken as type of the supposed genus Geoxus, 
but except in size it does not differ in any important respect from 
megalonyx and vestitus (Chelemys of Thomas et al.) and does not 
differ from edwardsi (type of Notiomys) except in color and very 
slight cranial characters. 

In southern Chile it appears to be confined to heavily forested 
regions and is not especially common. As indicated by its external 
form, its habits are subfossorial and one collector (Budin) has stated 
that it "makes burrows in the earth like tuco-tucos." Its general 
appearance is often quite shrewlike, suggesting the North American 
Blarina or some of the dark-colored African forest shrews of the 
genus Crocidura. 

Specimens from Beatriz, Nahuelhuapi, Argentina, regarded by 
Thomas (I.e., p. 207, 1919) as typical valdivianus, perhaps should be 
referred to subspecies /ossor. However, two specimens from Lake 
Todos Santos, not far from Nahuelhuapi, seem referable to valdi- 
vianus, although their skulls are somewhat more attenuate than 
those from the type region. Two from the damp forest at the sum- 
mit of the Sierra Nahuelbuta have very slightly paler under parts 
than typical, but racial separation does not seem to be indicated. 
The supposed form from eastern Malleco, described in 1925 under 
the name araucanus, seems, in the light of much new material, 
insufficiently characterized for recognition. Although it is slightly 
paler (browner) than in typical valdivianus and its skull is somewhat 
narrower, it is not unlikely that these characters are only evidence 
of gradation toward the better marked form /ossor which Thomas 
(Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 19, p. 656, 1927) has recorded from San 

1 Reprinted from Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 116, 1925. 

MAP 6. Distribution of Notiomys valdivianiis and subspecies. 



Martin de los Andes, Neuquen, Argentina, and other localities east 
of the Andes. So far there are no records of fossor within Chilean 
territory, but its occurrence there is not unlikely since it is found 
very near the boundary. 

Specimens examined. Total 17: Curacautin, Malleco, 1; Mafil, 
Valdivia, 3; Peulla, Lake Todos Santos, 2; Province of Valdivia, 1 
(type in Mus. Nac. Chile); Rio Colorado, Malleco, 4; Sierra Nahuel- 
buta, 2; Tolhuaca, Malleco, 4. 

Notiomys valdivianus chiloensis Osgood. 

Notiomys valdivianus chiloensis Osgood, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
12, p. 117, pi. 10, figs. 6-6a, 1925 Quellon, Chiloe Island, Chile. 

Geoxus valdivianus chiloensis Gyldenstolpe, Kungl. Svensk. Vet. Akad. 
Handl., 11, No. 3, p. 125, 1932. 

So far as known, this form is confined to Chiloe Island and is 
characterized by a slender, anteriorly compressed skull. Material 

from the mainland coast in the latitude of 
Chiloe would be of interest for comparison 
with it. Seven specimens from Quellon and 
Rio Inio, Chiloe Island, are in Field Mu- 
seum. There is also a single old specimen 
in the British Museum marked "unstuffed," 
that is, dismounted and remade. It was 
received with others from Santiago some 

V6arS ag and beaFS E label readin 8' " Mus 
F.M. No. 22518. xi. valdivianus Ph. Obs.S. C.Fernandez, Chiloe." 

Notiomys valdivianus bullocki subsp. nov. 

Type from Mocha Island, coast of southern Chile, Province of 
Arauco. No. 97742 American Museum of Natural History. Adult 
female. Collected December 7, 1932, by D. S. Bullock. 

Diagnosis. Similar to N. v. valdivianus, but darker in color, 
especially on the under parts, which are washed with a deeper 
shade of brown; arms and shoulders tending to be darker than sur- 
rounding parts; feet and tail wholly dark; skull as in valdivianus, 
but rostrum and nasals averaging longer; audital bullae slightly 
smaller; molariform teeth slightly larger. 

Measurements. Type measured by the collector: total length 
157; tail 38; hind foot 20 (s.u.). Skull of type: greatest length 28.6; 
basilar length 23.2; zygomatic breadth 14.4; interorbital constric- 


tion 5.4; breadth of braincase 13; nasals 11.1; interparietal 9.1 X 
2.1; postpalatal length 10.5; diastema 7.6; upper toothrow 3.7. 

Remarks. Through the courtesy of Dr. H. E. Anthony of the 
American Museum of Natural History, a series of eleven specimens 
of this insular form has been available for study. In addition, two 
others have been lent by the British Museum through Dr. T. C. S. 
Morrison-Scott. These constitute a larger series than exists of any 
of the mainland forms. Variation in this series is not great and, 
although generally dark color seems characteristic, there are no 
specimens which are very dark (almost black) such as are found in 
several instances in valdivianus and chiloensis. The color of the upper 
parts is nearly uniform rich Prout's Brown very finely speckled, 
and the under parts, although showing silvery reflections, are washed 
with a deeper shade of brown than that seen in mainland forms. 
The teeth are indubitably larger than in valdivianus, but approach 
to megalonyx does not seem indicated. 

Notiomys valdivianus bicolor subsp. nov. 

Type from Casa Richards, Rio Nirehuao, Chile. Lat. 45 3' S. 
No. 22517 Field Museum of Natural History. Old male. Collected 
March 14, 1923, by Wilfred H. Osgood. Orig. No. 5690. 

Diagnosis. Similar to N. v. fossor and N. v. michaelseni, but 
differing from both in the uniform bright brown color (cinnamon 
brown of Ridgway) of the upper parts and the sharply contrasted 
grayish white under parts. Feet mainly light brown; tail sharply 
bicolor, cinnamon brown above, grayish white below. Skull much 
as in N. v. fossor, but with longer anterior palatal slits; less elongate 
than in N. v. michaelseni. 

Measurements. Type measured by the collector: total length 
150; tail 38; hind foot 21. Skull of type: greatest length 26.7; 
basilar length 21.2; zygomatic breadth 13; breadth of braincase 
12.4; nasals 9.8 X 2.8; interparietal 6x2; diastema 6.4; two anterior 
cheekteeth 2.9. 

Remarks. The single specimen forming the basis of the above 
description was doubtfully referred to michaelseni in 1925 when no 
specimens of either michaelseni or fossor were actually in hand. 
With both of these forms now represented in Field Museum it is 
clear that further division is necessary. The assumption that 
michaelseni was a brownish form was derived from Matschie's 
colored plate of the type specimen, which was preserved in alcohol 
and probably discolored. A modern series of michaelseni shows it 


to be more grayish and dusky than brownish and the under parts 
are only slightly paler than the upper parts. N. v. fossor also is 
grayish with little contrast between upper and lower parts and its 
slight cranial characters appear in specimens from several localities. 

Apparently standing somewhat between the present form and 
michaelseni are the specimens from the upper Rio Chico, Santa 
Cruz (about lat. 48 S.) for which Allen used the name microtis. 
At least they agree in the brown color of the upper parts if not in 
the sharply contrasted upper and lower parts. The name microtis, 
however, is not tenable in this connection and need not be considered. 
At present there is no material from the region extending some three 
degrees between Rio Nirehuao and Rio Chico, and until it is forth- 
coming the southward range of bicolor will remain uncertain. 

Notiomys valdivianus michaelseni Matschie. 

Hesperomys (Acodori) michaelseni Matschie, Hamb. Magal. Reise, p. 5, pi., 
figs. 1, la-h, 1898 Punta Arenas, Straits of Magellan, Chile. 

Oxymycterus microtis Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 19, p. 189, 1903; 
Mamm. Patagonia, p. 84, 1905 upper Rio Chico, Santa Cruz, Argen- 

Notiomys michaelseni Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Suppl., p. 436, 1904; Osgood, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 118, 1925. 

Acodon (Chelemys) michaelseni Allen, Mamm. Patagonia, p. 80, 1905. 

Geoxus michaelseni Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 3, p. 209, 1919. 

Similar to northern forms of valdivianus, but larger, with the skull more 
elongate and having a narrower braincase. Color olive brown to blackish, the 
under parts slightly paler; feet pale brownish; tail indistinctly bicolored. Total 
length 157 (153-162); tail 46 (39-51); hind foot 21.2 (20-22). Skull length 27.5; 
breadth of braincase 12.2; upper cheekteeth 3.3. 

Range. Southern Patagonia from the Straits of Magellan north- 
ward in forests along the eastern base of the cordilleras probably to 
the vicinity of S. lat. 50. 

A small series of this molelike mouse was taken in February, 
1940, in the forested hills lying behind Punta Arenas and within 
ten miles of the city. Five out of six of these are dull olive brown in 
color and the sixth is sooty blackish. As topotypes of a rare form 
previously known only by the somewhat imperfect type they are of 
considerable interest. Although well distinguished from northern 
forms their general similarity to other members of the valdivianus 
series is such and so many localities are now represented by speci- 
mens that continuity of range seems fair to assume. Therefore, 
michaelseni is treated as a subspecies of valdivianus, and it is thus 


brought into conformity with the other rodents found about the 
Straits, nearly all of which are likewise no more than subspecifically 
separable from northern forms. 

It was obtained only at Punta Arenas although much trapping 
was done at nearby stations and northward to Ultima Esperanza. 
So far as known, it is one of the few small rodents that do not cross 
to Tierra del Fuego, but it is so elusive that its capture there at some 
future time is perhaps not unlikely. At certain times and places 
members of this genus are caught rather readily by ordinary methods 
of trapping, but usually they form only a very small percentage of 
large catches. Apparently they come to the surface most frequently 
in very wet ground and elsewhere are chiefly subterranean. 

Specimens examined. Punta Arenas, 6. 
Notiomys megalonyx megalonyx Waterhouse. 

Hesperomys megalonyx Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 154, 1844 

Lake Quintero, Valparaiso, Chile. 
Oxymicterus scalops Gay, Hist. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 108, 1847; Atlas, Mamm., 

pi. 6, figs, a-b (teeth), 1848 fields ("campos") of central provinces of 

C!)Oxymycterus niger Philippi, Zeitsch. gesammt. Naturw., Berlin, Neue 

Folge, 6, p. 445, 1872 Peine, Province of Santiago. 

Chroeomys(l) scalops Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 18, p. 340, 1916. 
Chraeomys scalops Gyldenstolpe, Man. Neotr. Sig. Rodents, p. 123, 1932. 
Notiomys megalonyx Osgood, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 121, 

Chelemys megalonyx Gyldenstolpe, Kungl. Svensk. Vet. Akad. Handl., 11, 

No. 3, p. 126, 1932. 

A medium-sized mouse with elongated front claws, thick pelage, and tail 
much shorter than head and body; upper side of feet brown; tail wholly brown; 
under parts lightly washed with brownish. Length 178, 170; tail 51, 56; foot 26, 
28; toothrow 4.8. 

Range. Coast of central Chile, thus far recorded only from the 
Province of Valparaiso. 

Present knowledge indicates only a very restricted range for 
this species, since wide gaps separate it from its nearest relatives, 
macronyx and vestitus. However, it is not readily obtainable except 
by intensive trapping and little of this has been done. It should be 
looked for in the region between the provinces of Valparaiso and 

The name scalops doubtless should be added to the synonymy of 
Notiomys megalonyx. Thomas has suggested that it might stand 


among the strikingly colored species which he has brought under the 
name of Chroeomys. Modern collectors, however, have found noth- 
ing closely resembling them in Chile, certainly not in central Chile. 
The original description of scalops has a statement that there is a 
general tinge of "rojo canelo sucio" in the body color and that the 
end of the nose, the tail, and the feet are more particularly of this 
indefinite color. This is followed by the qualifying statement, 
"aunque sin embargo estas ultimas sean algo mas claras," which 

seems to indicate that the first state- 
ment was not intended to be taken so 
seriously as has been the case. Meas- 
urements, long claws, and locality all 
point to Notiomys megalonyx and with- 
out more knowledge than we now 
have, scalops should be referred to that 
species. 1 

T^TO oo \r 4- Although this is one of the larger 

FIG. 22. Notiomys m. mega- 

lonyx. F.M. No. 22494. x 1. species of the genus, its dentition closely 

resembles that of some of the smaller 

forms. The reduction of the third molar, thought by Ellerman 
(Fam. Gen. Rodents, 2, p. 423, 1941) to distinguish the smaller 
species, is carried almost or quite as far in megalonyx as in 

Specimens examined. Total 8: Lake Quintero, Valparaiso, 2 
(lectoparatypes, B.M.); Olmue, 2; Las Rojas, near Quillota, 1; 
"Valparaiso Coast Hills," 3 (B.M.). 

Notiomys megalonyx microtis Philippi. 

Mus microtis Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Ent. 14a, p. 57, pi. 25, 1900 
Province of Maule, Chile. 

Similar to N. megalonyx but upper parts more richly colored (Prout's Brown 
instead of Snuff Brown); hind foot smaller. Hind foot (dry, in one specimen) 
24; toothrow 4.7. 

Range. West-central Chile probably from the Province of Maule 
southward at least to central Cautin. 

Mention of Philippi's name Mus microtis was inadvertently 
omitted when Notiomys was reviewed in 1925. Its reference to 
Notiomys is sufficiently attested by Philippi's description and 
figure. Moreover, the type specimen is still preserved. Notes 

1 Since this was written, the same conclusion has been published by Tate 
(Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Nov., No. 582, p. 19, 1932). 


taken on this specimen are as follows: "A specimen labeled with 
this name is doubtless the type, although its posture is a little more 
humped than in the figure. It has the feet and claws of Chelemys 
[= Notiomys] and its color is close to that of an immature specimen 
[of valdivianus] taken by Sanborn at Mafil [F.M.N.H. No. 22525]. 
The under parts are a little paler and now are rather brownish buff. 
At least part of the skull is inside. Tail measures 34; hind foot 

The name microtis of Philippi antedates and invalidates Oxymyc- 
terus microtis J. A. Allen 1903, which was proposed for a Notiomys 
from Patagonia, allied to michaelseni and bicolor. On the basis of 
Philippi 's description and figure as well as the examination of his 
type specimen, it was thought that the name might prove to be 
synonymous with valdivianus. In the absence of material from 
Maule, therefore, it was tentatively referred to valdivianus. Re- 
cently, however, a specimen from Temuco has been found in the 
British Museum (No. indicating that the region immedi- 
ately northwest of the Province of Valdivia is inhabited by a form 
more closely related to megalonyx than to valdivianus. That this 
form may range into Maule is not unlikely and, at least for the 
present, the name microtis may be applied to it. Its skull and teeth 
are notably larger than in valdivianus and little if any smaller than 
in megalonyx. Therefore, it is unlikely that it represents any grada- 
tion between megalonyx and valdivianus. 

Sanborn made small collections in Maule at Cauquenes and 
Quirihue, in 1923, but failed to obtain any specimen of Notiomys. 
He reports that original conditions have been greatly changed there, 
the primitive forest having been removed and the ground largely 
devoted to vineyards. Evidences of recent erosion were numerous, 
and house rats were present in great numbers. 

Specimens examined. Total 2: Province of Maule, 1 (type in 
Mus. Nac. Chile); Temuco, 1 (B.M.). 

Notiomys macronyx macronyx Thomas. 

Acodon macronyx Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), 14, p. 362, 1894 near 

Fort San Rafael, Province of Mendoza, Argentina. 
Acodon (Chelemys) macronyx Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), 12, p. 242, 

Notiomys macronyx Osgood, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 122, 


A stout-bodied, short-tailed mouse with elongated front claws and dense soft 
pelage nearly concealing small ears; upper parts Buffy Brown; feet and under 
parts white or nearly white; tail bicolored. 


Range. Known from two localities only, one east of the Andes 
in the Province of Mendoza, Argentina, and the other west of the 
Andes in the Province of Talca, Chile. 

Four specimens, two old males and two young, obtained by 
Sanborn in 1939 at Arroyo del Valle, Talca, seem referable to N. 
macronyx although direct comparison with the type of that species 
has not been possible. They are much paler than vestitus and 
although equal to it in bodily size, their skulls are somewhat smaller, 
with the teeth very slightly smaller, the difference in this last respect 
being scarcely more than what might be due to individual varia- 
tion. So far as can be judged from the original description these 
are the only important differences between macronyx and vestitus 
and they do not indicate more than subspecific differentiation. 
Doubtless macronyx cannot cross the Andes in the latitude of Men- 
doza but it might easily do so farther south, just as vestitus does. 
Therefore it seems reasonable to suppose that it ranges south from 
Mendoza along the eastern base until conditions permit it to pass 
westward into Chile. How far it may extend northward in Chile 
is still to be learned; as yet, the genus is not known from the west 
slope of the Andes north of Talca. 

The type of macronyx is an old specimen collected by Bridges 
in 1860, and it is doubtful if the measurements published for it are 
reliable. With a head and body of 118 and tail of 47, it is said to 
have a hind foot, "moistened," of 24.5. The skull length, however, 
is given as 30, which would indicate an animal of somewhat larger 
external dimensions. Measurements of the two adults taken by 
Sanborn in Talca are: total length 190, 181; tail 66, 53; hind foot 
26, 26. 

Besides the four here referred to macronyx, a fifth specimen was 
taken in Talca at the same time. This was apparently associated 
with the others, but differs from them so markedly that its classi- 
fication is doubtful. Its color is uniformly light grayish brown 
(slightly darker than Wood Brown) both above and below and, 
although it is an old female with worn teeth, its skull is somewhat 
smaller (length 28.3) than usual in this group. The possibility that 
it is some sort of mutant cannot be excluded and unless or until 
more like it have been obtained it may be so regarded. A relation- 
ship to megalonyx is not impossible. Sanborn reports that all these 
specimens were caught underground in abandoned burrows of 
Ctenomys, a further indication of the highly subterranean habits of 
the genus. 

MAP 7. Distribution of the macronyx group of the genus Notiomys. 



Notiomys macronyx vestitus Thomas. 

Akodon (Chelemys subgen. n.) vestitus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), 
12, p. 242, 1903 Valle del Lago Blanco, Chubut, Argentina. 

Chelemys vestitus Thomas, supra cit., (9), 3, p. 207, 1919. 

Notiomys connedens Osgood, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 120, 
1925 Villa Portales, Cautin, Chile. 

Notiomys vestitus Osgood, supra cit., p. 123. 

A mouse with elongated front claws, thick pelage nearly concealing small 
ears, and a relatively short tail; feet and under parts grayish white; tail sharply 
bicolor. Similar to N. macronyx, but decidedly darker; upper parts Fuscous rather 
than Drab; teeth heavier. Total length 187, 195; tail 50, 56; hind foot 27. 

Range. Valleys on both sides of the Chilean- Argentine boundary 
from west-central Chubut (lat. 46 S.) northward to the provinces 
of Cautin and Malleco, western Chile (lat. 38 50' S.). 

In reviewing the genus Notiomys, I recorded this subspecies from 
the Chilean provinces of Cautin and Malleco and gave the new 
name connectens to a single specimen from the same region supposed 
to represent a distinct species. Subsequent study of other rodents 
from the region has led to the disconcerting discovery that I was 
in this case victimized by a transposition of skins and skulls. The 
skin of N. connectens, which I now designate as the unique type, 
proves to be that of a somewhat immature example of N. m. vestitus, 
quite like others from the same region. The skull erroneously associ- 
ated with it is that of an Abrothrix and its proper skin has now been 
found in the collection as well as the skull belonging with the skin 
of N. connectens. In selecting the skin as the type, I am proceeding 
on the principle that the skin is the primary part of the specimen 
and that which originally contained the skull. Such a principle, 
perhaps, could not always be followed but, other things being equal, 
it seems to have general merit. In this case, it is especially desirable 
in order that the name may at once sink into synonymy and cause 
no further confusion. 

Since the review mentioned above was issued, a few additional 
records of Notiomys have appeared and two further names have 
been proposed. 

Chelemys angustus Thomas (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 19, pp. 
654-655, 1927), described from a skull without skin, taken near 
Bariloche, Lake Nahuelhuapi, Argentina, will require careful and 
expert examination before its status can be determined. The state- 
ment of Thomas that this skull resembles the one described under 
the name connectens (not examined by Thomas) leads to the sus- 
picion that here also we may be dealing with a skull of Abrothrix 


rather than Notiomys. The common Abrothrix of the region is 
suffusa (or hirta) and in series of this form skulls may easily be found 
with measurements closely approximating those given for the type 
of angustus. If both Thomas and myself have mistaken skulls of 
Abrothrix for Notiomys, it furnishes a striking demonstration of the 
slight basis on which generic divisions have been attempted among 
South American rodents. As stated elsewhere, the recognition of 
Abrothrix as a subgenus is convenient at the present time, but its 
proper characterization awaits a state of knowledge in which specific 
and supposed generic characters are not so confused as now. 

Without considering northern forms which may be related, the 
opinion can be ventured that Oxymycterus and Notiomys are con- 
nected with Akodon through Abrothrix. Oxymycterus contains both 
short-clawed and long-clawed forms, Notiomys only long-clawed, and 
Abrothrix only short-clawed. In dentition Oxymycterus shows pro- 
nounced division of the anterior lamina of the first upper molar, 
Notiomys shows less and this soon obliterated, while Abrothrix shows 
a range of variation leading to Akodon. In one young specimen of 
Notiomys vestitus examined, the lamina is clearly divided in the 
molar of the right side and quite entire in the one on the left. The 
infraorbital plate reaches extremes in Oxymycterus, but these are 
approached in both Notiomys and Abrothrix and there is such vari- 
ation in all three that this character is scarcely serviceable for more 
than specific or subspecific distinction. As stated elsewhere, Microxus 
is probably assignable to Abrothrix. 

In view of the above, it is perhaps surprising to find Thomas 
(Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 19, pp. 655-656, 1927) still contending 
for the recognition of much finer divisions as represented by Chelemys 
and Geoxus, both of which it seems to me are clearly synonyms of 
Notiomys. Although his knowledge of South American rodents 
was vastly superior to that of any other mammalogist, his standards 
for generic division were somewhat peculiar and, in many cases, 
it is unlikely that subsequent workers will be inclined to follow him. 
During a visit to London in 1930, unfortunately too late for personal 
conference with Thomas, I had the opportunity to examine the 
original type of Notiomys edwardsi as well as a modern specimen 
of the same species which proved to be still more important. The 
latter was recorded by Thomas in one of the last papers to come 
from his pen (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (10), 4, p. 42, 1929). In his 
comment upon it, he makes no reference to the skull, although this 
is most important in connection with his previously expressed opinion 


as to the generic position of the species. This skull, while obviously 
conspecific with that of the type, shows much less departure from 
the usual form in valdivianus, michaelseni, and others of that series. 
It indicates that the type is somewhat extreme or perhaps abnormal 
in what Thomas has called its "short, dumpy" shape and its short 
broad rostrum. Notiomys edwardsi, therefore, cannot be separated 
generically, although it is a very distinct species notably charac- 
terized externally by its small ears and very pale and delicate 

While the subject of transposed skulls is under discussion, it 
may be well to refer to another possible case, and one in which the 
genus Notiomys is again involved. This is the type and only known 
specimen of "Reithrodon" fossor described by Thomas in 1899 (Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), 4, p. 280) from a skin which he states to be 
"precisely similar" to that of Notiomys macronyx. He is even 
emphatic in commenting that "its external resemblance amounts 
practically to identity, there being absolutely no single character, 
of size, proportions, or colour, which would make the keenest-eyed 
'splitter' suppose that the skin of R. fossor did not belong to Akodon 
[i.e. Notiomys macronyx], though in the skull the difference is com- 
plete." The possibility that skin and skull were not properly 
associated was mentioned in a footnote to the original description 
as follows: "The skull should be taken as type if it were hereafter 
shown not to belong to the skin; but it was extracted in the Museum 
on arrival, so that any mistake seems quite impossible." 

Such mistakes, however, are quite possible, as has been shown 
in other cases and, in view of the failure of collectors to obtain the 
species again during the past thirty years of activity, it seems more 
than probable that the type of fossor is composite, the skin being 
Notiomys and the skull Euneomys. The type is an old specimen 
"presented by the La Plata Museum through Dr. F. P. Moreno" 
and said to have proceeded from Salta Province, Argentina, without 
exact locality. It is perhaps ungracious to discredit it without actual 
examination of the specimen, but the general evidence seems very 
much against it. The genus Chelemyscus, which is based exclusively 
upon it, has no characters except those that might be the result of a 
transposed skull; that is, Chelemyscus has no characters of its own, 
its external characters being strictly those of Notiomys and its cranial 
characters those of Euneomys. Unless additional specimens are forth- 
coming, therefore, this genus is suspect and deserves no better posi- 
tion than in a "hypothetical" list. 


What appears to be a local form of vestitus, quite restricted in 
distribution, has been described from the western slope of the Andes 
in the Province of Neuquen, Argentina. This is Notiomys vestitus 
fumosus (Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 19, p. 654, 1927), 
which was taken at some 6,000 feet in the Sierra de Pilpil and at 
San Martin de los Andes, about 15 km. farther north. It differs 
from typical vestitus in generally darker color, with the hands, feet 
and forearm dusky or at least grayish instead of white as in vestitus. 
Apparently vestitus ranges around it or below it for this form is 
found south of it in Chubut, and north of it at least as far as 
the Province of Cautin in Chile. This apparent interruption in the 
distribution of vestitus may be due to some habitat preference or 
factor of altitude. So far as known, typical vestitus has been found 
in relatively open places in light forest or grassland, near the eastern 
base of the Andes at moderate elevations. The collector of the type 
series of fumosus, E. Budin, states that it was "found in the high- 
lands up to the limit of snow." If this is true, it may occupy a 
higher zone or a more heavily forested region than vestitus and it is 
not unlikely that its range may extend into Chile, although speci- 
mens so far taken are all from Argentina. 

Specimens examined. Total 29: Casa Richards, Rio Nirehuao, 
Llanquihue, 8; Lake Galletue, Cautin, 2; Lonquimai, 16; Rio Colo- 
rado, Malleco, 2; Villa Portales, Cautin, 1. 

Notiomys macronyx alleni Osgood. 

Notiomys vestitus alleni Osgood, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 124, 
1925 upper Rio Chico, Santa Cruz, Argentina. 

Similar to N. m. vestitus, but color paler, brownish rather than sooty or grayish ; 
upper parts Dresden Brown sharply distinguished from under parts, which are 
creamy white; skull with the infraorbital plate somewhat shortened. Total length 
173 (168-180); tail 50 (45-57); hind foot 25.3 (25-26). 

Range. East base of the Andes from lat. 48 to 51 S. on both 
sides of the Chilean-Argentine boundary. 

This form is considerably lighter-colored than vestitus, although 
not so pale as macronyx. Thus vestitus has paler forms on either 
side of it, one to the north and the other to the south. 

Four specimens collected by J. M. Schmidt, in 1940, at Laguna 
Lazo near the south side of Lake Sarmiento, are indistinguishable 
from the original series from the Rio Chico. The range is thus 
extended several degrees farther south. Conditions about Lake 
Sarmiento are considerably different from those at Punta Arenas 


and the immediate vicinity of the Straits, and the extension of 
this form to that region is doubtful. Thomas (Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., (10), 4, p. 42, 1929) has recorded three specimens from Alta 
Vista, Lake Argentine. 

Specimens examined. Total 10 : CHILE : Laguna Lazo, near Lake 
Sarmiento, Ultima Esperanza, 4. ARGENTINA: Upper Rio Chico, 
Santa Cruz, 6 (A.M.N.H.). 

Notiomys delfini Cabrera. 

Oxymycterus delfini Cabrera, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 9, pp. 15-16, 1905 Punta 

Arenas, Straits of Magellan. 

[Notiomys?} delfini Osgood, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 125, 1925. 
Chelemys(1) delfini Gyldenstolpe, Man. Neotrop. Rodents, p. 128, 1932. 
Microxus delfini Tate, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Nov. No. 582, p. 27, 1932. 

So far as can be judged by the original description, this falls in 
the macronyx group of the genus Notiomys. The description states 
that the claws are very long, sharp, and curved, and the ears rounded 
and very short. These characters apply to Notiomys better than 
to any other known rodent of the region. The published measure- 
ments, taken from the alcoholic type, are as follows: head and body 
106; tail 63; hind foot without claw 22; ear 11. A specimen of 
vestitus in Field Museum has a tail length of 62, so this measure- 
ment is not discrepant. The measurement of 22 for the foot is less 
than in vestitus and may be due to the condition of the specimen. 
The skull length is given as 30, which is right for the macronyx 
group, and which, moreover, indicates an animal likely to have a 
foot somewhat longer than 22. Tate (I.e.), who refers the species 
to Microxus, gives no reason for doing so and I am unable to find 
any. The type was supposed to be in the collection of the museum 
at Valparaiso, but it is not mentioned in the catalogue of this col- 
lection published by Wolff sohn and Porter (1908) and I am informed 
by its describer that it was probably destroyed or lost as a result of 
one of Chile's disastrous earthquakes. 

During our work in 1939-40, we did not find any member of the 
macronyx group nearer Punta Arenas than Ultima Esperanza, some 
200 miles to the north. Mice of this genus, however, may easily be 
missed, and it is still possible that a recognizable form, to which the 
name delfini would apply, may occur at Punta Arenas. On the 
other hand, the type may have been brought to Punta Arenas from 
considerable distance, and being preserved in alcohol, its dark colors, 
which apparently distinguish it from alleni, would be accounted for. 


Akodon olivaceus olivaceus Waterhouse. OLIVACEOUS AKODON. 

Mus olivaceus Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 16, 1837 Valparaiso, 

Mus Renggeri Waterhouse, Zool. Voy. Beagle, Mamm., p. 51, pi. 15, fig. 1 
(col.), 1838 substitute name, not tenable. 

Acodon olivaceus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), 14, p. 363, 1894; (Ako- 
don), (9), 19, p. 550, 1897 (lectotype designated). 

Mus lepturus Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 14a, p. 17, pi. 4, 
fig. 2, 1900 Peine, Province of O'Higgins. 

Mus psilurus Philippi, supra cit., p. 17, pi. 4, fig. 3, 1900 Province of Col- 

Mus trichotis Philippi, supra cit., p. 18, pi. 5, fig. 1, 1900 Andes of Province 
of Santiago. 

Mus vinealis Philippi, supra cit., p. 24, pi. 7, fig. 3, 1900 Province of San- 

Mus (Oxymycterus) Landbecki Philippi, supra cit., p. 26, pi. 8, fig. 2, 1900 
near Illapel and Choapa, Province of Coquimbo. 

Mus (Oxymycterus) senilis Philippi, supra cit., p. 27, pi. 8, fig. 3, 1900 Valle 
del Yeso, Andes of Province of Santiago. 

Mus Germaini Philippi, supra cit., p. 32, pi. 12, fig. 2, 1900 Province of 

Mus nasica Philippi, supra cit., p. 38, pi. 15, fig. 3, 1900 no locality. 

Mus ruficaudus Philippi, supra cit., p. 40, pi. 17, fig. 1, 1900 Province of 
O'Higgins (fide Wolffsohn). 

Mus macronychos Philippi, supra cit., p. 40, pi. 17, fig. 2, 1900 central 

provinces of Chile. 

A small grayish brown mouse with whitish or brownish under parts, small ears, 
and the tail about one-third shorter than the head and body. Total length 173 
(166-182); tail 71 (66-80); hind foot 22.3 (22-23); ear 12-14. 

Range. Central Chile, mainly on the coast and in neighboring 
valleys from Caldera in the Province of Atacama south at least to 
Valparaiso and thence east to Santiago and south along the base of 
the Andes at least to the Province of Talca. 

The common small Akodon of Chile is divisible into several 
races of which the typical one, that is, the one first discovered and 
described, is the one found in the most populous part of the country. 
It occupies the moderately watered and fertile part of Chile, lying 
between the deserts of the north and the wet forests of the south. 
Most available specimens are from coastal localities, but Philippi's 
records include several from the vicinity of Santiago and southward 
along the western side of the Andes. The southernmost record from 
this region, where the species appears to be relatively rare, is that 
of a single specimen from the Province of Talca obtained by Sanborn 


in 1939. From the central valley, where it may occur, there are no 
records. In the north it penetrates a considerable distance into 
relatively arid regions, but apparently its occurrence there is very 
local and perhaps is due to its having followed the development of 
irrigation. Southerly in the coast region it doubtless meets the 
slightly smaller subspecies pencanus somewhere between the prov- 
inces of Valparaiso and Maule. 

Names proposed by Philippi which seem applicable to this form 
are Upturns, psilurus, trichotis, vinealis, Landbecki, senilis, Germaini, 

nasica, ruficaudus, and macronychos. The 
type of trichotis was found and examined 
in the museum in Santiago in 1923. It 
bears the name Mus dumetorum, but since 
it is mounted in an attitude closely ap- 
proaching that figured by Philippi for 
trichotis and very different from that of 
dumetorum, there seems little doubt it is 
FlG- 2 \. A1 don n / n ti~ in reality the basis of the name trichotis. 

vaceus. F.M. No. 24068. T n lu j ^ *.*.*. j 

X i. In all the types examined, the attitudes 

correspond so closely with the figures that 

it is practically certain the drawings were made directly from the 
mounted specimens. This specimen, probable type of trichotis, is 
clearly one of the common small Akodons and, although it is darker- 
colored, may be synonymized with olivaceus on the basis of locality. 


The types of lepturus, vinealis, Germaini, nasica, and ruficaudus 
were studied by Wolffsohn and examination of his notes in regard 
to them (1910a, pp. 89, 95, 98) leaves no room for doubt as to the 
correctness of his conclusions that all belong to one and the same 
common species. Wolffsohn also mentions (I.e., p. 93) Mus land- 
becki as a synonym of olivaceus, but it is not clear whether its type 
was available to him. His determination in this case also may be 
accepted, for Philippi's description and figure clearly indicate a 
small Akodon, probably one in brownish worn pelage. 

The types of M. psilurus and M. macronychos were not found. 
With due reference to inaccuracy in other cases, these names may 
be referred to olivaceus with a fair degree of assurance on the basis 
of the descriptions and figures, although these are not wholly 

Specimens examined. Total 42: Caldera, Atacama, 3; Coquimbo, 
2 (Darwin specimens in B.M.); La Laguna, Valparaiso, 1 (B.M.); 
Olmue, Valparaiso, 5; Papudo, Aconcagua, 8; Quillota, Valparaiso, 

MAP 8. Distribution of Akodon o. olivaceus and A. o. brachiotis (A. o. pencanus 
not distinguished). 



2; Quilpue, 4 (B.M.); Ramadilla, Copiapo Valley, Atacama, 2; 
Romero, Coquimbo, 4; Province of Santiago, 1 (type of Mus trichotis 
in Mus. Nac. Chile); Puente Alto, Santiago, 1 (B.M.); Valparaiso, 1 
(lectoparatype in B.M.); "Coast Hills," Valparaiso, 8 (B.M.). 

Akodon olivaceus pencanus Philippi. 

Mus pencanus Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 14a, p. 46, pi. 19, 

fig. 2, 1900 Concepcion, Chile. 
Mus atratus Philippi, supra cit., p. 57, pi. 25, fig. 3, 1900 Province of Maule. 

Generally similar to Akodon o. olivaceus, but averaging slightly darker and 
smaller in size; skull smaller with audital bullae especially small. Total length 
162 (151-174); tail 65 (57-76); hind foot 21-22. 

Range. Coast region from the Province of Maule south to Con- 
cepcion and the Sierra Nahuelbuta, thence westward to the Andes 
in the provinces of Malleco and Cautin. 

This form stands between typical olivaceus and the dark-colored 
and long-tailed brachiotis of the Valdivian humid forest district. If 
only a few specimens or localities were represented they might be 
dismissed as mere evidences of intergradation. However, many 
specimens are in hand and they cover a considerable geographic 
range throughout which the same characters are maintained. More- 
over, these characters are readily recognizable since they consist of 
the combination in which the color of olivaceus is approximated on 
the one hand and the cranial characters of brachiotis on the other. 
Although it shows no approach to brackiotis in length of tail, there 
is little doubt that it merges into that form. Further collecting 
along the northern border of the humid forest district, therefore, 
would be of interest. 

Mus pencanus Philippi is represented in the museum at Santiago 
by two specimens, either or both of which may have furnished the 
basis of Philippi's figure (I.e., pi. 19, fig. 2). They are mounted in 
similar attitudes, both very like the figure except that the tails have 
been bent into new positions. They are clearly of one species and 
direct comparison with other specimens from Concepcion leaves 
scarcely any doubt that they are the same. They are now darker 
and browner than the modern specimens, but this is probably due 
to age and discoloration from fluid preservation, mounting, etc. In 
both, the pelage of the under parts is still stringy from wetting. 
Philippi gives a measurement of 26 for the hind foot, but this is 
evidently erroneous. The feet are well preserved and now measure 
exactly 22. It is to be noted also that the feet in his figure measure 
only 21. His statement "cuerpo i la cabeza por encima casi negros" 


is not well borne out, for there was evidently considerable of the 
"viso amarillo" which he mentions later. The specimens should be 
regarded as cotypes. Both have the typewritten label, "Raton. 
Mus pencanus, Ph. Obs. S. Muller, Concep., 1892." One has a 
pencil number, 216, on the top of its stand and on the bottom, 
rather faintly, 382. The typewritten name Mus pencanus has been 
scratched and overwritten in ink with "Akodon longipilis" in hand- 
writing which was not positively recognized. This identification is 
obviously mistaken, although it might easily have been derived from 
the description and figure. Two loose skulls labeled pencanus also 
were found in the Santiago museum. These probably are the original 
skulls and, although only partly cleaned, their general characters are 
plainly observable. 

The type of atratus was found existing in fair condition. The 
tail is "telescoped" and this accounts for its supposed shortness. 
Like that of trichotis, the color is darker than in typical olivaceus, 
but without any other reason for denying the locality alleged by 
Philippi it seems best to place the name as a synonym of pencanus. 
After giving the name atratus and a diagnosis consistent with it, the 
describer makes the naive "observation" that although black when 
received, the specimens later turned gray. 

Specimens examined. Total 69: Angol, 4; Concepcion, 21 (includ- 
ing cotypes in Mus. Nac. Chile); Curacautin, Cautin, 4; Pilen Alto, 
Maule, 2; Province of Maule, 1 (type of Mus atratus, Mus. Nac. 
Chile) ; Quirihue, Maule, 1 ; Rio Lolen, Cautin, 1 ; Sierra Nahuelbuta, 
32; Villa Portales, Cautin, 3. 

Akodon olivaceus mochae Philippi. 

Mus Mochae Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 14a, p. 42, pi. 17, 

fig. 5, 1900 Mocha Island, Chile. 
Irenomys mochae Gyldenstolpe, Kungl. Svensk. Vet. Akad. Handl., (3), 11, 

p. 84, 1932. 

Similar to A. o. pencanus, but tail usually unicolored, the under side nearly 
or quite as dark as the upper; breast usually somewhat fulvous. Skull with audi- 
tal bullae small as in pencanus. 

Range. Mocha Island, off coast of Province of Arauco, south- 
west of Concepcion, Chile. 

There seems little doubt that the name mochae applies to an 
Akodon of the olivaceus series, although this conclusion requires some 
allowance for inaccuracies in Philippi's description and figure. So 
far as known, it is the only rodent found on Mocha Island to which 


the name could possibly apply, and at least its general characters 
of small size and yellowish color are as indicated by Philippi. 

For an important collection of mammals from Mocha Island, we 
are indebted to the interest and enterprise of Dr. Dillman S. Bul- 
lock of Angol, Chile. This collection (now in the American Museum 
of Natural History) includes representatives of the four common 
small rodents of the mainland, Akodon, Abrothrix, Notiomys, and 
Oryzomys. This is what might well have been expected, and any 
assumption that the island harbors some other mouse approximating 
Akodon in size makes it necessary to find a mainland relative for it, 
and there is none. Therefore, unless Philippi's mochae was not from 
the island, it was in all probability the small Akodon which proves 
to be common there. 

Philippi's measurements, as published, are: head and body 70; 
tail 70; hind foot 17. These agree with nothing known from Chile 
and must be considered erroneous. The length of the tail is right 
for the Akodon from Mocha, but the other dimensions are too small, 
although they might be approached in immature specimens. The 
figure agrees with the description fairly well and leads to the sus- 
picion that it may have been based on the description rather than 
directly on a specimen. In various cases this seems to have hap- 
pened, since details are introduced which do not exist and which can 
only be explained on some mental basis. Therefore, where no types 
exist, application of names rests mainly on general characters and 
on localities. Nevertheless, one feature of the description of mochae 
seems significant and since it is italicized it may be that in this 
instance Philippi stumbled on a real character of the island form, 
perhaps the only one. This is the color of the tail, which he states 
is "concolor, sublutea." A concolor tail appears to be at least an 
average character of the form although it is blackish instead of 
yellowish. It is found in five out of the seven specimens available. 

The material from Mocha Island is perhaps not sufficient to 
demonstrate with certainty the existence of a well-differentiated 
insular form there, but at least provisional recognition seems justi- 
fied. This conclusion is somewhat influenced by the fact that the 
name mochae may be entitled to establishment in any case. It has 
page priority over pencanus and atratus, and if the supposed char- 
acters of an island form prove unstable it would replace pencanus. 

No specimen purporting to be the type of mochae could be found 
in Santiago during my first visit there. Since then (1930), however, 
I have examined one in the British Museum which may have some 


claims. The skin of this specimen (No. has the word 
"Type" in red ink written on its label, apparently by Thomas, and it 
is the only one of the entire lot received from Santiago in 1911 which 
is so marked. Whether or not Thomas had some special reason for 
this does not appear. He has also noted on the skin label the words, 
"skull sent separate." The label is typewritten and of the style usual 
on many other specimens from Santiago. The skull with it has a 
very different label, handwritten, faded, soiled, and evidently very 
old. It bears the number 979 and the inscription "Mus moschae isla 
de la Mocha." 

My notes on the skin are not very detailed and state merely that 
it seems too small for the skull, that it is dirty brown without much 
indication of pattern or original color, and that it has the general 
appearance of a small, immature Akodon. The skull, on the other 
hand, was examined closely and, to my surprise, it was found to 
have the distinctly grooved incisors and simple, prismatic molars of 
Irenomys. It is immature, the last molars not being erupted, but 
there is nothing to distinguish it from the one known species of 
Irenomys. This seemed so important that I made a penciled note 
on the label which perhaps served to call it to the attention of Gylden- 
stolpe, who has referred mochae to Irenomys. 

That the skin and skull are improperly associated is very evident, 
not only on account of their different labeling and their separate 
receipt at the British Museum, but because they clearly belong to 
different genera. That even the skin served as the basis of the origi- 
nal description or figure is doubtful and that the skull was concerned 
in any way is scarcely possible, for the long-eared, long-tailed, big- 
footed and dark-colored Irenomys has not even general resemblance 
to the description and figure. Comparison of the skin with speci- 
mens of Akodon from the island would be desirable when opportunity 
permits. The skull, however, should be relegated to the limbo of 
misfits. Nothing except its label has any suggestion of Mus mochae 
and a transposed skull label in Philippi's material is more probable 
than otherwise. The skull may, in fact, be that of the type of 
Irenomys tarsalis since there is no more authentic one; if not this, 
it may be that of longicaudatus, which is also missing. 

Specimens examined. Mocha Island, 9 (A.M.N.H. 7; B.M. 2). 

Akodon olivaceus brachiotis Waterhouse. 

Mus brachiotis Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 17, 1837; Zool. Voy. 
Beagle, Mamm., p. 49, pi. 14, pi. 34, figs. 8a, 86, 1839 small island in 
Midship Bay, Chonos Archipelago, Chile. 


Mus brevicaudatus Philippi, Zeitschr. gesammt. Naturw., Berlin, Neue Folge, 

6, pp. 446-447, 1872 Puerto Montt, Chile. 
Akodon brachiotis Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., p. 537, 1897. 
Akodon brevicaudatus Trouessart, supra cit., p. 538. 

Abrothrix brachiotis Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 3, p. 204, 1919; 
(9), 19, p. 551, 1927 (lectotype designated). 

Mus Foncki Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 14a, p. 20, pi. 5, 

fig. 4, 1900 Puerto Montt, Chile. 
Mus chonoticus Philippi, supra cit., p. 24, pi. 7, fig. 2, 1900 Chonos Islands, 

southern Chile. 
Mus xanthopus Philippi, supra cit., p. 41, pi. 17, fig. 4, 1900 near Osorno, 

Valdivia, Chile. 
Mus nemoralis Philippi, supra cit., p. 49, pi. 20, fig. 3, 1900 near Valdivia, 


Similar in general to A. o. olivaceus and A. o. pencanus, but differing markedly 
in color and proportions. Upper parts rich dark brown (Prout's Brown). Tail 
about three-fourths the length of the head and body. Skull slender with small 
audital bullae and the rostral part somewhat compressed and attenuated. Total 
length 178 (170-180); tail 80 (78-84); hind foot 22.2 (22-24). 

Range. Humid forested region of south-central Chile from Val- 
divia through the lake region to the Argentine boundary and south- 
ward through the Chonos Islands and on the adjacent mainland at 
least to Aysen. 

This mouse, which differs from typical olivaceus so markedly as 
almost to suggest specific distinction, was found in abundance at 
the mouth of the Rio Aysen in lat. 45 30' S. at a point about oppo- 
site the type locality in the Chonos Islands. No specimens are 
available from points farther south, but doubtless it extends in 
that direction for a considerable distance; in the extreme south 
about the Straits of Magellan it appears to have no representative 
other than A. xanthorhinus from which it is obviously very distinct. 
Throughout the provinces of Valdivia and Llanquihue it is the most 
abundant small rodent. Its characters seem best developed in 
specimens from Chiloe Island, but there is considerable variation, 
especially in cranial characters, among mainland specimens, and it 
does not appear possible to differentiate an insular form. 

Philippi's names referable to this form are brevicaudatus, Foncki, 
chonoticus, xanthopus, and nemoralis. Specimens representing 
xanthopus and chonoticus were found in the museum at Santiago, 
and although no very satisfactory comparisons were possible, the 
following notes made at the time seem fairly conclusive as to their 


"Mus chonoticus Philippi. Type existing in fair condition. Skull 
inside. It has considerable resemblance to Philippi's figure. The 
tip of the tail is gone. The color is chiefly brownish, the grayish or 
plumbeous area being on the under parts entirely. The tail seems 
to have been blackish all around. The hind foot now measures 21." 

"Mus xanthopus Philippi. The probable type of this is in the 
museum and labeled 'Laucha. Mus infans Ph. Osorno.' Its color, 
pose, and measurements, added to the fact that it still carries the 
locality Osorno, indicate that it is the original of xanthopus and not 
of infans. Its hind foot is twisted and not accurately measurable, 
but an estimated measurement gives 17-18. The skull is gone from 
the skin, but a skull is preserved labeled with the same name and 
number, about the right size, and having the occipital part of the 
cranium missing, practically as in the one figured by Philippi for 
xanthopus. This seems to be a skull of a young Akodon. The third 
molar has not appeared, but the others are in place and have the 
akodont characters. Hence I believe this is the common Akodon of 
the region, although its feet are small and its color rather reddish. 
It had been in alcohol before mounting, the tail vertebrae remain 
inside, and it has been distorted, besides being very young. It is 
much darker than Philippi's figure, but still carries a dark reddish 
brown tone." 

Mus Foncki, Mus brevicaudatus, and Mus nemoralis are regarded 
as synonyms of brachiotis on the basis of Philippi's descriptions, 
measurements, and figures, together with his statement of localities. 
In none of them is the evidence wholly conclusive, but with allowance 
for the author's usual inaccuracies, nothing appears which suggests 
any better disposition of these names. Unless the types are found 
and demonstrate something to the contrary, therefore, no alteration 
of this conclusion seems possible. The short tail alleged for brevicau- 
datus may be disregarded since it has been found in other cases where 
the types still exist that Philippi made no allowance for the "tele- 
scoping" of a tail to scarcely half its original length. 

One of Waterhouse's specimens of Mus brachiotis in the British 
Museum has been regarded by Thomas (1919, I.e.) as belonging to 
Abrothrix rather than Akodon. He offers no explanation of this 
conclusion beyond a bare statement of opinion, but I am unable to 
find justification for it in Waterhouse's description and figures. 
Both plate and description indicate an animal with a bicolored tail 
and if any Abrothrix should be found in the Chonos Islands, it would 
probably have a wholly black tail. His colored figure of the animal 


has the brownish shades of Akodon and the figures of the teeth show 
them to be in a well-worn stage in which no distinction between 
Abrothrix and Akodon is possible. It may be, therefore, that Thomas 
was influenced by the slender muzzle which in many cases distin- 
guishes Abrothrix from Akodon, but is here only one of the subspecific 
characters of brachiotis in which it differs from olivaceus and pencanus, 
its nearest relatives. 

While passing through London in June, 1937, I made a very 
hasty examination of the two specimens that formed the basis of 
Waterhouse's brachiotis. Owing to the absence of good compara- 
tive material, this examination was not wholly conclusive, but I 
am satisfied that only one form is represented and that obviously 
the common Akodon of the Chilean rain forest. Rough notes taken 
at the time are as follows: 

"Two lectoparatypes slightly faded brownish in color with paler 
under parts and not sharply bicolored tails, the two exactly alike in 
color. Laid on side well fastened. Nos. and 55.12. 
24.167. Feet light brownish or may have been lighter once. On 
one (No. 166), he [Thomas] has written, 'An Akodon, not Abr. 
brachiotis.' On the other he has written Abrothrix above the name 
'Hesp. brachiotis Waterh.' Do not find but one skull, that of No. 
167, which O.T. has marked Lectotype. The upper teeth are present 
only on right side and are fairly worn, too worn to show whether first 
lamina was divided or not. The nasals are rather long, longer than 
in olivaceus, but there are no southern skulls here to compare. There 
is no lower jaw." 

Specimens examined. Total 274: Chonos Islands, 1 (type of 
Mus chonoticus, Mus. Nac. Chile); Aysen, 27; Rio Inio, Chiloe 
Island, 46; islet in Midship Bay, 1 (lectotype, B.M.); islet off east 
coast of Chiloe, 1 (lectoparatype, B.M.); Lake Todos Santos, 14 
(A.M.N.H.); La Picada, Mount Osorno, 9; Mafil, Valdivia, 40; 
Osorno, 1 (type of M us xanthopus, Mus. Nac. Chile) ; Peulla, Lake 
Todos Santos, 48; Puerto Montt, 23; Quellon, Chiloe Island, 37; 
Refugio, Mount Osorno, 1; Rinihue, Valdivia, 25. 

Akodon olivaceus beatus Thomas. 

Akodon beatus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 3, p. 204, 1919 Beatriz, 

Nahuelhuapi, Argentina. 
Akodon arenicola beatus Gyldenstolpe, Man. Neotr. Sig. Rodents, p. 103, 1932. 

A small and somewhat variable series of Akodons from the 
eastern base of the Andes may be assigned to the form called beatus, 


with the description of which they essentially agree. This form was 
described from Nahuelhuapi and has since been recorded from 
Zapala, San Martin de los Andes, and Sierra de Pilpil, Neuquen. 
If the specimens in hand are correctly referred, beatus is not especially 
related to arenicola, with which Thomas compared it, but it is very 
closely allied to A. olivaceus brachiotis. It differs from brachiotis 
from Rio Aysen on the west coast of Chile mainly in somewhat 
paler, less saturate coloration. There is less blackish on the under 
side of the terminal half of the tail and in series the percentage of 
specimens with wholly light under parts is greater. The skulls 
seem to be indistinguishable, but in beatus there is apparently a 
tendency to obsolescence of the cleft in the anterior lamina of the 
first upper cheektooth. This is usually present and fairly persistent 
in brachiotis, but in beatus, so far as examined, it rarely appears. 
In one very young specimen it is present on the right side and absent 
on the left. 

That there is continuous distribution of Akodon from the mouth 
of Rio Aysen on the west coast to Rio Nirehuao east of the moun- 
tains I have little doubt. On the route between these points, which 
I myself traversed, conditions are wholly favorable for this, but 
trapping was only practical at one point, Rio Coihoique, and there 
no thorough test was possible. Specimens in the American Museum 
from Campo Bandera, Coihoique, are light colored and apparently 
the same as those from Rio Nirehuao, but the two series have not 
been actually compared. It is probable, also, that there is connection 
between beatus and brachiotis in the passes between Nahuelhuapi and 
Lake Todos Santos. 

Specimens examined. Total 21: Campo Bandera, Coihoique, 5 
(A.M.N.H.); Rio Nirehuao (Casa Richards), 16. 

Akodon andinus andinus Philippi. 

Mus andinus Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 24, (1), p. 77, 1858 high Andes, 

Province of Santiago, Chile. 
Akodon andinus Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., p. 535, 1897; Thomas, Ann. Mag. 

Nat. Hist., (8), 11, p. 140, 1913. 
Mus andinus "Ph. et Landb.," Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Ent. 14a, 

pp. 16, 18, 19, 22, 44, pi. 6, fig. 2 (col.), 1900. 

Akodon (Chelemys) andinus Wolffsohn, Bol. Mus. Nac. Chile, 2, p. 90, 1910. 
Akodon gossei Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 6, p. 418, 1920 Puente 

del Inca, Mendoza, Argentina. 
Bolomys andinus Tate, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Nov. No. 582, p. 23, 1932. 

A very small mouse mainly light buffy in color both above and below; skull 
with relatively large rounded audital bullae; toothrow about 3.8. Total length 
155; tail 64; hind foot 20. 


Range. High altitudes (8,000 feet upwards) of the Andes of 
central Chile and thence into Argentina in the provinces of Mendoza, 
San Juan (probably), and Rioja. 

The probable type of this species was found in Santiago in a fair 
state of preservation. The position of the tail has been changed, as 
it is now bent to one side, but the head and body are posed as in 
Philippi's figure. The color is light grayish suffused with brown- 
ish, somewhat more brownish than the color on Philippi's plate. 
The tail is definitely bicolored and the under parts are fairly dis- 
tinguished, the tips of the hairs being light buffy. The tail measures 
55, which is what Philippi gives. The hind foot (with claws), which 
can be taken very accurately, is just 21. The longest front claw is 
about 2.5. The label reads: "Raton. Mus andinus Ph. Cord. San- 
tiago, 1857." If these data are correct, the specimen can only be 
regarded as the type. At least, it quite certainly was the basis of 
the colored figure of 1900. The description given at that time is no 
more than a Spanish translation of the original one which appeared 
in German and the specimen fits it fairly well. 

A second specimen belonging to Philippi's material evidently is j 
in the British Museum, since Thomas has mentioned it in his 
descriptions of A. jucundus and A. gossei. Under A. gossei he states: 
"This species has long been known to me but under the name of 
andinus, Phil., for there is a young specimen of it in the small col- 
lection, received, as I believe, from Dr. Philippi himself, with the 
name 'Mus andinus' upon it, a determination I had hitherto 
accepted." This specimen Thomas found to be smaller and browner 
than andinus as described and figured by Philippi, and he, therefore, 
referred it to his supposed new form gossei from Andean localities in 
Argentina in the same latitude as the type locality of andinus. In 
this he was right in one respect and wrong in another. Philippi's 
specimens are obviously the same as "A. gossei," but as in so many 
other cases his description and his specimens do not fully agree. 
The color differences are negligible, since there is considerable varia- 
tion, and Philippi's measurement of 23 for the hind foot may be 
regarded as an error. Therefore, A. gossei becomes a synonym of 

Wolff sohn (I.e.) has a passing mention of his belief that andinus 
should be referred to Chelemys (= Notiomys), but whether this 
opinion was based on examination of a specimen or on Philippi's 
reference to long claws does not appear. The elongation of the 
claws, in fact, is very slight, far too slight to signify any near rela- 


tionship to Notiomys. It is about equal to that shown by some of 
the species which have been referred to Bolomys. Among these 
species, however, there is such divergence in cranial characters that 
it is much to be doubted that the claws are in all cases indicative of 
real relationship. The audital bullae in A. andinus are considerably 
enlarged, also as in some species of Bolomys. Thomas has referred 
to Bolomys the following species: amoenus (type), berlepschi, albi- 
venter, orbus, and lactens (including negrito). At least two of these 
are species of marked peculiarity and all of them live at very high 
altitudes, but I am unable to find any important common character 
by which all of them can be distinguished from Akodon. The addi- 
tion of andinus to the series would perhaps be as well justified as 
the inclusion of some of the others. The skull of andinus, although 
smaller, has general similarity to that of albiventer, but it is widely 
different from that of lactens. Apparently berlepschi is scarcely dis- 
tinguishable, if at all, from albiventer. The type species amoenus is 
not available to me and, until further study is possible, it seems 
best to retain andinus in Akodon and to hold Bolomys for redefini- 
tion especially as to its limits and perhaps also as to its validity. 

Akodon andinus dolichonyx Philippi. 

Hesperomys dolichonyx Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 13a, 

pp. 21-22, pi. 2, figs, la (col.), lc-1/ (skull, teeth, and claws), 1896 San 

Pedro de Atacama, Province of Antofagasta, Chile. 
Hesperomys dolichonyx cinnamomea Philippi, supra cit., p. 22, pi. 2, fig. 16 

(col.), 1896 Oasis of Leoncitos, Antofagasta, Chile. 
Mus dolichonyx and Mus dolichonyx cinnamomea Philippi, supra cit., Ent. 14a, 

pp. 58-59, 1900. 
Akodon jucundus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 11, p. 140, 1913 Cerro 

Lagunita, near Maimara, Jujuy, Argentina. 

Similar to A. a. andinus, but slightly smaller and paler. Toothrow about 3.5 
instead of 3.8. Total length 140 (135-143) ; tail 55 (48-60) ; hind foot 20.4 (20-21). 

Range. Arid and semi-arid mountains of northern Chile from 
the Province of Tacna south at least to the Province of Coquimbo; 
eastward in Argentina to central Jujuy. Found mainly at high 

A good series of these pale, buffy mice from the vicinity of the 
type locality agrees essentially with Philippi's description and 
figure. Specimens of dolichonyx and cinnamomea were examined in 
Santiago and notes made at the time are as follows: 

" Hesperomys dolichonyx. Type or cotype existing but in rather 
poor condition. Skull has been removed. Philippi's figure gives not 


such a bad idea of it, although the tail should be more tapering and 
not so hairy. It is not so much larger than cinnamomea as would 
appear from Philippi's plate. The front claws are slender but fairly 
long. The tail is not very long and the ears are small. Hesperomys 
dolichonyx cinnamomea. Somewhat smaller than dolichonyx, but 
otherwise similar." 

Philippi's second specimen, which perhaps should be regarded as 
a cotype, is now in the British Museum (No. The skin 
has been remade and the skull is somewhat crushed. 

The color in this form averages slightly paler than in a. andinus 
and the size slightly smaller. The toothrow in andinus is about 3.8 
and in dolichonyx about 3.5. A specimen in Field Museum from 
Jujuy, Argentina, is not distinguishable from some of the series from 
Chile. Therefore, A. jucundus, described from Jujuy, is regarded 
as a synonym. 

A single specimen from Choquelimpie, Tacna (alt. 15,000 ft.), is 
a little pale and short-tailed but doubtless belongs here. 

Specimens examined. Total 25: Banos del Toro, Coquimbo, 
5; Choquelimpie, Tacna, 1; Leoncitos, Antofagasta, 1 (type of 
cinnamomea in Mus. Nac. Chile); twenty miles east of San Pedro 
de Atacama, Antofagasta, 14; San Pedro de Atacama, Anto- 
fagasta, 2 (cotypes in B.M. and Mus. Nac. Chile). Tres Cruces, 
Jujuy, 2. 

Akodon xanthorhinus xanthorhinus Waterhouse. YELLOW- 

Mus xanthorhinus Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 17, 1837; Zool. Voy. 

Beagle, Mamm., p. 53, pi. 17, fig. 1, 1839 Hardy Peninsula, Tierra del 

Hesperomys (Abrothrix) xanthorhinus Thomas, in Milne-Edwards, Miss. 

Scient. Cap Horn, 6, Zool., Mamm., p. 28, pi. 6, fig. 1, 1890. 
Mus infans Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Ent. 14a, p. 41, pi. 17, fig. 3, 

1900 no exact locality. 
Akodon xanthorhinus Allen, Mamm. Patagonia, p. 71, pi. 11, figs. 1-16, pi. 12, 

figs. 1-la, 2-2a, 1905; Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 3, p. 205, 1919; 

(10), 4, p. 42, 1929. 

A small Akodon, with the tail shorter than the head and body; coloration 
predominantly rufescent, except the under parts, which are usually light colored 
and contrasted; sides of nose Ochraceous Tawny, not always but frequently con- 
trasted; upper side of hind feet, at least medially, always pale or often quite 
bright Ochraceous Tawny. Skull small and light, the rostral part rather elongate; 
first lamina of anterior upper cheektooth with a slight notch obliterated in early 
stages of wear. Total length 156 (148-170); tail 53 (48-65); hind foot 21.3 (20-22). 


Range. Forested parts of southern and western Tierra del 
Fuego and some adjacent islands; also western Patagonia from the 
vicinity of Punta Arenas northward at least to the southern part 
of the district of Ultima Esperanza; also possibly farther north dis- 
continuously to lat. 45 S. 

The most obvious character of this species is the rusty color of 
the hind feet. Regardless of other variations, this seems to be con- 
stant. Throughout its range it is the most abundant small mammal 
and in some localities apparently the only one. During Field 
Museum's expedition in 1939-40 its ascendancy over all other species 
was apparent at practically every collecting station. It is so nearly 
ubiquitous that a habitat preference is scarcely evident. In swampy 
areas, like its northern relatives of the same genus, and in grassy 
spots surrounded by forest, it is likely to be most numerous, and in 
such places well-used runways, somewhat like those of northern 
voles, reveal its presence. It is also to be found under logs and roots 
in light forest and thence in undiminished numbers it ranges out 
into the low bush beyond the forest. 

In its typical form, which is rather dark and richly colored, it 
does not extend far to the eastward but merges into a slightly paler 
subspecies, and its northward distribution also seems to be limited 
although information in regard to this is not wholly satisfactory. 

In the great majority of specimens the under parts are practically 
white or slightly tinged with creamy in pronounced contrast to the 
upper parts, but in almost every considerable series one or more 
specimens occur in which the under parts are wholly ochraceous 
merging insensibly with the color of the upper parts. Occasionally 
one appears showing an intermediate condition but in most cases 
the distinction is abrupt. Among seventeen from Lake Fagnano, 
Tierra del Fuego, only one has the colored under parts; among 
twenty-five from Estancia Via Monte there are only two, and two 
others are intermediate; and among twenty-five from Punta Arenas 
there are as many as ten showing varying degrees of buffiness rather 
than white. Apparently this is a mutation disappearing in some 
localities and having fair chances of establishment in others. It 
appears only very rarely in the subspecies canescens. 

Philippi's name Mus infans may be disposed as a probable 
synonym of A. x. xanthorhinus. 1 The type specimen is not available 
and doubtless has been lost, but the colored figure, with its ochra- 

1 Since this was written, this action has been taken by Gyldenstolpe (Man. 
Neotr. Sig. Rodents, p. 107, 1932). 


ceous ears and muzzle, its small size, etc., can apply only to this 
species. Philippi did not know its source and queries the locality 
(central provinces of Chile) where no other mouse of this character 
has been taken. It may well have come to him from extreme 
southern Chile since it is well known that he received certain mate- 
rial from that region. 

Specimens examined. Total 124: Cabo Negro, near Punta 
Arenas, 1; east end of Lake Fagnano, Tierra del Fuego, 17; Mina 
Rica, near Punta Arenas, 13; Punta Arenas, 25; east end of Riesco 
Island, 8; Rio Rubens, about lat. 52 S., 1; Rio Verde, east end of 
Skyring Water, 15; Estancia Via Monte, Tierra del Fuego, 25; Lake 
Yerwin, Tierra del Fuego, 19. 

Akodon xanthorhinus canescens Waterhouse. 

Mus canescens Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 17, 1837; Zool. Voy. 

Beagle, Mamm., p. 54, 1839 Puerto Deseado, Santa Cruz, Argentina. 
Akodon canescens Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 211, 1898; Allen, Mamm. 

Patagonia, p. 73, 1905. 

Similar to A. x. xanthorhinus but averaging considerably paler in color, more 
grayish than rufescent in general appearance. 

Range. Unf crested pampa and low bush of northern and eastern 
Tierra del Fuego and southeastern Patagonia, north along the Argen- 
tine coast at least to Pico Salamanca, Chubut, and inland to the edge 
of the forested mountains from Ultima Esperanza to Chubut and Rio 

Allen in 1905 (I.e.) considered xanthorhinus and canescens as 
wholly distinct species, while Thomas in 1929 (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
(10), 4. p. 41) stated that he was "now satisfied that A. canescens 
should be united with A. xanthorhinus," denying even subspecific 
distinction. In both cases it is evident that sufficient material for 
sound conclusions was lacking. With large series of fresh, well- 
prepared specimens, supplemented by personal field experience, it 
is quite clear that two intergrading subspecies are concerned, one 
occupying the relatively humid and at least partially forested areas 
of Tierra del Fuego and western Magallanes, the other ranging east- 
ward to the Atlantic coast over an open, unforested, and less humid 

Even in Tierra del Fuego, specimens from southern and western 
localities in the forest are easily distinguishable from those of the 
northern and eastern coast where conditions are essentially the same 
as those of eastern Santa Cruz on the continent. Individual speci- 


mens may be quite similar, especially when seasonal changes are not 
considered, but when series are compared a difference in shade 
of color corresponding to the difference in environment is plainly 

Apparently xanthorhinus in typical form ranges northward a 
relatively short distance, perhaps no farther than lat. 52 S., for 
practically all material from farther north is referable to canescens. 
This includes our own specimens from Ultima Esperanza, the large 
series from upper Rio Chico and other localities in western Santa 
Cruz obtained by the Princeton expeditions, as well as scattered 
specimens from Chubut and Rio Negro. The northernmost record 
is from Pilcaneu, Rio Negro. A single specimen from this locality, 
now in Field Museum, is unusually grayish and the hind feet are 
almost wholly white. On the other hand, four specimens from 
Rawson, Chubut, include one with a wholly ochraceous belly, and 
two from Rio Nirehuao, where the species is rare, have similar dark- 
colored under parts. It is possible, therefore, that a division of dark 
and light forms may be found in the north as well as in the south, 
but present material, although somewhat suggestive, is not sufficient 
to demonstrate it. 

It is doubtful if xanthorhinus and canescens are directly connected 
by gradations with any other members of the genus, but further work 
in the Argentine provinces of Chubut, Rio Negro, and Buenos Aires 
will be necessary before positive conclusions are justified. Under the 
name Akodon iniscatus Thomas has described a species which appears 
to inosculate with canescens over a considerable area in which the 
two are found together but each maintaining its distinctions. Speci- 
mens in Field Museum, received from the British Museum as inisca- 
tus, indicate that it is quite unlike canescens, but its relationship to 
A. nucus is obviously close. Two topotypes of nucus which are at 
hand are only slightly larger than iniscatus and both show the white 
on the throat mentioned as characterizing the type of iniscatus but 
not found on various specimens subsequently referred to it. 

Specimens examined. Total 92: CHILE: Laguna Lazo, near Lake 
Sarmiento, 12; Lake Sarmiento, 8; Puerto Natales, Ultima Esper- 
anza, 5; Rio Ciaike, eastern Magallanes, near Argentine boundary, 
26; Rio Nirehuao, Aysen, 2. ARGENTINA: Arroyo Beta, Tierra del 
Fuego, 11; Estancia Cullen, Tierra del Fuego, 15; Cape Fairweather, 
1; Pilcaneu, Rio Negro, 1; Rawson, Chubut, 4; upper Rio Chico, 
Santa Cruz, 2; Rio Coy, Santa Cruz, 2; Province of Santa Cruz, 3. 


Akodon (Abrothrix) longipilis longipilis Water-house. 

Mus longipilis Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 16, 1837; Zool. Voy. 
Beagle, Mamm., p. 55, pi. 16 (col.), pi. 33 (teeth), 1839 Coquimbo. 

Akodon longipilis Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), 16, p. 370, 1895. 

Mus porcinus Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 24, (1), p. 78, 1858; Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Chile, Zool., Ent. 14a, pp. 22-23, pi. 6, fig. 3, 1900 Angostura, Santiago. 

Mus brachytarsus Philippi, supra cit., pp. 37-38, pi. 15, fig. 2 (col.), 1900 
Santiago (fide Wolffsohn, 1910a, p. 100). 

Mus fusco-ater Philippi, supra cit., pp. 45-46, pi. 19, fig. 1 (col.), 1900 San- 
tiago (fide Wolffsohn, 1910a, p. 100). 

Mus melampus Philippi, supra cit., pp. 49-50, pi. 20, fig. 4, 1900 Cartajena, 

Abrothrix longipilis Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 18, p. 340, 1916. 

Akodon longipilis Ellerman, Fam. Gen. Rodents, 2, p. 416, 1941 subgenus 

A rather large, heavy-bodied mouse with small, thinly haired ears, long, loose 
pelage, and tail not exceeding three-fourths the length of the head and body. 
Color mainly light brownish rather coarsely mixed with grayish, the sides only 
slightly or not at all more grayish than the back; under parts wholly gray; feet 
and tail dark. Skull large and heavy, with long nasals, narrow interorbital region 
without sharp edges, and a broad, nearly upright infraorbital plate. Dentition 
akodont, but first lamina of anterior upper cheektooth undivided even in very 
young teeth. Total length 220 (213-234); tail 91 (83-96); hind foot 29.3 (28-30). 

Range. West-central Chile mainly in the central provinces of 
Coquimbo, Aconcagua, Valparaiso, and Santiago. 

This mouse is easily recognized among Chilean species by its 
rather heavy build, relatively short tail, large feet, and grayish 
coloration overcast with rusty. The typical form appears not to be 
abundant and has been taken mainly in the region between and just 
north or south of Valparaiso and Santiago. Except the type, speci- 
mens from the type locality are lacking, and it is probable that 
Coquimbo is near its northern limit. Southward from Valparaiso 
it will probably be found, at least for some distance, in the coast 
region, since a closely related form occurs at Concepcion and the 
differences between the two forms are nearly covered by individual 

The relative scarcity of the species is attested by the small 
number of synonyms for it produced by Philippi. These are brachy- 
tarsus, fusco-ater, melampus, and porcinus. I was unable to find 
specimens in Santiago which might be considered as types of brachy- 
tarsus and fusco-ater, but such specimens evidently were examined 
by Wolffsohn (1910a, pp. 97, 100), who gives measurements and 
details justifying his conclusion that both are typical examples of 


The name porcinus was first given in 1858 and it is doubtful if 
the type still exists. However, a specimen which is still pre- 
served in Santiago evidently was the basis of Philippi's figure of 1900 
and at least part of his description. Its label reads "Raton. Mus 
porcinus, Ph. Santiago, 1857," and perhaps, since it is dated 1857, 
it should be given the benefit of the doubt and regarded as the type. 
It is in good condition except as to color, which is obviously quite 
unreliable, being mainly reddish brown and probably due to immer- 
sion in impure alcohol. In size and pro- 
portions it agrees with longipilis. The 
hind foot measures 29, and the tail (esti- 
mated along curves) is about 90. The 
pelage is quite full and thick. Philippi's 
figure shows a large gray mouse fairly 
representing longipilis. 

No type of MILS melampus has been 
found, but fortunately the description 

,., . , , , , , . and figure are quite diagnostic, this being 
FIG. 24. Akodon I. longi- 

pilis. F.M. No. 23123. xi. one of the few cases among Phihppi s 

species in which this is true. 

Mus dumetorum of Philippi also has been referred to longipilis 
by Wolff sohn (p. 88), but the specimen examined by him apparently 
was not the type and, as explained elsewhere (p. 149), it seems 
probable that dumetorum was an Oryzomys with an incomplete tail. 

Waterhouse's type of longipilis, collected by Darwin, is pre- 
served in the British Museum. The following notes in regard to it 
were made in June, 1937: "No. Type, skin and skull. 
Skin laid on side, quite faded; upper parts pale brown with little 
or no distinction between back and sides. Patch of hair gone from 
right side. Skull very imperfect; lacks braincase and most of lower 
jaw; nasals, interorbital region, upper left and lower right teeth 

As early as 1837, when Waterhouse gave several generic or sub- 
generic names to South American rodents, the species longipilis was 
made the type of the subgenus Abrothrix. Since then it has been 
most frequently referred to Akodon, but in 1916 Thomas (op. cit., 
pp. 336-340) published a synopsis of South American Muridae "com- 
monly referred to Akodon" in which Abrothrix appeared as one of 
seven groups proposed for recognition as full genera. Most of these 
groups were monotypic or practically so and his conclusions were 
admittedly based on inadequate material. Microxus was left out 


of consideration although its connection is obviously closer than 
some of those included. As more material accumulates it becomes 
increasingly evident that the classification proposed by Thomas 
was not a natural one and will require considerable modification. 
The time is not yet here for positive conclusions, but it is clear that 
many species combine the characters assigned to his groups and do 
not fall readily into any of them. In the case of Abrothrix, it seems 
impossible to find characters which are not repeated elsewhere in 
the akodont group or which, still more significantly, do not grade 
almost or quite insensibly from one species or subspecies to another. 
Therefore, Abrothrix as a genus seems indefensible, and even as a 
subgenus its position is doubtful. For the present it may be accepted 
as a subgenus at least to maintain connection with previous concepts 
until thorough studies have been made. 

The extensive material obtained by Field Museum's Chilean 
expeditions indicates that most of the forms 1 heretofore assigned to 
Abrothrix are no more than intergrading subspecies of longipilis. 
The connection is made through A. I. apta, described below, 
which extends westward from the coast at Concepcion and passes 
through the Andes into Argentina, gradually becoming more 
and more similar to the forms long known from the eastern side 
of the mountains. Therefore the names hirta, moerens, suffusa, 
modestior, and nubila all unquestionably refer to a single species 
either as synonyms of each other or as designations for subspecific 
groups connected by gradations with longipilis. Belonging in the 
same series and doubtfully distinct is A. francei from Tierra del 
Fuego, known only from the type specimen. This means that what 
was formerly thought to be a group under the name Abrothrix is in 
reality only one wide-ranging and locally variable species. Its dis- 
tribution coincides rather closely with' that of Notiomys and it is 
possible that longipilis, as seems to be the case with Notiomys 
megalonyx, is distinct from the other members of the series, but 
present material seems to point to the last degree of gradation. 

Specimens examined. Total 39 : Buen Retire, Aconcagua, 1 ; 
coast hills, Valparaiso, 16 (B.M.); Coquimbo, 1 (type, B.M.); La 
Laguna, Valparaiso, 1 (B.M.); La Rojas, Quillota, Valparaiso, 1; 

1 The only one not examined is A. illutea from Tucuman, Argentina, described 
from a single specimen thought to indicate a great extension of range for the group. 
It seems not improbable that this may be more closely related to Hypsimys than 
to "Abrothrix." Although it has dental peculiarities, the skull of Hypsimys is 
very similar to that of Abrothrix and the mention of a white chin spot, usually 
present in Hypsimys but not in Abrothrix leads to the suspicion that this form has 
not been properly allocated. 

\ ?Jf*-" moerens 



MAP 9. Distribution of Akodon (Abrothrix) longipilis and subspecies with 
A. sanborni and A. lanosus. 



Limache, Valparaiso, 1; Olmue, Valparaiso, 9; Palmilla, La Cruz, 1, 
Papudo, Aconcagua, 4; Quilpue, 4 (B.M.). 

Akodon (Abrothrix) longipilis apta subsp. nov. 

Type from Piedra de Aguilas, Sierra Nahuelbuta, Malleco, Chile. 
Altitude about 4,000 feet. Adult male. Collected November 4, 
1939, by John M. Schmidt. Orig. No. 193. 

Diagnosis. Similar to A. I. longipilis, but smaller; color less 
uniform, the sides more grayish and more contrasted with back; 
under parts averaging paler and tail more frequently bicolored. 
Skull with a narrower braincase and a markedly shorter infraorbital 
plate; audital bullae and teeth smaller. 

Measurements. Average of ten adult paratypes: total length 224 
(217-230) ; tail 95 (87-102) ; hind foot 28.4 (27.5-29). Skull of type: 
greatest length 32.1; basilar length 25; zygomatic breadth 16.3; 
nasals 11.2 X 4.1; interorbital constriction 5.4; antero-posterior width 
of infraorbital plate 2.3; diastema 18.1; postpalatilar length 11.1; 
palatine slits 7.5; width of braincase 13.7; upper cheekteeth 4.5. 

Range. South-central Chile from the coast at Concepcion south 
at least to Nahuelbuta and westward through the Province of Val- 
divia to the western side of the Andes in the provinces of Malleco, 
Valdivia, and Llanquihue, where intergradation with east Andean 
forms is variously evident. 

Remarks. This is quite well distinguished from typical longi- 
pilis both in color and in cranial characters, but it seems altogether 
probable that full intergradation will be found in the region between 
Concepcion and Valparaiso where records of the species at present 
are lacking. Apart from size, its most obvious cranial character is its 
narrowed (shortened) infraorbital plate. This is quite pronounced 
in the large series from Nahuelbuta but is less so in six specimens 
from a little farther north at Concepcion and these, therefore, may 
be significant of a more complete gradation that will be evident 
when more material is obtained. 

Delimitation of the westward range of this form offers consider- 
able difficulty. In general all western specimens have tendencies 
to smaller size and narrower braincases and especially in the western 
part of the provinces of Malleco and Cautin every local series is 
variable or obviously tending toward the characters of east Andean 
forms (hirta, moerens, suffusa). Since material from this region is 
relatively abundant and since individuals or series seldom agree in 
detail with either western or eastern extremes, the impression is 


easy to form that a recognizable race is concerned. Externally this 
would be smaller and paler than apta but larger and darker than 
hirta. Careful examination of skulls, however, shows such variation 
that confidence in the reality of such a race is not gained. A further 
complication is the occurrence of occasional specimens externally 
similar to apta, but with skulls so narrowed and reduced as to 
approximate very closely the condition found in sanborni, which 
otherwise appears to be a wholly distinct species. Four specimens 
from a single locality (Rinihue, Valdivia) include one of large size 
and grayish color which may be referred to apta without any vio- 
lence; another which is small and glossy black falls with sanborni, 
and two others with a unique dull brownish color and peculiar 
skulls seem explainable only on the theory that they are hybrids. 

Apparently western Malleco and Cautin include a meeting 
ground for at least three faunas, east Andean, west coast, and 
southern forest respectively. Intensive work in the region will 
doubtless be necessary before the whole situation is fully clarified. 
For the present no better course appears than to treat the majority 
of these "intermediates" under apta, although in many cases their 
departure from it is considerable. An attempt to suggest certain 
lines of variation and segregation is indicated in the subjoined list 
of specimens. 

Specimens examined. Total 128. 

Typical or nearly typical: Concepcion, 6; La Picada, Mount 
Osorno, 11; Rinihue, Valdivia, 1; Petrohue, Lake Todos Santos, 7; 
Sierra Nahuelbuta, 36 (F.M. 32; A.M.N.H. 4). 

Somewhat smaller and paler, but maintaining slender elongate 
skulls, in some cases even approaching the type seen in sanborni: 
Curacautin, 5; Lonquimai, 12; west of Lonquimai, 3 (A.M.N.H.); 
Rio Colorado, 16; Rio Lolen, Lonquimai Valley, 1; Tolhuaca, 16. 

Similar but with skulls definitely approaching the type seen in 
moerens and suffusa, the braincase relatively wider, and the nasals 
shorter but narrower: Lake Galletue, 9; Pino Hachado, Neuquen, 
Argentina, 3. 

Possible hybrids between apta and sanborni: Rinihue, 2. 

Akodon (Abrothrix) longipilis castaneus subsp. nov. 

Type from Mocha Island, coast of southern Chile, Province of 
Arauco. No. 97735 American Museum of Natural History. Adult 
male. Collected December 7, 1932, by D. S. Bullock. 


Diagnosis. Similar to A. /. longipilis, but mid-dorsal area, from 
forehead to base of tail, broadly and richly rufescent (Vandyke 
Brown or slightly lighter); sides and under parts a very slightly 
darker shade of gray. Skull with tendency to elongation of nasals 
and rostrum; molariform teeth smaller than in longipilis. 

Measurements. Type, measured by collector: total length 215; 
tail 88; hind foot (dry, with claws) 29. Average of nine adults: 
total length 213 (203-215); tail 90 (82-97). Skull of type: greatest 
length 32.4; zygomatic width 15.2; nasals 13.4; interorbital con- 
striction 5.8; width of infraorbital plate 2.5; diastema 8.8; post- 
palatilar length 11.5; palatine slits 7.4; width of braincase 13.7; 
upper toothrow 4.6. 

Remarks. This is a well-marked form readily distinguished by 
the broad band of rufescent which covers the entire central upper 
parts and may even extend to the upper sides. In A. I. apta there 
is a slight tendency to differentiation of a rufescent dorsal area but 
it is much paler and less extensive. 

As in the case of Notiomys v. bullocki, the principal material 
representing this form has been placed in my hands through the 
courtesy of Dr. H. E. Anthony of the American Museum of Natural 
History. This material consists of an excellent series of seventeen 
specimens and is supplemented by two additional examples lent by 
the British Museum through Dr. T. C. S. Morrison-Scott. 

In the collection from Mocha Island, made for the American 
Museum by Dillman S. Bullock, are four species of rodents belong- 
ing to the four genera Akodon, Abrothrix, Notiomys, and Oryzomys. 
With the exception of the Oryzomys, which is scantily represented, 
all seem at least slightly differentiated from the mainland stocks 
from which they are obviously derived. 

Akodon (Abrothrix) longipilis moerens Thomas. 

Abrothrix suffusus moerens Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 3, p. 203, 

1919 Beatriz, Lake Nahuelhuapi, Argentina. 
Abrothrix hirta moerens Thomas, supra cit., (10), 4, p. 40, 1929. 

This form may not occur in Chile, but it is found very near the 
boundary and is included here in order to indicate its position with 
reference to the other members of the longipilis series, all of which 
are discussed. It appears to occupy a narrow and restricted area 
east of the Andes in a region where the humid forests of Chile are 
extended through low passes into Argentina. In size and cranial 


characters, however, it falls with hirta and suffusa rather than with 
any of the Chilean forms. 

Two paratypes in Field Museum are darker in color than suffusa 
and in a broad sense might be regarded as intermediate between 
apta and suffusa. The differences in size and cranial characters, 
however, are considerable. Perhaps it is a local form occupying 
about the same area and having about the same characters as 
Notiomys m. fumosus. 

Beatriz, the type locality of moerens, does not appear on available 
maps of Lake Nahuelhuapi and Thomas gives no information as to 
its exact situation. Probably it is somewhere on the forested western 
shores of the lake. The eastern part of the lake extends into the 
open pampas and a specimen in Field Museum from Bariloche in 
this region is clearly nearer to suffusa than to moerens. Other 
material recorded from Beatriz includes Irenomys, Notiomys valdi- 
vianus, and Dromiciops, all of which are otherwise known only from 
forested parts of Chile. Further collecting in this region should be 
of interest. 

Akodon (Abrothrix) longipilis hirta Thomas. 

Acodon hirtus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), 16, p. 370, 1895 Fort 

San Rafael, Mendoza, Argentina. 

Abrothrix hirtus Thomas, supra cit., (8), 18, p. 340, 1916; (9), 20, p. 201, 1927. 
Abrothrix hirta hirta Thomas, supra cit., (10), 4, p. 40, 1929. 

A -small light gray mouse with the central upper parts slightly tinged with 
brownish; under parts and feet white; tail bicolored. Most similar to A. I. suffusa 
but paler and probably averaging longer-tailed. Total length (two specimens) 
188-198; tail 81-86; hind foot 24-25. 

Range. Eastern base of the Andes in the provinces of Mendoza 
and Neuquen, Argentina, from lat. 34 30' to 37 S., apparently 
passing through the Andes into Chile in the Province of Talca. 

Although one of the earliest forms to be described, this is still 
imperfectly known and poorly represented in museums. Examples 
from the type region in Mendoza have not been examined, but 
specimens from Neuquen (Collon Cura and Quilquihue) were 
regarded by Thomas (I.e., 1927) as agreeing with the type. A single 
specimen in Field Museum from Bariloche, Lake Nahuelhuapi, 
which is not far from the Neuquen localities, is only very slightly 
paler than suffusa and probably this, as well as the Neuquen speci- 
mens, is an intergrade. Still paler and more probably representing 
the extreme characters of the form are two specimens taken by San- 
born in 1939 at Arroyo del Valle, Province of Talca, Chile, on the 


western side of the Andes. In the same vicinity he also obtained 
Notiomys macronyx, another form originally described from Men- 
doza. It seems likely, therefore, that somewhere between lat. 34 
and 35 S. there is opportunity for the passage westward of at least 
part of the Mendoza fauna. 

Specimens examined. Arroyo del Valle, Talca, 2. 

Akodon (Abrothrix) longipilis suffusa Thomas. 

Akodon suffusus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), 12, p. 241, 1903 Kos- 

lowsky, Valle del Lago Blanco, Chubut, Argentina. 
Abrothrix suffusus Thomas, supra cit., (8), 18, p. 340, 1916. 
Abrothrix suffusus modestior Thomas, supra cit., (9), 3, p. 202, 1919 Maiten, 

Chubut, Argentina. 
Abrothrix hirta suffusa Thomas, supra cit., (10), 4, p. 40, 1929. 

A medium-sized mouse with the median upper parts reddish brown and the 
sides grayish; under parts and feet creamy or nearly white; tail bicolored. Similar 
to A. I. apta but smaller, with the under parts and feet lighter colored; skull with 
narrow but shorter nasals and relatively wider braincase. Similar to A. I. nubila 
and A. 1. hirta, but with upper parts darker colored. Total length 184 (172-190); 
tail 71 (67-77); hind foot 24.4 (23.5-24.5). 

Range. Eastern base of the Andes mainly in Argentina from the 
Province of Neuquen southward to meet the range of A. I. nubila in 
northern Santa Cruz; enters Chile at least at several points where 
conditions favor. 

This mouse has an extensive but narrow range in the small valleys 
which connect the Andes with the pampas of Argentina. Apparently 
it does not pass into the open pampas and it enters the mountains 
only along valleys which cut the eastern slopes or which are directly 
connected with them at moderate elevations. It was found within 
Chilean borders in the region of the Rio Nirehuao, where it was the 
most abundant rodent. In this vicinity it was taken at one station 
on the Rio Coihoique which is actually on western drainage, but the 
physical conditions there are more eastern than western and there 
was no evidence that it passed into the humid coastal forests. 

Its range corresponds rather closely with that of Notiomys m. 
vestitus and like that form it grades into a pale form in the north 
and also in the south. It is very similar in color to various specimens 
from Cautin and Malleco in eastern Chile which are somewhat larger 
and usually have narrower skulls, for which reasons they have been 
regarded as gradients between suffusa and apta. Occasional speci- 
mens from this part of Chile may be found, however, which are 
quite indistinguishable from suffusa. 


Specimens examined. Total 47 : CHILE : Campo Bandera, Coihoi- 
que, 18 (A.M.N.H.); Rio Coihoique Station, 2; Rio Nirehuao, 24. 
ARGENTINA: Bariloche, Nahuelhuapi, 1; Valle del Lago Blanco, 
Chubut, 2. 

Akodon (Abrothrix) longipilis nubila Thomas. 

Akodon suffusus Allen, Mamm. Patagonia, 3, p. 76, 1905. 
Abrothrix hirta nubila Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (10), 4, p. 40, 1929 
Alta Vista, Lake Argentine, Santa Cruz, Argentina. 

Similar to A. I. suffusa, but averaging slightly larger and considerably paler, 
especially on the back where the brownish is lighter and more diffuse. Total 
length 183 (177-195); tail 75 (70-79); hind foot 25.8 (25-26). 

Range. Southern Patagonia from the coast at the mouth of the 
Rio Coy westward probably along streams to the base of the Andes 
and thence northward to meet the range of A. I. suffusa in northern 
Santa Cruz or southern Chubut. 

Series of this form taken by Field Museum's expedition of 
1939-40 show it to average much paler than suffusa. The hind 
foot is a little larger and the skulls are slightly more robust. Varia- 
tion includes some specimens scarcely distinguishable from suffusa, 
but as a geographic race it seems well founded. It was not taken in 
the immediate vicinity of Punta Arenas but was encountered at Rio 
Verde, at the east end of Skyring Water, only a short distance 
farther north. In the district of Ultima Esperanza it was abundant 
and the Princeton Expedition found it in numbers on the upper Rio 
Chico. Allen records it from the coast at the mouth of the Rio Coy 
but it is not an animal of the open grassland and doubtless reaches 
the coast by following watercourses. 

Specimens examined. Total 38 : , Alta Vista, Lake Argentine, 
Argentina, 1; Lake Sarmiento, 3; Laguna Lazo, near Lake Sarmiento, 
22; Puerto Natales, 2; Rio Chico, Santa Cruz, Argentina, 2; Rio 
Verde, Skyring Water, 8. 

Akodon (Abrothrix) longipilis francei Thomas. 

Akodon francei Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 2, p. 497, 1908 Santa 

Maria, near Porvenir, Tierra del Fuego, Chile. 
Abrothrix francei Thomas, supra cit., (8), 18, p. 340, 1916. 

Field Museum's expedition of 1939-40 did not succeed in obtain- 
ing this mouse on Tierra del Fuego. The actual type locality, which 
is but a few miles southeast of the port of Porvenir, was not visited 
and at various other localities on the island the species was not found. 


Therefore, the name francei still rests on the unique type specimen 
in the British Museum. This type, which was hastily examined in 
1937, was taken in midwinter (August) and is very full-pelaged with 
the under parts and feet snowy white and greatly contrasted with 
the upper parts. Moreover, it was originally preserved in brine 
although it has now been remade into a specimen of the usual style. 
All available specimens of nubila from the mainland are in summer 
pelage, so reliable comparisons are not possible. 

In view of the close similarity to mainland forms of other rodents 
from Tierra del Fuego it seems improbable that this one is sharply 
distinguished. For the present, at least, it deserves no more than 
subspecific status and it would not be surprising to find it quite 
identical with nubila. 

The skull length of 30.3 given for the type suggests large size as 
a possible character since a large skull of nubila measures only 29, but 
the other cranial measurements are essentially alike. Also, notes on 
the type skull record that it had been broken and repaired, which 
may account for the excessive length. 

Akodon (Abrothrix) sanborni sp. nov. 

Type from mouth of Rio Inio, south end of Chiloe Island, Chile. 
No. 22726 Field Museum of Natural History. Adult male, collected 
January 15, 1923, by Wilfred H. Osgood. Orig. No. 5522. 

Diagnosis. A small mouse of uniform blackish brown color 
including the tail and feet; tail about four-fifths the length of the 
head and body. Externally somewhat similar to Akodon o. brachiotis 
but more blackish in color, the ears smaller and more scantily haired. 
Feet and claws as in Akodon, the fifth digit on both fore and hind 
feet proportionately longer than in Oxymycterus. Skull with the 
rostral part narrow and elongate, the nasals in some cases "trumpet- 
shaped" as in Oxymycterus; infraorbital plate much narrowed, more 
sloping than in typical Akodon, but less so than in Oxymycterus; 
dentition essentially as in Akodon and Oxymycterus, the "subsidiary 
ridges" (i.e. secondary parastyle and mesostyle) somewhat better 
developed than usual in Akodon; anterior lamina of first upper cheek- 
tooth variable, in some cases distinctly cleft as in typical Akodon, in 
others faintly or not at all cleft as in A. longipilis and subspecies. 

Measurements. Average of ten adults from the type locality: 
total length 180 (169-200); tail 75.8 (69-85); hind foot 24.1 (23.5- 
25.5). Skull of type: greatest length 28.3? basilar length 20.8; zygo- 
matic breadth 13.1; nasals 11.8 X 3.2; interorbital constriction 5.2; 




FIG. 25. A k o d o n 
(Abrothrix) sanborni. F.M. 
No. 22826. X 1. 

width of infraorbital plate 1.8; diastema 6.6; postpalatilar length 
9.8; palatine slits 6.6; width of braincase 12; upper cheekteeth 4.3. 
During field work in Chile, this species was commonly referred 
to as the "black mouse." It is, in fact, so dark that this title is not 
undeserved, but the color is usually tinged with brownish (dark 
Clove Brown) and the under parts are somewhat grayish. Uni- 
formity of color is a marked characteristic, and there is no indication 
of a dorsal differentiation. Apparently none of Philippi's names 
apply to this species and, since it is rela- 
tively scarce, probably he never received 
it. During Field Museum's expedition of 
1923-24, although it was taken in some 
numbers on Chiloe Island, only four speci- 
mens were obtained on the mainland. In 
1939, at Peulla on Lake Todos Santos, a 
small series was accumulated gradually, 
only one or two examples being taken on 
each "trap night." Here it was greatly 
outnumbered by Akodon o. brachiotis but 
apparently was more restricted to very dense forest. These main- 
land specimens average slightly larger with somewhat heavier skulls 
than those from Chiloe Island, and at some future time it may 
be possible to make some separation. At present, their relations 
to the longipilis series are not wholly clear 1 and, since no collecting 
has been done on the mainland opposite Chiloe Island, there is doubt- 
less much more to be learned. 

On the basis of cranial and dental characters alone there could be 
no objection to regarding this as a small species of the genus Oxymyc- 
terus. Except for the infraorbital plate which, although narrow, 
is less sloping, practically every feature of the skull of Oxymycterus 
is repeated. The differences in the structure of the feet, however, 
are marked. With the feet of Akodon, therefore, and the skull and 
teeth of Oxymycterus, this species provides the characters that have 
had recognition under the name Microxus. Its close similarity to 
Abrothrix, however, leads to the conclusion that Microxus should be 
merged with Abrothrix and when this is done but few distinctions 

1 An interesting character which sanborni shares with longipilis and all Its 
subspecies is evident only to the field collector. This is the close adherence of 
the skin of the tail to the tail vertebrae in all but immature specimens. In other 
rodents of the region the tail bone slips out easily, but in these it is necessary to 
use the knife all the way, the usual practice being to slit the under side longi- 
tudinally. In any considerable collection of dried skins evidences of this practice 
are to be seen in a large share of the specimens. 


remain between Abrothrix and typical Akodon. As stated elsewhere, 
recently studied material includes specimens among the gradients 
from apta to suffusa with skulls having a similarity to those of san- 
borni amounting to practical identity. 

The presence or absence of a cleft or division in the anterior 
lamina of the first upper cheektooth has been supposed to provide 
a distinction between Akodon and Abrothrix and if only the type 
species (boliviensis and longipilis) are compared it does so. Among 
other species, however, there is considerable variation and in many 
the condition in very young teeth is unknown. 
Therefore statements as to this character 
often are unreliable. In the series of sanborni 
from Chiloe Island there are a number of very 
young examples with the teeth quite unworn. 
In two of these examined there is scarcely any 
indication of an anterior division of the first 
upper cheektooth, while in two others the 
FIG. 26. Akodono. division is quite marked. In lanosus, which 
SoTon (telTx) differs from sanborni mainly in size and exter- 
sanborni (lower), xl. nal characters, the division is clear in all very 
young teeth and often persists in fairly late 
stages of wear. On the other hand, in Akodon xanthorhinus, 
which has never been supposed to be anything but an Akodon, the 
division is very faint and soon obliterated or quite absent. In some 
cases there is division in the tooth of the right or left side while the 
corresponding one of the opposite side is entire. 

It seems, therefore, that peculiarity of the anterior lamina 
of the first upper cheektooth may furnish specific or sometimes 
perhaps subgeneric, but not generic characters. As knowledge of 
connecting forms grows, it is increasingly evident that among South 
American cricetine rodents, while differentiation has been marked, 
indications of a community of ancestry are still present to an unusual 
degree. To express rather than to obscure this significant situation 
it seems desirable to link various groups rather than to separate 

Since the above-described species is not even subgenerically 
separable from Abrothrix and since it agrees with the usual concept 
of Microxus, it appears to follow that Microxus is a synonym of 
Abrothrix and that Abrothrix at most is only a subgenus of Akodon 
characterized by a combination of peculiarities, recurrent elsewhere, 
rather than by any unique features. However, the type species 


(mimus) of Microxus has not been examined in this connection and 
since certain Peruvian species of Akodon show some approach to it, 
possibly its final status is yet to be determined. 1 

Specimens examined. Total 37: Peulla, Lake Todos Santos, 10; 
Puerto Montt, 1; Quellon, Chiloe Island, 13; Rinihue, Valdivia, 1 
(aberrant) ; Rio Inio, Chiloe Island, 12. 

Akodon (Abrothrix) lanosus Thomas. 

Oxymycterus lanosus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), 20, p. 218, 1897 

Monteith Bay, Straits of Magellan. 
Microxus lanosus Thomas, supra cit., (8), 4, p. 237, 1909. 

A small, brown (Cinnamon Brown) mouse with small, thinly haired ears and 
the tail about three-fifths the length of the head and body. Under parts usually 
heavily washed with fulvous; feet white; tail bicolored. Skull slender and delicate 
with the nasals much elongate and the infraorbital plate narrow; dentition with 
the anterior lamina of the first upper cheektooth deeply cleft and the "subsidiary 
ridges" persisting through early stages of wear. Total length (10 adults) 163.4 
(151-168); tail 59 (53-65); hind foot 21.9 (21.5-23). 

This mouse was found sparingly in or near deep forest on Tierra 
del Fuego and in the vicinity of Punta Arenas where it shows pref- 
erence for cool, damp habitat. In the field it was readily distin- 
guished from the common Akodon of the region by its smaller ears, 
its usually more fulvous under parts, and its white feet. 

Two specimens of the species, compared with the type by 
Thomas, have been recorded from upper Rio Chico by Allen (Mamm. 
Patagonia, p. 83, 1905). These and the type itself appear to be the 
only specimens heretofore obtained. The type in the British 
Museum is fairly well preserved, the skin laid on its side as in most 
of Darwin's specimens, and the tail vertebrae still in situ. The skull 
is in good condition, the teeth being practically unworn. The 

1 In 1913, 1 described orophilus and orientalis from northern Peru as subspecies 
of Akodon mollis (Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 10, pp. 98-99), being misled 
by their very close external similarity and by their apparent continuity of dis- 
tribution. Later, Thomas (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 58, pp. 239-240, 1920) named 
torques as a Microxus and implied that orophilus and orientalis also belonged to 
that genus rather than to Akodon. A re-examination of my original collections, 
together with series of torques and much additional material, leads to the conclusion 
that orophilus is specifically but not generically distinct from mollis, at least not 
in northern Peru. Externally A. mollis altorum and A. orophilus are identical 
and in northern Peru are separated only by the canyon of the Maranon River. 
They are not "respectively lowland and highland" forms, as Thomas thought, but 
forms of the western, central, and eastern Cordilleras. In central and southern 
Peru the three cordilleras are not always so distinct as in the north and complicated 
distributional problems are yet to be worked out. It is doubtful if the form called 
surdus by Thomas is a southern representative of mollis, but torques, like orientalis, 
appears to be only a slight subspecies of orophilus. In fact it is difficult to find 
any external distinction between torques and orientalis and the only cranial charac- 
ter appears to be the somewhat wider braincase of torques. 


braincase, as judged by notes made without comparisons, is some- 
what broader than in recently collected specimens. 

Apparently this species is quite distinct from A. sanborni, 
especially in color and size, but its skull, although considerably 
smaller, has very similar general characters. In the long stretch of 
coast between the Chonos Islands and the Straits of Magellan, 
where no mammal collecting has been done, it is possible that one 
or the other of these species may have considerable extension of range. 

Specimens examined. Total 42 : Lake Fagnano, Tierra del Fuego, 
17; vicinity of Punta Arenas, 24; "Monteith Bay," 1 (type in B.M.). 1 

Eligmodontia puerulus Philippi. 

Hesperomys puerulus Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 13a, pp. 

20-21, pi. 7, fig. 1 (col.), 1896 San Pedro de Atacama, Province of 

Antofagasta, Chile. 
Mus puerulus Philippi, supra cit., Ent. 14a, pp. 79-80, 1900. 

A pale, soft-pelaged mouse with the under parts wholly or partly white to 
roots of hairs; soles of hind feet hairy. Total length 183 (175-193) ; tail 91 (88-95) ; 
hind foot 25 (24-26). 

Range. Known only from the type region. 

This pretty species is doubtless closely related to E. hirtipes. It 
is only slightly paler than E. elegans (specimens from Province of 

Neuquen, Argentina), but that species has 
a longer tail and smaller audital bullae. 
One specimen has the hairs white to 
the roots over the entire under parts. 
The others are entirely white only on the 
throat and upper breast. One specimen 
has the under parts blotched with pale 

FIG. 27. Eligmodontia Philippi's type of Hesperomys puerulus 

puerulus. F.M. No. 22321. ig preserved in Santiago in fairly good con- 
dition. Extracts from my notes regarding 

it are as follows: "It is not so brightly ochraceous as in Philippi's fig- 
ure, and is more of a pale buff with a cinnamon-tipped effect. On the 
under side, which I examined by lifting the specimen from its stand, 
the hairs are white to the roots on the throat, chest, inguinal region, 
and probably along middle line of abdomen. Laterally on the 
abdomen, the hairs have light grayish plumbeous bases. The soles 

1 On maps available, I have been unable to find the exact location of Monteith 


of the hind feet seem to be hairy, but this is not well ascertained. Hind 
foot measures 21.5. The tip of the tail is not quite perfect, but 
apparently it was slightly penciled." 

The small size of the hind foot in the type is the only feature 
to cast any doubt upon its identity with the small series now in 
hand in which the foot measures 24, 25, 25, 25, and 26 mm. Other 
characters of the type, especially the pure white under parts and 
general proportions, seem to outweigh this, and with a series from 
the vicinity of the type locality showing these characters, the estab- 
lishment of the name is amply justified. 

Specimens examined. Twenty miles east of San Pedro, Rio San 
Pedro, Antofagasta, 5 (alt. 12,600 ft.). 

Eligmodontia elegans morgani Allen. 

Eligmodontia morgani Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 14, p. 409, 1901 
Basaltic Canyons, fifty miles southeast of Lake Buenos Aires, Argentina. 

A small slender mouse with the tail about equal to or slightly shorter than the 
head and body; under parts with at least the chin and throat pure white to roots 
of hairs; soles of hind feet mostly or entirely hairy. Total length 153 (145-165); 
tail 73 (65-80); hind foot 22.5 (22-23); ear from notch 11-12. 

A single specimen taken by Sanborn on a nearly bare, rocky hill- 
side near Lake Sarmiento affords the only record of this mouse from 
Chilean territory. In adjoining parts of Argentina it was taken in 
considerable numbers by the Princeton expeditions, including locali- 
ties on the east coast as far south as Rio Gallegos. 

Although Thomas has remarked (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (10), 4, 
p. 40, 1929) that morgani "appears to be the same" as elegans, such 
material as is available in Field Museum seems to indicate that it 
is at least subspecifically distinguishable. A specimen from Choele 
Choel, a locality southwest of Bahia Blanca and in nearly the same 
latitude, assumed to represent elegans, has decidedly larger ears and 
a longer tail than specimens from southern Patagonia. Since these 
are the very characters mentioned by Allen in describing morgani, 
it seems necessary to give it subspecific status at least until further 
work on the group can be done. Actual topotypes of elegans from 
Bahia are not available and specimens from western Rio Negro 
seem to indicate that morgani may have a northward distribution 
in that region. 

Specimens examined. Total 6: ARGENTINA: Piedra Clavada, 
Santa Cruz, 1; Rio Coy, Santa Cruz, 1; Rio Gallegos, Santa Cruz, 
1; Province of Santa Cruz, 2. CHILE: Lake Sarmiento, Ultima 
Esperanza, 1. 


Phyllotis darwini darwini Waterhouse. DARWIN'S LEAF-EARED 

Mus darwinii Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 28 (top of page), 1837 

Coquimbo, Chile. 
Mus darwinii Waterhouse, Zool. Voy. Beagle, p. 64, pi. 23 (col.), pi. 34, fig. 

17o-6 (teeth), 1839. 
Mus melanonotus Philippi and Landbeck, Arch. Naturg., 24, (1), p. 78, 1858 

Province of Santiago, Chile; Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., 

Ent. 14a, p. 43, pi. 18, fig. 1 (col.), 1900. 
Mus dichrous Philippi, supra cit., pp. 14-15, pi. 3, fig. 2 (col.), 1900 near 

Peine, Province of O'Higgins, Chile. 
Mus megalotis Philippi, supra cit., p. 15, pi. 3, fig. 3 (col.), 1900 Province 

of Santiago, Chile. 
Mus mollis Philippi, supra cit., pp. 23-24, pi. 7, fig. 1 (col.), 1900 Province 

of Santiago, Chile. 
Mus illapelinus Philippi, supra cit., pp. 28-29, pi. 9, fig. 1 (col.), 1900 near 

Illapel, Province of Coquimbo, Chile. 
Mus segethi Philippi, supra cit., pp. 30-31, pi. 11, fig. 2 (col.), 1900 Plain 

of Peine, Province of O'Higgins, Chile. 
Mus campestris Philippi, supra cit., pp. 38-39, pi. 16, fig. 1 (col.), 1900 

Choapa, Province of Coquimbo, Chile. 

Mus melanotis Philippi, supra cit., p. 39, pi. 16, fig. 3 (col.), 1900 no locality. 
Mus platytarsus Philippi, supra cit., p. 47, pi. 19, fig. 4 (col.), 1900 La 

Ligua, Province of Aconcagua, Chile. 
Mus griseoflavus Philippi, supra cit., pp. 55-56, pi. 24, fig. 1 (col.), 1900 

near La Serena, Province of Coquimbo, Chile; preoccupied name. 
Phyllotis darwini Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., p. 583, 1897; Thomas, Ann. Mag. 

Nat. Hist., (7), 9, p. 131, 1902; Wolffsohn, Bol. Mus. Nac. Chile, 2, No. 1, 

pp. 88, 90, 93, 94, 98, 99, 1910; Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, (8), 10, 

pp. 406-409, 1912. 

A large soft-pelaged mouse with large leafy ears and the tail usually longer 
than the head and body. Total length 257 (237-297); tail 127 (115-137); hind 
foot 29.5 (27-32); ear from notph (dry) 23-25. 

Range. Coastal region of central Chile from the vicinity of 
Coquimbo southward at least to Valparaiso, thence inland to Santi- 
ago and southward on the west side of the Andes to the Province 
of Talca. 

In typical form Phyllotis darwini is rather richly colored and has 
larger ears than most of the subspecies allied to it. The under parts 
may be nearly white but often are creamy or even pale buffy rather 
than white. About one specimen in twenty has a fulvous pectoral 
spot. Although larger, it has a general appearance strongly sugges- 
tive of the Californian Peromyscus truei. 

Specimens at hand are mostly from the coastal region from 
Coquimbo to Valparaiso but distribution inland to Santiago and 


southward along the western base of the Andes is indicated by speci- 
mens received by Philippi from several localities in this region and 
described by him under various names. This is confirmed by five 
specimens taken by Sanborn in 1939 on the Rio Maule, some 19 km. 
above Curillanque in the Province of Talca. These do not differ 
from typical darwini in any important way. The species is recorded 
from Bafios de Cauquenes by E. C. Reed (1877). 

The type locality, Coquimbo, evidently is on the northern edge 
of the range. Specimens from Romero, about ten miles from 
Coquimbo, are relatively dark colored and in general agreement 

FIG. 28. Phyllotis darwini darwini. F.M. No. 23891. X 1. 

with others from farther south; but within one hundred miles of 
Coquimbo northward and eastward, another form is found. 

Ten names given by Philippi seem referable to d. darwini beyond 
any reasonable doubt. These are melanonotus, dichrous, megalotis, 
mollis, illapelinus, segethi, campestris, melanotis, platytarsus, and 
griseoflavus. In his work on Chilean rodents where most of these 
names were proposed, Philippi lists Phyllotis darwini and naively 
remarks that the museum has not been able to secure it, so he trans- 
lates Waterhouse's description and reproduces his colored figure. 
The type of M. platytarsus was found in the museum at Santiago 
in 1923, and my notes on it are as follows: "Skull inside. Seems to 
be a rather reddish example of Phyllotis darwini. It is in that cinna- 
mon phase often seen when the black tips of the hairs are not wholly 
worn off but turned cinnamon in color, thus matching the next color 
and increasing the general buffiness. The hind foot measures about 
27-28; the ear from notch about 23." None of the others were found 
at this time, but most of them were examined by Wolffsohn and 
discussed in his paper of 1910. There seems no reason to doubt any 
of his conclusions and most of them might well be derived from 
the descriptions and figures. Types which Wolffsohn does not men- 


tion and which may have had no recent examination are those of 
megalotis, melanonotus, and melanotis. In 1900, Philippi himself was 
unable to find the type of melanonotus and his figure is taken from 
another specimen of which no history is given. 

A specimen in the British Museum (No. received 
from Santiago bears a typewritten label attached in the Chilean 
museum and reading as follows: "Raton. Mus melanonotus Ph. & 
Landb. Chile 1892." This is perhaps the one figured in 1900, but 
the date 1892 indicates it is not the original type. It is accompanied 
by a good skull and is unquestionably referable to Phyllotis d. darwini. 

Specimens examined. Total 37: Buen Retire, Las Higuelas, 
Calera, Aconcagua, 5; Las Rojas, Quillota, Valparaiso, 2; La Ligua, 
1 (type of Mus platytarsus in Mus. Nac. Chile) ; Longotoma, Aconca- 
gua, 1; Los Agostinos, Palomar, Aconcagua, 1; Olmue, Valparaiso, 
4; Palmilla, La Cruz, Valparaiso, 2; Papudo, Aconcagua, 9; Rio 
Maule, Talca, 5; Romero, Coquimbo, 5; San Cristobal, Santiago, 2. 

Phyllotis darwini boedeckeri Philippi. 

Mus boedeckeri Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 14a, p. 53, pi. 19, 
fig. 2 (col.), 1900 Coroney Ranch, near Quirihue, Province of Maule, 

Similar to P. d. darwini, but smaller and shorter-tailed; under parts slightly 
more buffy. Total length 220-227; tail 104-106; hind foot 27; ear from notch 
(dry) 21.5. 

Range. Known only from the type locality in the coast range 
south of Valparaiso. 

Three specimens collected by Sanborn in the Province of Maule 
differ so markedly from typical darwini in their smaller size and 
especially in their shorter tails that it seems altogether probable 
they represent a recognizable race occupying the coast district 
between Valparaiso and Concepcion. For this race Philippi's name 
boedeckeri is available. The colored figure of boedeckeri is obviously 
that of a Phyllotis and the description also is sufficient. The fact 
that the skull of a house rat is figured with it needs no especial 
consideration. Philippi's original measurements agree closely with 
those of the recent specimens. Mr. Sanborn visited Mr. Boedecker, 
whom he found still living in the Province of Maule, and his recol- 
lection was that he retrieved the type specimen after it had been 
caught by a hawk, and that it was forwarded to Philippi in bad 
condition. It was not found in the museum at Santiago and it is 
not mentioned in Wolffsohn's paper (1910a). 

MAP 10. Distribution of Phyllotis darwini and Chilean subspecies. 



Two of the three specimens in hand are adult and the third 
immature. In all three a fairly pronounced buffy ochraceous pectoral 
spot is present. Such a spot is usually absent in darwini, but in rare 
instances may occur. No Phyllotis are available from any of the 
region between Maule and Valparaiso. 

Specimens examined.- Total 3: Pilen Alto, 8 miles west of Cau- 
quenes, Maule, 1; Quirihue, Maule, 2. 

Phyllotis darwini fulvescens subsp. nov. 

Type from Sierra Nahuelbuta, west of Angol, Malleco, Chile. 
Altitude about 4,000 feet. No. 50550 Field Museum of Natural 
History. Collected November 8, 1939, by Wilfred H. Osgood. Orig. 
No. 7072. 

Diagnosis. Size about as in P. d. boedeckeri; smaller and shorter- 
tailed than in P. d. darwini; darker and more richly colored than 
either; upper parts ochraceous buff thickly mixed with dusky, the 
sides brighter; under parts from the breast backward heavily washed 
with fulvous (between Ochraceous Buff and Ochraceous Orange) ; chin 
and throat paler, dull creamy thinly concealing the Blackish Mouse 
Gray undercolor; a lateral line of pure color rather well developed 
from the sides of the face to the hips, with a somewhat expanded area 
in the axillary region bright Ochraceous Buff approaching Orange 
Ochraceous; an irregular blackish eye-ring, somewhat expanded on 
the lower side; ears blackish; tail sharply bicolored; feet white. 
Skull about as in P. d. boedeckeri; smaller and lighter than in P. d. 

Measurements. Total length 227, 246; tail 104, 118; hind foot 
27, 28; ear from notch (dry) 19.3, 19.5. Skull of type: greatest 
length 30; zygomatic breadth 16; interorbital constriction 4; nasals 
13 X 4.2; palatal slits 7.2; diastema 8.2; upper cheekteeth 5.4. 

This form, although quite well characterized by its saturate colora- 
tion, is perhaps confined to the araucaria forest in the cloudlands of 
the cordillera of Nahuelbuta. In this region it appears to be rare 
and only two specimens so far have been taken, one by Dr. H. E. 
Anthony for the American Museum of Natural History, and one by 
Field Museum's expedition of 1939-40. In a week's intensive col- 
lecting, with three lines of traps out, only the single specimen (the 
type) was obtained and this not in a mouse trap, but in a steel trap 
set at the burrow of Aconaemys. The exact locality was near the 
high rock called Piedra de Aiguilas near the summit of the Sierra 


directly west of Angol. Dr. Anthony's specimen, which fully agrees 
with ours, evidently was taken in the same vicinity. 

Phyllotis darwini vaccarum Thomas. 

Phyllotis darwini vaccarum Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 10, p. 408, 
1912 Las Vacas (Punta Vaca), Transandine Railway, Argentine slopes 
of cordillera opposite Mendoza, Argentina. Alt. 2,500 meters. 

Range. East base of the Andes from the Province of Mendoza, 
Argentina, southward to the Province of Neuquen; passing into 
northern Chile in the provinces of Coquimbo and Atacama. 

This form seems to differ from typical darwini mainly in decidedly 
paler color and somewhat smaller ears. The large series from Pai- 
guano, which is about sixty miles east of Coquimbo, although pale 
in color, has rather large ears, nearly or quite equaling darwini, 
and in this respect perhaps should be regarded as intermediate. 

Three specimens of vaccarum from the type locality are indis- 
tinguishable from Chilean specimens except for their slightly smaller 
ears, and there is little doubt that the form ranges from one side of the 
Andes to the other. Its southward extension along the east side of 
the Andes to lat. 37 in Neuquen is indicated by specimens taken by 
Budin for the British Museum (see Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
(9), 18, p. 635, 1926). One of these, received in exchange by Field 
Museum, shows no tangible difference from typical vaccarum. 
Another from the same locality (Chos Malal) although rather long- 
tailed, has the under parts somewhat as in xanthopygus and appears 
to indicate a gradation from vaccarum to xanthopygus. 

Specimens examined. Total 52: CHILE: Banos del Toro, Co- 
quimbo, 2 (approaching darwini); Domeyko, Atacama, 2; Paiguano, 
Coquimbo, 43 (approaching darwini). ARGENTINA: Chos Malal, 
Neuquen, 2 (approaching xanthopygus); Punta Vaca, Mendoza, 3. 

Phyllotis darwini rupestris Gervais. 

Mus rupestris Gervais, Voy. Bonite, Zool., 1, pp. 51-53, 1841; Gay, Hist. 
Chile, Zool., 1, pp. 115-116, 1847 part; Atlas, pi. 6, figs. 1, 2, 1848 
high mountains near Cobija, Antofagasta, Chile. 

Mus capita Philippi, Reise durch die Wiiste Atacama, pp. 159-160, Zool., pi. 

2, fig. 2 (col.), 1860; Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 14a, p. 10, pi. 1, 

fig. 2 (col.), 1900 Hueso Parado, near Taltal, Province of Antofagasta, 

Hesperomys glirinus Philippi, supra cit., Ent. 13a, p. 19 (top of page), pi. 7, 

fig. 3 (col.), 1896 San Pedro de Atacama, Chile. . 


Akodon rupestris Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., p. 535, 1897; Tate, Amer. Mus. 

Nat. Hist., Nov., No. 582, p. 26, 1932 (position queried). 
Hesperomys lanatus Philippi, supra cit., Ent. 13a, p. 19 (bottom of page), 

pi. 7, fig. 2 (col.), 1896 San Pedro de Atacama, Chile. 
Mus glirinus Philippi, supra cit., Ent. 14a, p. 59, 1900. 
Mus lanatus Philippi, supra cit., Ent. 14a, pp. 59-60, 1900. 

Similar to P. d. darwini, but color paler, ears and tail shorter. Total length 
213 (194-229); tail 106.6 (93-118); hind foot 20.3 (19-21). 

Range. Arid parts of northern Chile in the Province of Antofa- 
gasta and adjoining regions; probably extending into Bolivia and 

In northern Chile the darwini series of Phyllotis is represented 
by a subspecies for which the name rupestris is available. The tail 
in this form is considerably shorter than in P. d. vaccarum, and the 
ears average slightly shorter. Corresponding to the external ears, 
there is a slight reduction in the size of the audital bullae. The color 
is pale, practically as in vaccarum. The series from the Province of 
Antofagasta agrees essentially with material from Bolivia and 
Argentina, indicating a range across the Andes. Specimens in the 
British Museum, especially those from Lipez, Bolivia, and Casa- 
bindo, Jujuy, Argentina, referred by Thomas to ricardulus, seem to 
belong with the Antofagasta form. The type and topotypes of 
ricardulus, however, are considerably darker and suggest a possible 
gradation toward wolffsohni. A small series in Field Museum from 
Tacna (alt. 11,600 ft.) also appears to belong here. 

The application of the name rupestris to this form seems well 
justified although heretofore it has been assigned to Akodon. The 
external characters were unknown to Gervais, who based his some- 
what detailed description on "un squelette inutile", mais dont la 
tete et les dents sont bien conserves." No illustration accompanied 
the original description, but a few years later Gay, who worked with 
Gervais in the Paris Museum, published excellent figures of the speci- 
men described by Gervais. Gay compared it with a specimen from 
Chile which he believed to be the same species and which he also 
figured not only as to its dentition but as to its external appearance. 
The colored plate of this animal obviously represents a Phyllotis, 
probably P. d. darwini or P. d. vaccarum. The dentition shown on 
another plate (pi. 6, fig. 2), supposed to be of the same animal, does 
not suggest Phyllotis, however, but is more like Akodon. In any 
case, whatever Gay's Chilean specimen may have been is unimpor- 
tant, since it did not receive a new name, but was merely referred 


to the rupestris of Gervais. The figures of the actual type of rupestris 
are themselves fairly conclusive. The dentition agrees with that of 
Phyllotis especially in the position of the loops of the upper molars 
directly opposite each other, the even figure 8 pattern of the second 
molar, and the elongate rather than rounded pattern of the last 
molar. The skull, shown in side view, has a short rostrum and a 
zygomatic plate vertical or slightly concave in front. The mandible 
is short and deep as in Phyllotis rather than long and slender as in 
Akodon. The external capsule of the base of the lower incisor, so 
well developed in Phyllotis, is distinctly indicated. 

The locality Cobija (formerly included in Bolivia) is on the arid 
coast of Chile between the well-known ports of Antofagasta and 
Tocopilla. Sanborn visited the place in 1923 but obtained no mam- 
mals, since conditions were very unfavorable. He reports an abrupt 
rocky coast devoid of vegetation and rising to a lifeless nitrate 
plateau extending inland for a long distance. Beyond this, how- 
ever, and in nearly the same latitude he found Phyllotis common on 
the Rio San Pedro, a tributary of the Rio Loa which comes through 
to the coast a short distance north of Cobija. It is extremely 
probable, therefore, that the mouse obtained by Sanborn is the 
same as the one described by Gervais from "un trou de rocher des 
hautes montagnes de Cobija." The only other small rodents 
obtained in the region were Eligmodontia puerulus and Akodon a. 
dolichonyx, neither of which is large enough to be considered in this 

Philippi's name Mus capita is obviously based upon an immature 
example of the Phyllotis darwini series. The description, measure- 
ments, and colored figure all point to this conclusion. The type 
appears not to exist, and for the present it seems best to associate 
the name with the mountain form of Antofagasta. No specimens 
are available from the vicinity of the type locality which is on the 
coast and somewhat south toward the region where P. d. vaccarum 
is found. Sanborn, while collecting at Caldera, still farther south, 
failed to obtain Phyllotis but examined a specimen there in the pos- 
session of a local naturalist; so there is no doubt of the coastal dis- 
tribution of the species in this region. In case specimens from the 
type locality should prove to belong to the southern form, capito 1 
might replace vaccarum. 

1 The name Mus(l) capito was used as a nomen nudum in 1815 by Illiger 
(Abhandl. K. Akad. Wiss., Berlin, 1801-1811, p. 108) and by Schinz in 1821 
(Das Thierreich, 1, p. 288, footnote). 


Philippi's names glirinus and lanatus also apply here. The speci- 
mens of both are stated to have been captured in the village of 
Atacama (San Pedro de Atacama) which is directly south of the 
Rio San Pedro and in a region of wholly similar conditions. Both 
are clearly members of the darwini series. Philippi himself notes 
their close resemblance and in comparing them makes no distinctions 
except slight differences in the measurements of the tail and ears. 
He also mentions their similarity to his Mus mollis, which is a 
synonym of P. d. darwini. The type of glirinus was not found in 
Santiago, and probably it no longer exists. Its description and 
measurements conform in detail, although the color shown by 
Philippi's figure could scarcely have been derived from a normal 
adult specimen of the species. The inaccuracy of the color in many 
of Philippi's figures is demonstrated, and in this case he remarks 
that the specimen when fresh had a different color. The propor- 
tions of the figure in this case and especially the large ears could 
apply only to one species. 

The type of H. lanatus, which is described following glirinus, on 
the same page, is preserved and was examined in 1923. Extracts 
from notes made at that time are as follows: "The label is 'Raton. 
Mus lanatus Ph. Atacama, 1885.' A pale, soft-haired and rather 
short-tailed Phyllotis. At present the hind foot measures 24.5 and 
the ear from notch 19.5. A broken skull labeled M. lanatus may 
belong to the skin. At least it seems to be a Phyllotis. It measures: 
Occ.-nas. length 31; nasals 12.6 X 4; palatine foramina 7.25 X 2; 
upper toothrow 5.3. The mounted specimen is much paler and more 
buffy than in Philippi's figure, and the dark patches are where hair 
came out, showing the under color." The artist evidently followed 
the imperfections of the mounted specimen, as in other cases, and 
thus all uncertainty is removed as to the specimen which was the 
basis of the figure. 

Specimens examined. Total 25: Putre, Tacna, 7; San Pedro de 
Atacama, Antofagasta, 1 (type of Hesperomys lanatus in Mus. Nac. 
Chile); twenty miles east of San Pedro, Rio San Pedro, Antofa- 
gasta, 17. 

Phyllotis darwini xanthopygus Waterhouse. 

Mus (Phyllotis) xanthopygus Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 28 (middle 
of page), 1837 Santa Cruz, Patagonia. 

Mus xanthopygus Waterhouse, Zool. Voy. Beagle, Mamm., p. 63, pi. 22, pi. 
34, fig. 16, 1839. 


Phyllotis xanthopygus Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., p. 534, 1897; Allen, Mamm. 
Patagonia, p. 58, pi. 13, fig. 1, pi. 14, figs. 2-3, 1905; Thomas, Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist., (9), 18, pp. 635-636, 1926. 

Most similar to P. d. vaccarum, but averaging slightly larger and shorter- 
tailed; coloration darker, the upper parts browner and the under parts wholly 
and heavily washed with Ochraceous Buff; skull larger and heavier; dentition 
averaging slightly heavier. 

Range. Southern and western Argentina from eastern Santa 
Cruz to the base of the Andes and thence northward at least to the 
southern part of the Province of Neuquen about lat. 39 S. Crosses 
the boundary into Chile at a few points. 

Two adults and four young taken near Lake Sarmiento by Field 
Museum's expedition of 1939^0 furnish the only definite Chilean 
records of this form. Very probably they also indicate the southern 
limit of the range of the subgenus Phyllotis. 

The suspicion that xanthopygus is only subspecifically separable 
from the darwini series was expressed by Thomas in 1926 (I.e.), and 
is borne out by material now in Field Museum. Included in this 
are several topotypes of vaccarum and specimens from several locali- 
ties in Neuquen received in exchange from the British Museum. Of 
two specimens from Chos Malal, Neuquen, regarded by Thomas as 
xanthopygus, one is quite indistinguishable from vaccarum and the 
other differs from it only in having the under parts slightly more 
fulvous. In the color of the upper parts all specimens from Neuquen 
agree closely with vaccarum rather than with xanthopygus. Even 
specimens from Chubut are somewhat paler than the only available 
examples from the extreme south. It appears, therefore, that while 
xanthopygus may have no direct connection with typical darwini, 
it grades insensibly into subspecies vaccarum, which doubtless ranges 
down the east side of the Andes from Mendoza to Neuquen. 

As between typical darwini and typical xanthopygus some dis- 
tinctions can be drawn but even these are somewhat variable and 
elusive. Most obvious is the color of the under parts, which is 
creamy or nearly white in darwini and wholly ochraceous buff in 
xanthopygus. In darwini the ears and tail are longer, the dentition 
averages weaker, and the infraorbital plate slopes backward less 
and its front edge is more frequently concave, sometimes forming a 
hooked process or at least a sharp angle at the top. Otherwise there 
are no evident cranial characters that hold through any considerable 

Apparently xanthopygus is mainly a rodent of the open pampa 
or of low brush along watercourses within it. In the south it extends 


to the coast of Santa Cruz and in the west records seem to indicate 
that it does not penetrate far into the mountains. It was not found 
at Rio Nirehuao, although it is recorded from Chubut only a short 
distance east. The Princeton expeditions obtained it in considerable 
numbers and their records include the following localities: Basaltic 
Canyons, mouth of Rio Coy, upper Rio Chico, Swan Lake. 

Specimens examined. Total 12: ARGENTINA: Huanuluan, Rio 
Negro, 1; Collon Cura, Neuquen, 1 (approaching vaccarum); Pil- 
caneu, Rio Negro, 3; Tecka, Chubut, 1. CHILE: Laguna Lazo, 
near Lake Sarmiento, 6. 

Phyllotis (Auliscomys) boliviensis Waterhouse. 

Hesperomys boliviensis Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pp. 9-10, 1846 
"a few leagues south of Potosi," Bolivia. 

Phyllotis boliviensis Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., p. 534, 1897; Thomas, Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), 1, p. 280, 1898; (7), 6, p. 467, 1900. 

P[hyllotis (Auliscomys)] boliviensis Osgood, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
10, p. 191, 1915. 

Euneomys (Auliscomys) boliviensis Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 17, 
p. 143, 1916. 

Phyllotis (Auliscomys) boliviensis boliviensis Ellerman, Fam. Gen. Rodents, 
2, p. 455, 1941. 

A stout-bodied mouse, with very large ears, long lax pelage, and tail shorter 
than head and body. Color buffy with creamy white under parts and a tuft of 
contrasted bright ochraceous hairs at the anterior base of the ears. Total length 
215; tail 90; hind foot 28; ear from notch 22-24. 

A small series of seven specimens of this species was taken by 
Sanborn at an altitude of 15,000 feet at Choquelimpie, Tacna. They 

have the long lax pelage, large ears, 
and large audital bullae as described 
for typical boliviensis. Geographically 
they stand between boliviensis and its 
slight subspecies flavidior and do not 
wholly agree with either. Doubtless 
the species will be found elsewhere in 
northern Chile at high altitudes. It 
is an intrusive form belonging to the 
Bolivian rather than the Chilean fauna 
and so far is recorded only from the 
puna zone. It is now represented in 
Field Museum by large series from the highlands adjacent to Lake 
Titicaca in southwestern Peru. 

FIG. 29. Phyllotis (Aulis- 
comys) boliviensis. F.M. No. 
22696. X 1. 


Phyllotis (Auliscomys) micropus micropus Waterhouse. 

Mus micropus Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 17, 1837; Zool. Voy. 
Beagle, Mamm., p. 61, pi. 20, pi. 34, fig. 13, 1839 "Interior plains of 
Patagonia, in latitude 50, near banks of the Santa Cruz" River, Pata- 

Phyllotis micropus Allen, Mamm. Patagonia, p. 60, pi. 12, fig. 13, pi. 14, fig. 1, 
1905; Osgood, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 10, p. 190, 1915. 

Euneomys (Auliscomys) micropus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 17, 
p. 143, 1916. 

Euneomys micropus alsus Thomas, supra cit., (9), 3, p. 202, 1919 Maiten, 
Chubut, Argentina. 

Phyllotis (Auliscomys) micropus Ellerman, Fam. Gen. Rodents, 2, p. 455, 

A fairly large, heavy-bodied, and dark-colored mouse with rather small ears 
and the tail shorter than the head and body. Skull with narrow interorbital 
space, slightly concave, with its borders forming incipient ridges; maxillo- 
premaxillary suture nearly vertical; posterior palate with a blunt median spine 
and with its lateral pits shallow and practically confluent with the parapterygoid 
fossae; front of incisors smooth, quite without grooves. Total length 249 (239- 
258); tail 102 (93-108); hind foot 31 (28-32). 

Range. Eastern base of the Andes, mainly in Argentina, from 
the Straits of Magellan northward to lat. 38 S., and thence in small 
numbers passing into Chile via the Nahuelhuapi region and the 
provinces of Malleco and Cautin westward to the Sierra Nahuelbuta. 
Represented by a slightly characterized race on Chiloe Island. 

This mouse has an extensive range within which no well-estab- 
lished variations are definable. Although not previously recorded 
so far south, it was found in 1939-40 to be abundant in the wooded 
hills but a few miles from Punta Arenas. With the exception of the 
much smaller Akodon xanthorhinus, it is the most numerous and 
most successful rodent of the region, but so far as known it has not 
reached Tierra del Fuego. Throughout its range in Argentina and 
southern Chile, it seems everywhere to be abundant, but in the 
north, where it crosses the Andes into central Chile, it is rare and 
difficult to obtain. On Lake Todos Santos, where several hundred 
small rodents were collected at Peulla in 1939, only two specimens 
of this species were taken. In the Sierra Nahuelbuta during the 
same season it was also scarce. Apparently it is a recent immigrant 
to this part of Chile and, although there is some suggestion of differ- 
entiation, it seems too slight for definition on the basis of present 
material. The specimens from Lake Todos Santos have somewhat 
larger molars than is typical, and those from Nahuelbuta, which 
have normal molars, are externally marked by slightly pale under 


parts, somewhat as described for E. m. alsus, but in this case as in 
that of alsus, the difference is fully covered by variation elsewhere. 

Locality records for this species in the literature include the 
following: Rio Chico, Alta Vista, and Lago Argentina, Santa Cruz; 
Epuyen, Leleque, Mai ten, and Tecka, Chubut; and Quilquihue, San 
Martin de los Andes, and Sierra de Pilpil, Neuquen. 

The generic position of this species is a matter of considerable 
difficulty since it does not fall readily into any well-defined group 
but offers a combination of characters pointing in various directions. 
According to the grouping made by Thomas, in 1916, it was regarded 

FIG. 30. Phyllotis (Auliscomys) micropus. F.M. No. 23263. X 1. 

as a member of the subgenus Auliscomys within the genus Euneomys. 
The same grouping was made by Ellerman, in 1941, but Auliscomys 
was placed under Phyllotis rather than Euneomys. Material now in 
hand seems to justify this as a much more natural arrangement, 
although micropus is still somewhat anomalous in company with 
boliviensis and sublimis, to which its external resemblance is slight. 
In characterizing Auliscomys in 1915, I considered it to occupy 
a connectant position between Phyllotis and Euneomys but, on 
account of lack of material representing it, did not give much 
attention to the species micropus which, because of its smooth 
incisors, was then regarded as a Phyllotis. Nevertheless, I was 
inclined to place Auliscomys as a subgenus under Phyllotis, where 
I still believe it belongs, although I do- not now think it has any 
especial affinity to Euneomys. Thomas has referred micropus to 
Euneomys, has expressed the opinion that Auliscomys is nearer to 
Euneomys than to Phyllotis, has raised Auliscomys to generic rank 
and has added two further names Galenomys and Chelemyscus, both 
based on single specimens. In the course of this he has referred one 
species (xanthopygus) first to Phyllotis, then to Euneomys, and then 
back again to Phyllotis. The history is well set forth, with references, 
by Tate (Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Nov., No. 541, pp. 1-21, 1932). 


From the foregoing, it may well be concluded that the distinc- 
tion of genera of South American rodents is no easy matter and the 
suspicion is aroused that the methods employed may be faulty. 
What seems to have taken place is an attempt to apply to an imper- 
fectly known fauna standards of distinction which are only workable 
with a thoroughly known fauna. Before all the species of a group 
are known, it may easily happen that specific and generic characters 
are confused, and under these circumstances conservatism, if it 
could be maintained, would unquestionably lead to the best results. 
However, it never has been maintained and probably cannot be, so 
we pass from one provisional classification to another, including 
some which delay rather than advance knowledge of the actual 

In the group under consideration a present policy involving 
something of compromise may have some advantages. Disregard- 
ing the grooving of the incisors, there are common characters by 
which Auliscomys (i.e. pictus, sublimis, and boliviensis) and the 
species micropus may be separated from Phyllotis. These, there- 
fore, should be brigaded in some fashion, doubtless best as a sub- 
genus under the name Auliscomys as has been done by Ellerman. 
The characters are most extreme in micropus, but are at least 
partially evident in the other forms which apparently stand some- 
what between micropus and typical Phyllotis. Most important are 
the development of the anterior outer lobe (parastyle) of the middle 
upper cheektooth and the somewhat more oblique pattern of all 
the grinding teeth in which the outer lobes are flexed forward rather 
than directed at right angles to the axis of the skull. The parastyle is a 
variable element in the entire group allied to Phyllotis. Thus it is 
well developed in Andinomys and appears also in Graomys but is not 
evident in Chinchillula. It is almost non-existent in Euneomys, being 
only faintly suggested in unworn teeth; it is quite slight in typical 
Phyllotis; it is fairly developed in the smaller forms of Auliscomys; 
and it is quite pronounced in the species micropus. Not only in 
dentition, but also in various cranial characters, including its palate 
and its maxillo-premaxillary suture, micropus agrees closely with 
Phyllotis rather than with Euneomys, clearly indicating that its close 
association with Euneomys cannot be defended. 

In the very large series of micropus now available, there is one 
specimen (from Punta Arenas) in which the left upper incisor is 
distinctly grooved, the right being smooth as usual. Whether this 
is significant of relationship to other groove-toothed forms or not is 


conjectural, but if any inference is to be drawn from it, it should be 
favorable. In pictus, slight grooves seem always to be present; in 
sublimis, faint grooves are often found, but in many specimens none 
are evident; in boliviensis and flavidior, even faint grooves have not 
been detected. 

Specimens examined. Total 71: ARGENTINA: Bariloche, Nahuel- 
huapi, 3; San Martin de los Andes, Neuquen, 1; Sierra de Pilpil, 
Neuquen, 1; Valle del Lago Blanco, Chubut, 2. CHILE: Casa 
Richards, Rio Nirehuao, 23; Laguna Lazo, near Lake Sarmiento, 
Ultima Esperanza, 8; La Picada, Volcan Osorno, Llanquihue, 1; 
Peulla, Lake Todos Santos, 2; Lonquimai, Cautin, 1; Puerto Natales, 
Ultima Esperanza, 1; Punta Arenas, Magallanes, 20; Rio Coihoique, 
1; Rio Lolen, Cautin, 1; Sierra Nahuelbuta, Malleco, 6 (A.M.N.H. 
3; F.M. 3). 

Phyllotis (Auliscomys) micropus fumipes subsp. nov. 

Type from Quellon, Chiloe Island, Chile. No. 23292 Field 
Museum of Natural History. Subadult male, collected December 
23, 1922, by Wilfred H. Osgood. Orig. No. 5459. 

Diagnosis. Similar to P. m. micropus but upper side of hands 
and feet darker, somewhat brownish or sooty instead of whitish. 

Color. Practically as in micropus except that the hands and feet 
are darker. 

Skull. As in micropus. 

Measurements. Type: greatest length 214; tail 90; hind foot 
29.5. Skull of type: greatest length 29.7; zygomatic width 16.9; 
width of braincase 13.8; cheekteeth 5.7. 

Remarks. Four specimens of this mouse taken on Chiloe Island 
constitute the only existing representatives of it. All of them are 
somewhat immature, and it is possible that a series of adults would 
show greater distinction from the east Andean form. They were 
not recognized in the field on account of their superficial resemblance 
to other rodents, so no especial effort was made to secure larger 
numbers. The small number of specimens, however, indicates 
comparative rarity. 

Specimens examined. Total 4: Quellon, Chiloe Island, 1; mouth 
of Rio Inio, Chiloe Island, 3. 

Euneomys chinchilloides chinchilloides Waterhouse. 

Reithrodon chinchilloides Waterhouse, Zool. Voy. Beagle, Mamm., p. 72, pi. 
27, pi. 34, fig. 20, 1839 south shore (i.e. Tierra del Fuego) of the Straits 




of Magellan, near eastern entrance; Milne-Edwards, Miss. Scient. Cap 
Horn, 6, Mamm., p. 29, pi. 3, 1891 Orange Bay, Tierra del Fuego. 

Reithrodon (Euneomys) chinchilloides Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
p. 185, footnote, 1874. 

Euneomys chinchilloides Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Suppl., p. 429, 1904. 

A heavy-bodied, short-tailed mouse with dense, soft pelage, rich coloration, 
and rather small ears. Skull broad and heavy; infraorbital plate with front border 
nearly straight, slightly inclined backward; posterior palate with marked lateral 
pits separated from parapterygoid fossae by a high ridge; lower half of maxillo- 
premaxillary suture extended forward to a point more than halfway between the 
cheekteeth and the incisors; front of upper incisors deeply grooved; cheekteeth 
hypsodont and with markedly oblique pattern. Total length 237; tail 81; hind 
foot 32; ear from notch (dry) 19.3. 

Range. Island of Tierra del Fuego and adjacent mainland in 
the western part of the Province of Magallanes, Chile. 

A single adult male of this rare species was taken by Sanborn 
December 30, 1939, in the forest at the southeastern end of Lake 
Fagnano, Tierra del Fuego; and two 
immature examples, apparently of the 
same species, were taken by J. M. 
Schmidt near Punta Arenas in February 
and March, 1940. These are the only 
existing modern specimens, the type and 
other recorded examples mostly having 
been preserved in alcohol or otherwise 
being in bad condition. The adult speci- 
men indicates that the species is some- 
what larger than has been supposed and 
it may be concluded that the type was not a fully mature animal. 

Our adult specimen has the head, back and sides uniformly 
Cinnamon Rufous lightly mixed with dusky; the under parts are 
clear Cinnamon Rufous nearly concealing the under color, which is 
Dark Mouse Gray; the hands and feet are white; and the tail is 
sharply bicolor, brownish above and whitish below. Very charac- 
teristic is a narrow area of pure white surrounding the rhinarium 
and extending a short distance along the upper lips. The immature 
examples are considerably more blackish than the adult, the general 
effect of their upper parts being deep Fuscous. They furnish no 
evidence pointing to distinction of island and mainland forms and 
until more specimens are available it seems necessary to consider 
them the same as the adult. 

The skull of the fully adult specimen furnishes the following 
measurements: greatest length 34.8; basilar length 28.4; zygomatic 

FIG. 31. Euneomys c. chin- 
chilloides. F.M. No. 50736. 


breadth 21.1; interorbital constriction 4.1; nasals 16 X 5.1; palatal 
slits 9.1; diastema 9; upper cheekteeth 5.9. 

The type locality of this species as given by Darwin, "South 
Shore of the Strait of Magellan, near the eastern entrance," is not 
wholly definite, but in 1940 our party worked at one locality which 
is doubtless only a few miles from it. This was at the Arroyo Beta 
on the northeast coast of Tierra del Fuego some fifteen miles north 
of Rio Cullen. Here we found a heavy growth of "black brush" in 
which Akodon xanthorhinus was excessively abundant, but no larger 
mice such as Euneomys or Reithrodon were obtained, although old 
signs indicated that they may have been present the previous year. 

Specimens examined. Total 3: Lake Fagnano, Tierra del Fuego, 
1; Punta Arenas, 2. 

Euneomys chinchilloides ultimus Thomas. 

Euneomys ultimus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 17, p. 185, 1916 St. 
Martin's Cove, Hermite Island, Cape Horn Islands, south of Tierra del 

Since a specific name has been given to the Euneomys of the Cape 
Horn Islands, perhaps it should be allowed to stand until sufficient 
and suitable material makes proper comparisons possible, but its 
distinction is very doubtful. At present it cannot be characterized 
in any way, since it was described only on the basis of supposed 
larger size and, as shown by our specimens from Tierra del Fuego, 
it is fully equaled by typical chinchilloides. It is recorded from Hoste 
Island as well as Hermite Island. The few known poorly preserved 
specimens are in the Paris Museum with the exception of one imma- 
ture example sent in exchange to the British Museum. 

Euneomys petersoni Allen. 

Euneomys petersoni Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 19, p. 192, 1903 
upper Rio Chico, Santa Cruz, Argentina; Mamm. Patagonia, p. 68, pi. 13, 
fig. 4, pi. 14, figs. 6-7, 1905. 

Euneomys dabbenei Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 4, p. 127, 1919 
Lago Viedma, Santa Cruz, Argentina. 

Similar to E. chinchilloides, but smaller and paler; white marking bordering 
upper lip broadly extended through base of whiskers to form a short facial stripe; 
skull similar in general, but smaller and lighter throughout. Total length 193-201 ; 
tail 58-68; hind foot 27-28; ear from notch (dry) 17-18. 

Range. Eastern base of the Andes from the district of Ultima 
Esperanza about lat. 51 S. northward at least to lat. 48 S. and 
possibly to 45. 


A small series taken near Lake Sarmiento is so much smaller 
and paler than chinchilloides and the distance from this locality 
to the Straits is so short that probabilities favor the assumption 
that petersoni and chinchilloides, although closely related, are dis- 
tinct species. There is a slight break in climatic and floral condi- 
tions near the point where these specimens were taken, and it seems 
unlikely that the species will be found farther south. At the same 
locality Eligmodontia and Phyllotis xanthopygus were obtained, both 
being forms apparently reaching their southern limit in this vicinity. 

A single specimen lent by the American Museum of Natural 
History through Dr. H. E. Anthony, who collected it at Campo 
Bandera, Coihoique, Chile, about lat. 45 S., also seems referable 
to petersoni although it shows paler under parts than the majority 
of our series. E. dabbenei from Lake Viedma, lying in the region 
between the upper Rio Chico and Lake Sarmiento, is obviously a 
synonym. Skull measurements of a fully adult female, compared 
with those of the type of petersoni (in parentheses) are as follows: 
greatest length 30.7 (30.5); zygomatic breadth 18.8 (17.5); inter- 
orbital constriction 3.8 (3.5); width of braincase 14.3 (14); length 
of nasals 13.5 (14); palatal slits 7.6 (8); diastema 8.2 (8.5); upper 
cheekteeth 5.4 (5.2). 

Specimens examined. Total 18: Campo Bandera, Coihoique, 
Llanquihue, 1 (A.M.N.H.); Laguna Lazo, near Lake Sarmiento, 
Ultima Esperanza, 17. 

Irenomys tarsalis tarsalis Philippi. 

Mus tarsalis Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 14a, pp. 10-11, pi. 1, 

fig. 3, 1900-near La Union, Province of Valdivia. 
Irenomys longicaudatus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 3, pp. 200-201, 

1919 recorded from Beatriz, Lake Nahuelhuapi, Argentina. 

A mouse of fairly large size and thick pelage; tail rather hairy and distinctly 
penciled at the tip, much longer than head and body; ears of moderate size, 
blackish in considerable contrast to rufescent body color; skull with long braincase, 
large inter parietal, slender rostrum and constricted interorbital space; upper 
incisors deeply grooved; molars with a simple lozenge-shaped pattern and deep 
inner and outer re-entrant angles. Total length 300 (290-326) ; tail 172 (162-188) ; 
hind foot 31.3 (30-32). 

Range. Temperate forested region of south-central Chile from 
the Province of Valdivia northwestward nearly or quite to the coast 
in the Province of Malleco and southeastward through the lake 
region to Lake Nahuelhuapi in Argentina. 

After the rediscovery of this rare mouse by Thomas in 1919, it 
is interesting to have at hand ample material confirming his main 


conclusions based on a single immature example. It was found in 
1939 in considerable numbers in the deep forests surrounding Lake 
Todos Santos, and a single specimen was also taken near the crest 
of the Sierra Nahuelbuta in the Province of Malleco. Although all 
specimens were caught in traps set on the ground, it is evident that 
the animal is largely arboreal in habits. During an excessive abun- 
dance of small rodents about Lake Todos Santos, supposed to be due 
to the flowering the previous year of the bamboo called quila, this 

species was reported to be one of the 
most numerous, and according to native 
accounts it was seen frequently climb- 
ing about in the trees. 

Since the species has never been 
adequately characterized, it may be 
described as follows: General external 
appearance strongly suggesting Rhipi- 
domys; tail much longer than head and 
body, well clothed with hair, slightly 
penciled at tip; feet large and broad; 
ears medium-sized, densely haired. 
Color of upper parts grayish Cinnamon 
Rufous with fine dusky lines; ears 
brownish black rather contrasted, oc- 
casionally with an indistinct whitish 

spot just below them; fore and hind feet mainly whitish, sometimes 
with dusky mixture medially; toes white; tail blackish brown all 
around, sometimes lighter on the under side for a short distance 
proximally; under parts heavily washed with pinkish Cinnamon 
Buff not fully covering plumbeous under color. 

Skull with general form much as in medium-sized species of 
Rhipidomys; braincase very large and full; interparietal large; inter- 
orbital region much constricted; nasals rather flat, ending nearly 
even with premaxillae; anterior palatal foramina long, ending about 
even with second lamina of first upper molar; bullae of good size. 
Upper incisors deeply unisulcate; molars strongly hypsodont and 
laminate, the series slightly divergent anteriorly and posteriorly; 
grinding surfaces of laminae in unworn teeth diamond-shaped, of 
quite regular form. Measurements of the skull of an adult are: 
greatest length 32.4; basilar length 24.4; zygomatic width 16.3; least 
interorbital width 3.5; nasals 11.3 X 3; width of braincase 13.6; 
interparietal 10 X 4; diastema 8.3; palatine slits 8; upper toothrow 5.4. 

FIG. 32. Irenomys t. tar- 
salis. F.M. No. 50568. X 1. 


Philippi's name, Mus tarsalis, which has page priority over 
Reithrodon longicaudatus, seems clearly to apply to this species. 
The description of tarsalis makes no mention of the skull or of the 
distinctive characters of the dentition, but the colored figure and 
other considerations seem conclusive. This figure is quite superior 
to the others published with it and, as explained in the text, was 
drawn from a fresh specimen, not from a poorly stuffed example in 
the museum as was the case with most of the others. Its agreement 
with our immature specimens is complete, and a better representation 
could scarcely be desired. The type of tarsalis, now apparently lost, 
came from "mi fundo San Juan," near La Union in the Province of 
Valdivia. Although considerable collecting was done by Mr. San- 
born in this and adjoining provinces, the species was not obtained, 
but in view of its probable arboreal habits, this is not strange. 
Moreover, no other mouse even remotely resembling Philippi's 
figure was taken in this region. Phyllotis, which occurs rarely in 
the humid forested part of southern Chile, is somewhat similar but 
it has a much shorter and less hairy tail. Lake Todos Santos, where 
most of our specimens were taken, is about the same latitude as 
Valdivia and no doubt the species ranges throughout the forested 
region of this part of Chile. A specimen recorded by Thomas was taken 
by Budin on Lake Nahuelhuapi in Argentina but in the same forest. 
Our single specimen from Nahuelbuta has much lighter under parts 
than others but further material is required to substantiate the 
existence of a local race in that region. 

Specimens examined. Total 16: La Picada, Mount Osorno, 1; 
Petrohue, Lake Todos Santos, 1; Puella, Lake Todos Santos, 13; 
Sierra Nahuelbuta, Malleco, 1. 

Irenomys tarsalis longicaudatus Philippi. 

Reithrodon longicaudatus Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 14a, 
pp. 64-65, pi. 11, fig. 1, 1900 Melinka, Guaiteca Islands, lat. 44 S., 

Very similar to /. tarsalis, but color of under parts somewhat paler, clear 
Cinnamon Buff rather than Cinnamon or Pinkish Cinnamon. 

Range. Guaiteca Islands and Chiloe Island. 

The recognition of this as a separate form rests upon a small 
series, mostly immature, taken at the southern end of Chiloe Island 
during Field Museum's expedition of 1922-23. Nearly all were 
caught by Mr. Sanborn about an abandoned cabin at the edge of 
the forest, and regular lines of traps set through the forest yielded 


scarcely any, probably a further indication that the animal is 

Comparison of this series with that from Lake Todos Santos 
representing true tarsalis is not wholly satisfactory because one 
series contains only adults and the other only immatures. In two 
of the southern specimens, which apparently have attained the 
coloration of maturity, the shade of the under parts is slightly less 
"pinkish" than in the northern ones, while in five others, quite imma- 
ture, the under parts are very light colored, scarcely darker than the 
Cream Color of Ridgway. Whether this slight distinction will be 
borne out by further material is doubtful, but for the present two 
forms may be admitted, especially since they have some geographic 

The mounted type of Philippi's Reithrodon longicaudatus is still 
preserved in the Santiago Museum, but the skull has been removed 
and apparently lost (possibly associated erroneously with Mus 
mochae, see p. 173). The skin agrees fairly well with the original 
description and figure except that the color is somewhat more 
brownish, and the end of the tail is missing. The hind foot measures 
approximately 31 mm. The skin is mostly dark brownish with 
whitish buff under parts. The tail is blackish all around and quite 
hairy. The typewritten label gives "Melinca" for locality, although 
Philippi publishes only "Habitat in litore occidentali Patagoniae." 
Melinka is on one of the small islands of the Guaiteca group, just 
beyond the south end of Chiloe Island, where our specimens 
were taken, so it may be assumed with considerable reason that this 
is the actual type locality of longicaudatus. Mr. Sanborn trapped 
for a few days at Melinka but did not obtain the species there. 

Specimens examined. Total 8: Mouth of Rio Inio, Chiloe Island, 
7; Melinka, Guaiteca Islands, 1 (type in Santiago). 

Reithrodon auritus cuniculoides Waterhouse. 

Reithrodon cuniculoides Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 30, 1837; 
Zool. Voy. Beagle, Mamm., p. 69, pi. 26, 1839 Santa Cruz, Patagonia; 
Allen, Mamm. Patagonia, p. 63, 1905. 

A short-tailed, loose-pelaged, and heavy-bodied mouse with rounded ears, 
the inner surfaces of which are densely hairy and light colored; inguinal region 
and inner side of thighs frequently white. Upper incisors distinctly grooved; 
anterior border of infraorbital plate deeply emarginate. Total length 242 (231- 
257); tail 95 (90-103); hind foot 34.6 (33-36). 

Range. Treeless coast of southern Patagonia from the eastern 
end of the Straits of Magellan northward at least through the 


Province of Santa Cruz, Argentina. Enters Chilean territory near 
the Argentine boundary at the Straits of Magellan and westward 
in treeless regions to meet the range of R. a. pachycephalus near the 
base of the Andes. 

Although several names have been applied to Reithrodon from 
southern South America, only two races seem distinguishable, a paler 
form from the east coast and the treeless region extending inland and 
a darker form from the edge of the forested region along the base of 
the Andes. The species was taken by Darwin at Port Desire, San 
Julian and Santa Cruz, and Waterhouse's type of cuniculoides was 
from Santa Cruz, so this name now applies only to the pale form. 
The only record of this form from Chile is furnished by a single 
immature example collected by J. M. Schmidt, in 1940, at North 
Arm Station, Rio Ciaike, just west of the Argentine boundary. 

Specimens from Arroyo Aike, in the Basaltic Canyons, "one 
hundred and fifty to two hundred miles northwest of St. Julian and 
Santa Cruz," referred by Allen to cuniculoides, are scarcely darker 
than the few specimens available from the coast, evidently indicating 
that this form ranges across all of southern Patagonia to meet the 
range of pachycephalus in or near the wooded parts of the mountains. 

Specimens examined. Total 9: ARGENTINA: Arroyo Aike, 
Basaltic Canyons, Santa Cruz, 7 (A.M.N.H.); mouth of Rio Coy, 
Santa Cruz, 1 (U.S.N.M.). CHILE: Rio Ciaike, Magallanes, 1. 

Reithrodon auritus pachycephalus Philippi. 

Mus pachycephalus Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Ent. 14a, p. 42, pi. 17, 
figs. 6, 6a, 66, 1900 Straits of Magellan (Punta Arenas by present desig- 

Reithrodon cuniculoides obscurus Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 19, 
p. 190, 1903 Punta Arenas, Chile. 

Reithrodon haicheri Allen, supra cit., p. 191 head of Rio Chico, Santa Cruz, 

Reithrodon cuniculoides Wolffsohn, Bol. Mus. Nac. Chile, 2, No. 1, p. 101, 1910. 

Reithrodon cuniculoides flammarum Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 10, 
p. 411, 1912 Spring Hill, northern Tierra del Fuego. 

Similar in all general characters to R. a. cuniculoides, but color averaging 
darker, the upper parts more heavily mixed with blackish and the under parts a 
slightly darker shade of ochraceous buff. 

Range. Tierra del Fuego and western Patagonia from the Straits 
of Magellan northward near the base of the Andes at least through 
the territory of Chubut, grading into auritus in the east and evae 


in the west; enters Chile near the international boundary at least in 
lat. 45 S.; also in the vicinity of Punta Arenas. 

The Reithrodon of western Patagonia from northern Chubut to 
Magallanes and across the Straits to Tierra del Fuego is uniformly 
somewhat darker than cuniculoides from the east coast of Santa 
Cruz. Further subdivision, as judged by fairly ample material now 
in hand, does not seem justified and the conclusion is forced that the 
several names given to specimens from this region apply to one form 
only. Excluding cuniculoides, the earliest of these names is Philippi's 
pachycephalus. No type of this could be found in Santiago in 1924, 

FIG. 33. Reithrodon auritus pachycephaliis. F.M. No. 23258. X 1. 

but one evidently was examined by Wolffsohn, and there seems no 
reason to disagree with his conclusion that it was a Reithrodon. 
Philippi's description and figure also indicate this, although his 
specimen was obviously quite immature. The locality given for it 
was simply "Freto Magellanica," and the exact locality may be 
assumed to be the vicinity of Punta Arenas, then as now a Chilean 
city with regular communication with Valparaiso and Santiago. 

The names obscurus and flammarum, both based on single speci- 
mens, are evidently synonyms of pachycephalus. So also is hatcheri, 
although in its case the possibility that it may be somewhat inter- 
mediate between cuniculoides and pachycephalus is not wholly 
excluded. Several specimens from the original series of hatcheri, 
kindly lent by the United States National Museum, prove to have 
the upper parts quite as dark as in pachycephalus, but the under 
parts are a trifle lighter. 

A small series from Tierra del Fuego shows no differences in 
size, color, or cranial characters from a similar series from Skyring 
Water, a short distance north of Punta Arenas. These in turn are 
quite like others from farther north, including a number from Rio 


Nirehuao on the Chilean side of the line at about lat. 45 S., where 
the species was found to be abundant in 1924. 

A review of the literature, supplemented by examination of a 
considerable series of specimens, is fairly convincing that Reithrodon 
is monotypic, consisting only of a single species divisible into several 
subspecies which differ from each other mainly in shade of color or 
in the extent of hairiness on the feet. As compared with typicus, 
pachycephalus and cuniculoides show certain cranial characters which 
doubtless are valid, but none which might not easily be bridged by 

That light and dark forms corresponding to those found on the 
mainland may at some time be distinguished on Tierra del Fuego 
is perhaps not impossible but it seems highly improbable. Our 
specimens from Tierra del Fuego are mostly from the edge of the 
forest, whereas the type locality of flammarum, Spring Hill, is on 
the north coast in a treeless region. In the vicinity of Spring Hill, 
however, there is much heavy brush of the kind called mata negra, 
furnishing exactly the same habitat in which we found Reithrodon on 
the mainland. 

Names given to supposed northern forms are the following: 

Reithrodon a. auritus Desmarest; south of Buenos Aires. 

a. pampanus Thomas; northwest of Bahia Blanca. 
a. marinus Thomas; Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, 
a. typicus Waterhouse; Maldonado, Uruguay. 
a. currentium Thomas; Goya, Corrientes. 
a. caurinus Thomas; Otro Cerro, Catamarca. 
a. evae Thomas; Zapala, Neuquen. 

Of these, those most likely to have permanent recognition are 
auritus, typicus, and caurinus. Most of the others are open to serious 
question and doubtless will prove to be either quite indistinguishable 
or intermediate in character. R. pampanus already has been elimi- 
nated as a synonym of auritus by Thomas (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
(9), 5, p. 474, 1920). Next is marinus, which is based on two speci- 
mens that had been kept in captivity and which must remain in 
doubt until good material representing it is obtained. R. currentium 
was based on the assumption that typicus is dull-colored, this being 
the case in the faded type specimen. A modern series of typicus 
from Uruguay now in Field Museum, however, is bright colored 
as described for currentium, so that name is probably a synonym of 
typicus. The form called evae is represented in Field Museum by a 
specimen from Huanuluan, Rio Negro, which is definitely paler than 
cuniculoides. It is thus somewhat intermediate between cuniculoides 


and the still paler form caurinus, although it is not unlikely that 
three forms may be distinguished. 

During the season of 1939-40, when our field work was done in 
the south, Reithrodon was very scarce, although reports and indica- 
tions were to the effect that at times it has been very abundant. 
Apparently it was near the low point of a cycle. In only two locali- 
ties, one on Tierra del Fuego and one on the mainland, was it found 
in sufficient numbers to provide a fair representation. In many 
other places, slightly weathered droppings and runways of a large 
mouse, probably Reithrodon, were found in great numbers, appar- 
ently indicating that within two years, at most, it had been numer- 
ous. In most cases these signs were in open country away from the 
forest, usually in the low brush known as mata negra, whereas the 
localities where specimens were taken were at the edge of the forest 
or in openings within it. The excessive abundance of Akodon 
xanthorhinus which prevailed at the time was possibly connected 
with the scarcity of Reithrodon, but since it is a much smaller animal 
it is hardly to be supposed that Reithrodon retreated before it. 

Specimens examined. Total 36: ARGENTINA: Alta Vista, Lake 
Argentine, 1 ; Estancia Via Monte, Tierra del Fuego, 1 ; north end of 
Lake Fagnano, Tierra del Fuego, 4; upper Rio Chico, Santa Cruz, 
4 (U.S.N.M.); Valle del Lago Blanco, Chubut, 1. CHILE: Campo 
Bandera, Coihoique, 2 (A.M.N.H.); Casa Richards, Rio Nirehuao, 
16; Rio Verde, east end of Skyring Water, Magallanes, 7. 



Pelage long, soft and loose; upper lips widely cleft; feet with long pads behind 

hoofs; no accessory hoofs or "dew claws"; horns absent in both sexes. 
Size larger; no especial elongation of hairs from brisket; lower incisors with 

closed roots; antorbital vacuity large Lama. 

Size smaller; hairs from brisket elongated to form an "apron" reaching nearly 
or quite to "knees"; lower incisors with persistently open roots; antorbital 

vacuity almost or quite closed Vicugna. 

Pelage smooth, crisp, and rather short; no long pads behind hoofs; accessory 

hoofs or "dew claws" present; males with horns. 
Size large; height at shoulder more than 50 in.; males with forked horns. 


Size smaller; height at shoulder less than 50 in.; males with straight unbranched 
horns Pudu. 

Hippocamelus bisulcus Molina. HUEMUL. 

equus bisulcus Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, pp. 320-322, 343, 1782 high 
Andes of Chile. 


Camelus equinus Treviranus, Biol. Phil, lebend. Natur Naturf. Aerzte, 2, 
pp. 179, 225, 1803 E. bisulcus renamed. 

Hippocamelus dubius Leuckart, Dissert, inaug. de Equo bisulco Molinae, 
p. 23, 1816 E. bisulcus renamed. 

Auchenia huemul H. Smith, Griffith's Cuvier, Anim. Kingd., 5, p. 300, 1827 
E. bisulcus renamed. 

Cervus (Cervequus) andicus Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Reg. Anim., Mamm., p. 173, 
1842 E. bisulcus renamed. 

Cervus chilensis Gay and Gervais, Ann. Sci. Nat., Paris, (3), 5, pp. 91-93, 1846; 
Gay, Hist. Chile, Zool., 1, pp. 159-160, 1847; Atlas, Mamm., pis. 10-11, 
1848 Chile; Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., pp. 1-9, pi., figs. 
1-6, 1892; pp. 8-10, pi. 1, fig. 1, 1894. 

Capreolus leucotis Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pp. 64-65, pi. 12, 1849 Port 
Famine, Straits of Magellan. 

Manama bisulcus Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 296, 1898. 

Hippocamelus bisulcus Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 212, 1898; Lydek- 
ker, Cat. Ungulate Mamm., 4, p. 193, 1915. 

A large yellowish brown finely speckled deer with coarse, brittle pelage; horns 
in the male usually with one simple fork and two points on each side; females 
hornless; feet with well-developed accessory hoofs or "dew claws," tail short and 
inconspicuous. Total length 160-170 cm.; height at shoulder 80 cm. 

Range. Southern and western Argentina nearly or quite to the 
Straits of Magellan and Chilean Andes north to the Province of 
Colchagua about lat. 34 S.; now rare or extirpated in parts of its 
former range. 

The huemul appears to be a mountain animal that lives by pref- 
erence near the upper limits of timber. In central Chile it is confined 
to the higher Andes and southward it is not usually found in the 
coast forests but occurs principally near the international boundary 
where conditions are most favorable to it, on the eastern or Argentine 
side of the mountains. Nevertheless, it has been reported from Port 
Famine, Magallanes, and, according to information received from 
Mr. Junius Bird, on the authority of Mr. Lucas Bridges, it has been 
found on Wellington Island and on the Peninsula of Taitao. In 
mountains near Lake Sarmiento (lat. 51 S.) in 1940 I picked up a 
shed horn doubtless only a few years old, but residents of the region 
reported that none of the animals had been seen there for some time. 

Its northern limit on the Chilean side is or was in the vicinity of 
the sources of the Rio Cachapoal between lat. 33 and 34. Both 
Philippi (I.e., 1892, 1894) and E. C. Reed (1877) mention specimens 
taken here in the Province of Colchagua and records from farther 
north are lacking. In Patagonia it is mainly western in distribution, 
but early reports state that it once occurred in hills near Port Desire 
on the Atlantic coast. 


Various writers have given accounts of the hunting of the huemul, 
among the best being those of Prichard (1902) and Hatcher (1903). 
All agree in testifying to an unusual lack of wariness on the part of 
animals encountered on open hillsides in regions where they had not 
been subjected to much pursuit. My own experience with them, 
although limited to a few days' hunting in a single locality, was so 
extraordinary in this respect that a full account of it extracted from 
my personal journal may be of interest. The locality was Pico 
Richards, a mountain opposite Cerro Mano Negra at the head of 
"Rio Richards," a small southern tributary of Rio Nirehuao. About 
its base the mountain is well wooded with roble and other deciduous 
trees, and, although the summit at 4,000-5,000 feet is sandy and 
treeless, its sides have alternating forest clumps and open grassy 
or rocky slopes. 

Under date of March 6, the entry in the journal is approximately 
as follows: 

"The first evening I climbed up the side of the mountain just 
behind camp in the heavy woods for a short hour, and was unable 
to find the slightest sign of huemules and I came in with the feeling 
born of other experience that I was in for much hunting but no game. 
The next day with the peon Paulino, however, and only fifty yards 
beyond where I had been the night before, we came on an old track 
and soon after found a fresh one and with it the track of a leon which 
evidently had followed the huemul and perhaps had put it to flight. 
We followed this track until it led out on an open, practically tree- 
less slope of the mountain, when Paulino suddenly beckoned and 
calmly said 'Alii esta uno/ as if it was what was to be expected. 
Sure enough, there was a huemul standing conspicuously on a slight 
promontory on the open side of the mountain far below us and a full 
quarter of a mile from any adequate cover. That it had taken this 
position after being chased by the puma was accepted by Paulino as 
a fact, but of course it was by no means certain. It appeared hope- 
less to get nearer to it without being seen, so I decided to try a long 
shot and await developments. I fired and it failed to move, although 
the bullet must at least have whistled by or clipped the rocks near 
it. I fired again and it continued standing still. I began to doubt 
its identity and to fancy it might be only the shady side of a rock 
with deceiving outlines, but shortly I distinguished a slight move- 
ment. Meanwhile Paulino had been urging me to go forward 
without attempt at concealment, since, he said, huemules were always 
'muy manzos' and 'nunca disparen.' So I began sliding down the 


loose rock from one of the few scrubby trees to another until I got 
within some three hundred yards at the very last point of conceal- 
ment between me and the game. I was exposed to view repeatedly 
and any other animal would have sighted me and cleared out, but 
the huemul remained standing almost motionless in the one spot. 
.... Taking a rest, I fired from the new position and the animal 
dropped and rolled over an embankment out of sight. 

"Preparing the specimen and getting it back to camp occupied 
several hours so it was not until three in the afternoon that we were 
again on the open mountain side. With the glasses I made out a 
single deer far down toward the western end of the mountain and, 
although it was late in the day, I again instinctively refused to take 
Paulino's advice to advance directly on it and chose to drop down 
to concealment and make a long circle through the trees. On getting 
nearer, a second deer was noted feeding leisurely with the first and 
just beyond, on the side of a small gully, were five guanacos scattered 
about. A most unusual place for guanacos, I thought, and a very 
exceptional experience in South America to see two kinds of large 
game -at once. 

"As we went on, the huemules moved about a bit, but kept to the 
same general vicinity. We could not avoid exposing ourselves now 
and then and at half a mile away the guanacos saw us and started up 
the mountain on the run. The huemules were nearer, but if they saw 
us, gave no signs of it. At about six hundred yards the game was 
in full sight and nearer approach seemed impossible, but just then 
we saw four other huemules farther on where they were on a grassy 
slope beyond an outcropping rocky butte to which I could crawl 
without being seen. On reaching this place I found the animals still 
some 250 yards away. They were quite at peace, one lying down and 
three others feeding. Picking the largest one, I fired and missed, at 
which they all turned and stood at attention. A second shot dropped 
one of them in its tracks, but the other three did not offer to run and 
merely stood about in a dazed sort of way. One of them sniffed 
at its dead companion and walked slowly around it. The others 
stood in their original positions some fifty feet away. Then I showed 
myself and walked directly toward them across the wholly open 
slope, but they paid no attention to me. I continued, expecting 
them to run at any minute, but they only walked about stiffly and 
the most that could be said was that they edged slightly up the 
hillside. Finally I reached the carcass of the dead one and tied a 
handkerchief on it before turning to the others. They had their 


heads up and their eyes stared with looks of astonishment and curi- 
osity, but they showed no fear or panic. The dead one was a very 
old female and doubtless their leader. The others were two younger 
but full-sized females and a young buck with small knobs of horns. 
Their nervousness was principally evinced by the stiffness with which 
they slowly stalked back and forth raising their legs in deliberate 
and measured fashion that produced a ridiculous effect quite sug- 
gestive of a goose-step. I walked toward the nearest one and he 
flicked his tail quickly, but would not retreat. Being less than 
thirty feet from him, I picked up a pebble and threw or rather tossed 
it at him and even this would not put him to flight. As we left, the 
three were slowly and reluctantly edging up the slope but still 
within 100 yards. 

"Even Paulino, who had been repeating that huemules were very 
tame, said this was more than he had seen before. He was beside 
me all the time and had been especially interested in some 'baguaules' 
or wild cattle, about 100 of which had come out to feed in the dusk 
on a river flat below us, nearly a mile away. At the first shot they 
had put for the woods pell mell in a wild panic-stricken rush. Mean- 
while the guanacos had long since disappeared via the open top of 
the mountain. The difference between these and the huemules was 

It was a unique experience with a hoofed animal, but fully cor- 
roborates what has been reported by others. The next day other 
huemules were found in numbers in the same vicinity evidently 
undisturbed by the shooting of the day before. At this time I 
secured a fine adult male which was solitary and a trifle more alert, 
but stalking him to a range of only 75 yards among scattered trees 
was accomplished without great difficulty. This animal and the 
two females were preserved as specimens. The male was in especially 
fine condition, quite fat and in good coat. His weight was estimated 
at not less than 200 pounds. His antlers were four-pointed as usual 
in the species. More than this number is said to be quite rare, 
although the natives report heads with as many as nine points. 

Measurements of adult male and female are, respectively: total 
length 1,680, 1,570; tail 125, 130; hind foot 470, 430; height at 
shoulder 790, 780. 

Pudu pudu Molina. PUDU. 

capra puda Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, pp. 308-309, 343, 1782 southern 
provinces of Chile. 


Copra pudu Molina, supra cit., ed. 2, p. 255, 1810. 

Cervus humilis Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 27, 1831. 

Cervus pudu Gay, Hist. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 158, 1847; Atlas, Mamm., pis. 

9-10, 1848. 

Coassus (Pudu) Pudu Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., (1850), p. 242, 1852. 
Pudu chilensis Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus., pi. 36, fig. 1, 1852. 
Pudua humilis Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 18, 1877. 
Pudu pudu Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 967, 1910. 

A very small deer of rich rufescent coloration and simple unbranched horns 
not exceeding three inches in length. 

Range. Valdivian forest region of south-central Chile and the 
island of Chiloe; southward along the coast nearly to the Straits of 

The pudu has the distinction of being the smallest of American 
deer. Although having a slight general resemblance to the brockets 
of northern and eastern South America, it is very distinct from them. 
It is exclusively Chilean in distribution, although a supposed ally 
(Pudella), very rare and local, has been found in Ecuador. Accord- 
ing to Gay, it ranged "desde la provincia de Cauquenes hasta la de 
Chiloe." At present it may not extend quite so far north, but is 
fairly common in the provinces of Valdivia, Cautin, Arauco, and 
northern Llanquihue. On Chiloe it is probably confined mainly to 
the southern and uninhabited part of the island. In early accounts 
and many later ones based on them, it is usually spoken of as an 
animal of the cordillera, but this appears not to be the case since it 
is actually recorded only from heavily forested regions either near 
sea level or at very moderate elevations. According to Reiche 
(1903), it formerly occurred on Mocha Island but has been extirpated 
there. In the higher parts of the Sierra Nahuelbuta it was not found, 
although common at lower levels. In the lake region, as, for exam- 
ple, at Lake Todos Santos, it is numerous in the deep forest near the 
water, but it is not reported from the heights above. The southward 
distribution of the pudu is uncertain, but it probably may be 
found, at least in scattered colonies, along the whole length of the 
Chilean coast nearly or quite to the Straits of Magellan. Apparently 
reliable reports indicate that it has been seen or taken on the western 
side of Riesco Island as far south as lat. 50, but no specimens from 
this region have been preserved. Trustworthy information emanating 
from Mr. Lucas Bridges is to the effect that it has even penetrated to 
the east side of the mountains along the Rio Baker in about lat. 47 S. 

During our work on Chiloe Island, it was evident that time 
spent in hunting the pudu would be largely if not wholly wasted, for 


the forest is very dense and the animals are shy and skulking. Tracks 
were seen occasionally in the forest and, in a few instances, at the 
inner edge of sandy beaches at the south end of the island. Only 
once did we catch a glimpse of the animal itself, and this was from a 
boat when one appeared momentarily at the edge of a small opening 
on a hillside as we were rounding a promontory near the mouth of 
the Rio Inio. By enlisting the services of native hunters and dogs, 
however, a number of specimens were obtained. Their method of 
hunting was simple and effective. The dogs were put ashore in any 
promising situation, along a bay or inlet, while the men remained in 
a boat listening and watching. After a short chase, the little deer 
would take to the salt water and the boatmen in their chalupa would 
soon overtake it. The pudu's powers of resistance being compara- 
tively slight, it was merely lifted out of the water and usually brought 
to us alive. Young animals were easily tamed, but full-grown males 
evinced very high spirits and indomitable objection to captivity. 
One which was brought to our camp was tied to a stake, where it 
struggled to the point of exhaustion and then sank panting to the 
ground. After lying prostrate for a time, it renewed its frantic 
efforts to escape and repeated the process until nightfall, when we 
thought it would become quiet. At intervals during the night, 
however, it was heard thrashing about and the next morning it was 
lying quite dead, with no external sign of injury. Young fawns, on 
the other hand, were very confiding and tractable, readily taking 
milk in a saucer, following us about the camp or cuddling in our 
arms to sleep. 

Our specimens, taken in January, which is the season of midsum- 
mer, show wide differences in coloration probably representing two 
different pelages. One of these might be called a rufous pelage or 
phase and the other a dark brown one. The first has a broad band 
from the top of the head to the tail bright clear Hazel or Cinnamon 
Rufous, the sides being paler and finely speckled by reason of sub- 
apical dark bands on the hairs. The legs and feet are pale, nearly 
clear Cinnamon Rufous. In the other phase, which appears to be a 
fresh coat, the dorsal band is less defined and its color is deep Burnt 
Umber or Vandyke Brown inclining to blackish. The sides are only 
slightly lighter, owing to numerous hairs with narrow light tips. 
The feet and lower legs are hazel with a slight mixture of blackish 
in front. 

The fawns of the pudu have a row of spots on either side of the 
back, running from the shoulders to the base of the tail. Below 


these on the sides is a double row of spots. In addition, there are 
several spots on the shoulders and three parallel rows of four to five 
spots each on the flanks. The color of the fawns is dark Vandyke 
Brown along the mid-dorsal line and somewhat paler, more rufescent 
on the sides. The chin, throat, feet, and legs are Tawny or Ochra- 
ceous Tawny. 

Two of the largest males obtained on Chiloe Island had weights 
of twenty-one pounds and twenty-four pounds respectively. Meas- 
urements of two males are: total length 830, 867; tail 35, 42; hind 
foot 200, 205; ear from crown 88, 86; height at shoulder 405, 410; 
shoulder to hip 460, 430. A male from the mainland at Petrohue 
on Lake Todos Santos is somewhat smaller; it measured: total 
length 795; tail 43; hind foot 205; height at shoulder 385. 

Specimens examined. Total 21: Cayetue, Lake Todos Santos, 7 
(coll. K. Wolfhiigel); Chiloe Island, 8; Petrohue, Lake Todos Santos, 
1; Pitrufquen, Cautin, 1; San Pedro, Concepcion, 1 (skin only); 
Santa Juana, Arauco, 1 (skin only) ; Vega Blanca, Sierra Nahuelbuta, 
1; Valdivia, Valdivia, 1. 

Lama guanicoe Miiller. GUANACO. 

Camelus guanicoe Miiller, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 50, 1776 Patagonia. 
camelus Huanacus Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, p. 3, 1782 Chile. 
Lama huanachus Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 387, 1891. 
Auchenia Guanaco Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Leop.-Carol., 16, pt. 2, p. 552, 

pi. 40, 1833. 

Lama guanaco Gay, Hist. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 153, 1847. 
Auchenia Lonnbergi Ameghino, Sinops. Geol.-Paleont. Patag., Suppl., p. 6, 

1899 Rio Gallegos and Ultima Esperanza, Patagonia. 
Lama guanicoe Osgood, Journ. Mamm., 2, p. 39, 1921; Aranguren, Anal. Soc. 

Cient. Arg., 109, p. 106, 1930; Cabrera, Rev. Mus. La Plata, 33, p. 116, 


A large ungulate allied to the camels, having a long slender neck, long legs, 
and feet with broad flat pads behind widely divergent "hoofs." Pelage long and 
thick; inner and outer sides of hind legs with a narrow naked space; lips highly 
mobile, deeply cleft in front; tail heavy and moplike; horns never present; ears 
long and pointed; lower incisors with short closed roots in adults. 

Range. Southern Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego and Navarin 
Island ; northward in western Argentina and in the cordillera (mainly 
on the eastern side) of Chile to Bolivia, descending to the coast of 
Chile to some extent north of Valparaiso. 

In Chile the guanaco is mainly an animal of the high cordillera. 
Gay speaks of its abundance, at least at certain seasons, in the 
Province of Concepcion, but it is no longer found in that part of 


Chile, and even in the last century its occurrence there may have 
been unusual. North of Valparaiso it still comes to the coast or to 
the adjacent hills at various points. Writing in 1877, E. C. Reed 
states that it was then "bastante comun en la cordillera," Province 
of Colchagua. Along the eastern base of the Andes in valleys 
connecting with the open pampas it occurs with regularity but in no 
great numbers. In my own experience with it in the vicinity of Rio 
Nirehuao in 1923, small herds were to be found at intervals both 
to the eastward on the pampa and in the mountains rising on the 
west. They were quite wary and would dash away at sight of a 
hunter. One was killed by Mr. Conover a short distance east of 
our station at Casa Richards. 

In southern Patagonia and on Tierra del Fuego guanacos are 
still found in considerable numbers but are more and more confined 
to the less accessible parts of the region. On the large island of 
Navarin, south of Tierra del Fuego, and just across the Beagle 
Channel they are well established, perhaps by introduction, but 
exact information with regard to this is not at hand. Among local 
hunters it is believed that those of Tierra del Fuego are darker in 
color than those of Navarin Island and also darker than those of the 
Patagonian mainland. No direct comparison of skins has been made, 
however, and a series of skulls from Tierra del Fuego shows no 
distinction from those of the territory of Santa Cruz. 

In traversing most of the unforested part of Tierra del Fuego 
in 1940, Field Museum's expedition observed a total of scarcely 
more than fifty guanacos, most of them at one locality near the bay 
of San Sebastian. Elsewhere they were absent, and report is to the 
effect that they have retreated to higher parts of the mountains, to 
reach which they have passed through partially wooded regions. 
The practice of killing the new-born young to obtain skins for the 
beautiful robes called "capas" is continued with little or no restric- 
tion, and it is rare that an immature animal is seen. The full-grown 
animals are not especially valued and are seldom hunted. Among 
the sheep men, it is commonly believed that all the guanacos now 
living are very old and that the time is not distant when a sudden 
heavy mortality may be expected. 

Vicugna vicugna Molina. VICUGNA. 

camellus [sic] vicugna Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, pp. 313-315, 342, 1782 

Andes of provinces of Coquimbo and Copiapo, Chile. 
Lama vicugna Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 387, 1891. 


Vicugna vicugna Miller, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 66, Art. 8, pp. 1-2, pi. 1, 1924; 
Aranguren, Anal. Soc. Cient. Arg., 109, p. 121, 1930; Cabrera, Rev. Mus. 
La Plata, 33, p. 116, 1931. 

A cameloid allied to the guanaco but smaller and having somewhat finer 
pelage; a conspicuous white or whitish apron depending from the brisket; hind 
legs without lateral naked spaces; lower incisors very long, slender, and with 
persistently open roots. 

Range. Andes of northeastern Chile northward and eastward 
into Bolivia and Argentina, meeting the range of the supposed sub- 
species mensalis^ in Bolivia or southern Peru. 

Sanborn received some general reports of the vicugna while in 
the northern provinces, and near Putre, Tacna, he himself saw three 
specimens at large. It is probable that the animal is now confined 
to rather remote parts of the higher Andes. Its range corresponds 
closely with that of the chinchilla and, like that animal, it has 
suffered much persecution. 

Although Molina's description of the vicugna is detailed and 
accompanied by the statement that the animal is common in 
mountains of the provinces of Coquimbo and Copiapo, it is not 
unlikely that his information was second-hand. Gay, who usually 
quoted Molina, makes no mention of the vicugna and apparently 
had no knowledge of its occurrence in Chile. If he believed it to 
be the same as the guanaco, it is strange that he should omit all 
reference to it in his rather full account of that animal. Philippi 
(Reise durch die Wiiste Atacama, p. 160) mentions having had a 
near view of vicugnas in the desert of Atacama, but he was unable 
to obtain specimens and regarded them as quite rare in comparison 
with the guanaco. In San Pedro de Atacama he found skins offered 
for sale and at Rio Frio near lat. 25 S. he obtained an imperfect 
skull. This last, if properly identified, appears to be the only actual 
record of a Chilean specimen. Philippi refers to the localities in 
Coquimbo and Copiapo given by Molina and adds: "Ich kann 
nicht sagen, ob er darin Recht hat or nicht." 

On the whole, it appears that knowledge of this animal in Chile 
is very scanty and the southern limits of its range are much in doubt. 
A specimen from Catamarca, Argentina, recorded by Thomas, is 
perhaps the only preserved specimen typical of the species. 

The generic separation of the vicugna proposed by Miller fol- 
lowed by Cabrera seems well justified on the basis of its peculiar 
lower incisors. In the guanaco these teeth are relatively short and 

1 Thomas, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 68, p. 3, 1917. 


the roots wholly closed in the adult animal. In the vicugna they are 
very long, slender, and persistently open. In a Bolivian specimen 
in Field Museum a middle lower incisor is 77 mm. (more than three 
inches) in length, of which only one-fourth is exposed. Numerous 
minor characters are to be seen in the skull, the most notable being 
in the preorbital vacuities, which are always large and open in the 
guanaco but very small or entirely closed in the adult vicugna. 


Aside from domesticated animals, most of which are generally 
distributed, 1 .there are a number of introduced mammals in Chile. 
Detailed information about their origin and spread is lacking in 
most cases. 

Euphractus sexcinctus Linnaeus. 

Dasypus sexcinctus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 51, 1758 Para, Brazil. 

The six-banded armadillo or peludo appears to be established in 
central Chile. Mr. Carlos Reed, Director of the Zoological Garden 
in Santiago, states that in recent years he has examined more than 
twenty specimens from various localities. 

Zaedyus pichiy Desmarest. 

Loricatus pichiy Desmarest, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 24, Tab. Meth. Mamm., 
p. 28, 1804 northeastern Argentina. 

The common small armadillo of the Argentine pampas has 
occasionally been brought into Chile and is believed to be existing 
there in a wild state, at least in several localities. It is recorded 
from the Province of Nuble by Carlos Schneider (1935a, p. 514), 
who had examined several specimens and had reliable reports of 
others. Gay stated in 1847 that it was frequently brought from 
Argentina to Chile and kept as a house pet. 

Rattus norvegicus Erxleben. 

Mus norvegicus Erxleben, Syst. Regni Anim., p. 381, 1771 Norway. 
Mus lutescens Gay, Hist. Chile, Zool., 1, pp. 118-119, 1847; Atlas, Mamm., 
pi. 6, fig. 3, pi. 7, fig. 2, 1848 central provinces of Chile. 

1 An exception is the llama, which is numerous in the nitrate district of 
northern Chile but is not seen farther south except as a curiosity. The Yaghan 
dog of Tierra del Fuegp (see Lonnberg, 1919, p. 10) is now extinct. A mounted 
specimen is preserved in the Salesian museum in Punta Arenas. The domestic 
cavy, to which Molina's name Lepus minimus applies, is found mainly in the 


Mus Simpsoni Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 14a, pp. 29-30, 
pi. 10, fig. 1, 1900 San Domingo Island, western Patagonia. 

Mus cauquenensis Philippi, supra cit., pp. 61-62, 1900 Quirihue, Maule, 

Excessively abundant throughout Chile and frequently leaving 
cities and towns to invade the woods and fields. In many localities 
it is so numerous that native rodents are entirely crowded out. In 
the Province of Maule, for example, Sanborn found house rats so 
omnipresent that trapping for smaller forms was almost hopeless. 
The same was true of various localities in the central valley. Chile's 
long coast line, with numerous ports, and the relatively small area 
between the coast and the high Andes furnish conditions under which 
rats have almost unlimited opportunity for ingress but somewhat 
restricted areas in which to spread, with the result that they have 
become inordinately numerous. 

Philippi's names simpsoni and cauquenensis appear to refer to 
this species, although the latter may have been a brown phase of the 
rattus group. The type of simpsoni is still preserved in the museum 
at Santiago. It has no skull associated with the mounted skin. The 
color is bright brown with none of the grayish of Philippi's figure. 
The hind foot measures 35. 

Gay's name lutescens undoubtedly applies to a house rat. His 
colored figure is a good representation of the Norway rat and there 
is nothing in his figures of the skull and teeth which might not have 
been derived from the same species. His comparison with Mus 
brasiliensis (= Holochilus) has caused some authors to express uncer- 
tainty about the name, but this does not seem to be justified. No 
Holochilus occurs in Chile or even near Chile, whereas Rattus is very 
abundant. In regard to this name Wolffsohn (1910a, p. 96) quotes 
Thomas as follows: "Mus lutescens Gerv. is neither more nor less 
than one of the grey forms of Mus rattus. I have seen the type in 
Paris." Gay's plate, however, shows a bright rufous rat rather than 
a gray one, and its short tail points to norvegicus rather than rattus. 

Rattus rattus Linnaeus. 

[Mus] rattus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 61, 1758 Sweden. 

Mus aethiops Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 14a, pp. 9-10, 

pi. 1, fig. 1, 1900 Province of Santiago, Chile. 
Mus subrufus Philippi, supra cit., p. 45, pi. 18, fig. 3, 1900 Chile. 

Mus saltuum Philippi, supra cit., pp. 50-51, pi. 21, fig. 1, 1900 Andes south 
[sic] of Puerto Montt, Chile. 


Mus coquimbensis Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 14a, p. 52, 

pi. 22, fig. 1, 1900 La Serena, Coquimbo, Chile. 
Mus cyaneus Philippi (not Mus cyanus Molina 1782), Verhandl. Deutsch. 

Wiss. Verein. zu Santiago, 3, p. 9, 1895; Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., 

Ent. 14a, pp. 53-54, pi. 23, fig. 1, 1900 Province of Constitution, Chile. 
Mus osorninus Philippi, supra cit., pp. 56-57, pi. 25, fig. 1, 1900 Osorno, 


Both black and brown types of this species occur and since they 
doubtless interbreed they cannot well be distinguished. In many 
localities their numbers are appalling. Apparently competition with 
the larger Norway rat has little effect on them. They were not seen 
in the extreme south, but they abound in the cool forests of the lake 
region as well as in warmer parts farther north. 

No less than six of Philippics names apply to this species, as plainly 
evident from his descriptions and figures. None of the types were 
found in the museum at Santiago. 

Mus musculus Linnaeus. 

[Mus] musculus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. 62, 1758 Sweden. 
Mus leptodactylus Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 14a, pp. 48-49, 
pi. 20, fig. 2, 1900 Valparaiso, Chile. 

The house mouse is common throughout Chile, ranging south 
to the Straits of Magellan and for the. most part being confined to 
human habitations and settlements. Where rats are not overabun- 
dant, it seems to offer no serious competition with native species. 

Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus. 

[Lepus] cuniculus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. 58, 1758 Germany. 

The European rabbit was not seen in central Chile, although 
reports indicate that it may be present in some localities. It was 
seen in small numbers on Tierra del Fuego near the port of Porvenir 
and also on the mainland in the vicinity of Punta Arenas. Accord- 
ing to reports from Chilean naval officers, who have cruised through 
Beagle Channel and among the Cape Horn Islands, rabbits are 
established in parts of this region, notably on Lennox Island. 

Lepus timidus Linnaeus. 

[Lepus] timidus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. 57, 1758 Sweden. 

The European hare, which has spread rapidly over the greater 
part of central and southern Argentina, is common in adjoining parts 


of Chile east of the Andes. In 1940 it was seen frequently in the 
vicinity of Punta Arenas and in the district of Ultima Esperanza, 
especially near Lake Sarmiento, it was noted in great numbers. It 
furnishes much sport for local hunters and its skins are marketed in 
large numbers. According to a newspaper report seen in Punta 
Arenas, 50,000 skins of hares and rabbits were sold there in 1939. 


Lasiurus caudatus Tomes, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pp. 42-43, 1857 

Pernambuco, Brazil. 

Under the above name, which applies to a species of Dasypterus, 
there is mention of a "specimen in bad state in spirit from Chile." 
No further record of this specimen has appeared and, without con- 
firmation, the occurrence of Dasypterus in Chile, although perhaps 
not improbable, is scarcely to be regarded as established. 

Stenoderma chilensis Gay and Gervais, Hist. Chile, Zool., 1, pp. 

30-31, 1847; Atlas, 2, pi. 1, fig. 1, 1848 Chile (=Sturnira 

lilium Geoffrey). 

Although fully described and figured in Gay's great work on the 
natural history of Chile, this bat has not since been reported from 
Chile and its occurrence is very doubtful. Gay's account merely 
states "Este murcielago es muy escaso en Chile" without giving 
evidence of any actual records. 

Canis fulvicaudus var. chiloensis Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 511, 


This was said to be from Chiloe Island, but Thomas has stated 
(Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 236, 1903) that it was "wrongly localized." 
Cabrera (Journ. Mamm., 12, p. 58, 1931) regards it as a synonym of 
Lycalopex vetulus, a species which does not reach Chile. 

Ursus ornatus F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm., 5, livr. 50, unpaged 

text and col. pi., 1825. 

In naming this species, Cuvier remarks: "II avait & ramen en 
Europe par un des vaisseux du Roi que en avait fait 1'acquisition au 
Chili meme; ainsi son origine ne peut etre douteuse." A few years 
later, however, Tschudi (Fauna Peruana, pp. 91-92, 1844) threw 

1 Several armadillos reported by Molina were not really attributed to Chile 
as at present bounded, since they were said to inhabit the district of Cujo now 
included in the Province of Mendoza, Argentina. 


doubt on this statement as follows: "Ein lebendes Exemplar von 
U. ornatus wurde in Jahr 1825 nach Europa gebracht und kurze 
Zeit im Jardin des plantes in Paris lebend erhalten. F. Cuvier 
Mamm. fasc. 50 gab eine Abbildung von diesem angeblich aus 
Chile stammenden Baren. Wir haben aber alle Ursache zu ver- 
muthen, dass das Thier in Nordperu, und zwar in Truxillo, an Bord 
genommen wurde; denn dieser Hafen ist der einzige an der ganzen 
Westkuste, nach welchem lebende Baren aus dem Innern zum 
Verkaufe gebracht werden." In 1902 (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), 
9, p. 215), Thomas, apparently influenced by the unequivocal nature 
of Cuvier's statement, 1 took issue with Tschudi, saying: "F. Cuvier's 
specimen was said definitely to have come from Chile, and there 
seems no sufficient authority for Tschudi's suggestion that it was 
obtained at Trujillo." 

From experience and information gained by Field Museum's 
expeditions in both Peru and Chile, it seems that Tschudi was right. 
The spectacled bear is still common in mountains near Trujillo, 
Peru, but there is no recent evidence even suggesting its occurrence 
in Chile. It may be that Cuvier's type was obtained by the French 
ship at a Chilean port but, if so, it had doubtless reached there by 
coasting vessel from Peru. 

L'istrici, sia il Porco-spino Chilesesi Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, 
pp. 292-293, 1782. 

Histrix chilensis Anonymous, Geog. Nat. Civil Hist. Chili ("Trans- 
lated from the original Italian by an American Gentleman"), 
1, p. 205, 1808; p. 242, 1809 2 "northern Andes of Chili" 
where no porcupine occurs (=Coendou prehensilis Linnaeus 

Apparently Molina's report of a porcupine in Chile and the name 
based on it in English translations of his work were without any 
justification. No porcupine occurs there or even near there. 

Viscaccia americana Schinz, Thierr., 4, pp. 429-431, 1825 (=Lagosto- 

mus maximus Desmarest). 

Schinz states that "Dieses Thier lebt in Brasilien und Chili." 
His description, however, applies wholly to the well-known Argentine 
viscacha which does not reach either Brazil or Chile. 

1 Perhaps also to strengthen his assumption that a different subspecies (majori) 
was found in Ecuador. 

2 A different edition under the same title "to which are added Notes and 
Appendixes by the English Editor," these being signed by the initials "E.E." 


Mus pusillus Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 24, (1), pp. 79-80, 1858; Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Chile, ZooL, Ent. 14a, p. 19, pi. 5, fig. 2, 1900. 

A specimen examined in the Santiago museum in 1922 is evidently 
the basis of Philippi's figure published in 1900, but that it is the 
specimen described in 1858 is doubtful. At the time it was examined, 
it was thought probable that something like it would be found in 
Chile and it was not given especial attention. However, nothing 
closely related to it has been obtained in Chile during subsequent 
collecting and the question arises as to whether or not it may have 
been brought in with freight from Argentina or otherwise accidentally. 

Notes on this specimen are as follows: "Possible type in museum 
labeled 'Raton. Mus pusillus, Ph. Cord. Santiago, I860.' The 
description was published in 1858, so if this really was the type, it 
could not have been collected in 1860, but the label is not original 
and was doubtless put on many years later. In fact, it is type- 
written and, of course, there were no typewriting machines in Chile 
in those days. It is a small, soft-haired, grayish mouse with a white 
belly. The skull is inside and could be removed for positive identifi- 
cation. The ears have been shriveled by preservative, and probably 
were larger than in Philippi's figure. Only one remains and this 
measures about 11 mm. in present condition. The hairs of the chin 
and upper throat are practically all white; those of chest have dark 
bases. The hind foot in good condition is 21." 

The description published by Philippi in 1900 does not differ 
from that of 1858, being only a verbatim translation from German 
to Spanish, but there is added a paragraph of speculation as to a 
possible relationship to the Argentine "Mus" laucha. In this it 
may be that Philippi was more nearly right than usual, although his 
assumptions appear to have been based entirely on literature. 

On the basis of the description alone it would be difficult to 
dispose of this name, but if the specimen figured in 1900, and 
apparently collected at a very early date, be considered the type 
it is not unlikely that reference to the modern genus Hesperomys 
would be justified. That the species belongs to the Chilean fauna 
is more than doubtful. 


Canis vulpes chilensis Kerr, Anim. Kingd., Mamm., p. 144, No. 258,. 


Regarded by J. A. Allen (Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 7, p. 188,. 
1895) as "not determinate. " 


Phoca porcina Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, pp. 279-280, 341, 

The basis of this name is a description obviously derived from a 
young animal which might have been either a sea lion or a fur seal. 
Allen says of it in 1902 (Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 16, p. 114): 
"The Phoca porcina of Molina (1782) is recognizable merely as an 
eared seal, but whether referable to Otaria or Arctocephalus cannot 
be determined from Molina's very imperfect account of it." There 
seems to be no reason to disagree with this conclusion. The name 
can be disposed of by regarding it as a synonym of P. lupina, which 
has page priority and a full description. 

Mus chilensis Giebel, Verzeichn. Zool. Mus. Univ. Halle- Wittenberg 
Aufgestellt, Saugeth., 2te. Ausgabe, p. 29, 1866. 

As cited above, this is a nomen nudum without nomenclatural 
status, but its possible earlier publication in a work which is not 
available is suggested. 

Mus maulinus Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, pp. 302-303, 342, 1782. 

The supposed animal described under this name is the most 
fanciful of any to which Molina actually applied a Latin designation. 
Scarcely any subsequent author has even hazarded a guess as to 
what it might be. It was called "II gran topo boschereccio," or 
great wood mouse, and was said to be more than twice the size of a 
marmot, which it resembled in color, and its teeth were the same in 
number and arrangement as those of the common mouse. The 
Latin diagnosis is as follows: "Mus cauda mediocri pilosa, auriculis 
acuminatis, pedibus pentadactylis." 

Mus laniger Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, pp. 301-302, 1782. 

This name, adopted by many authors for the chinchilla, proves 
to have a composite basis involving the characters of several different 
animals among which it is impossible to make a choice. Therefore, 
the name is regarded as unidentifiable and it is proposed that its use 
be suppressed (see Osgood, 1941). 

Castor huidobrius Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, pp. 285-287, 342, 

Although frequently applied to the river otter of central and 
southern Chile, this name rests on an unsound basis. Its case is 
well stated by Thomas (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 58, p. 225, 1920), 
who says: "I am not prepared to recognize as an otter a species 


described as having long rodent incisors and unpalmated forefeet, 
and think that in view of the insoluble mixture of local names, 
habits, and characters contained in Molina's description the name 
Castor huidobrius should be set aside as indeterminable." 

Guillinomys chilensis Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Regne Anim., Mamm., 
p. 126, 1842. 

A renaming of the unidentifiable Castor Huidobrius of Molina; 
therefore unrecognizable and without status. 

!Mus(l) dasypus Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 14a, 
p. 61, 1900 Province of Santiago, Chile. 
Among the numerous names given to Chilean rodents by Philippi, 
this is the only one for which the species cannot even be conjectured. 
Apparently the brief description was taken from memory of a 
decayed and mutilated mouse brought to the author by a local hunter 
and then doubtless thrown away. Philippi says of it: "Tiene el 
caracter mui notable, que ambas extremidades son cubiertas hasta 
la base de los dedos del mismo pelaje largo i tupido que el resto del 
cuerpo," probably indicating either an abnormal condition of the 
specimen or some vagary of the author's recollection. 


1758 Mirounga leonina Linnaeus. 

1776 Lama guanicoe Miiller. 

1782 Arctocephalus australis Zimmermann. 

Conepatus chinga Molina. 

Dusicyon culpaeus Molina. 

Felis concolor puma Molina. 

Felis guigna Molina. 

Felis pajeros colocolo Molina. 

Grison cuja Molina. 

Hippocamelus bisulcus Molina. 

Lagidium viscacia Molina. 

Lutra felina Molina. 

Myocastor coypus Molina. 

Octodon degus Molina. 

Pudu pudu Molina. 

Spalacopus cyanus Molina. 

Vicugna vicugna Molina. 

1800 Otaria flavescens Shaw. 

1801 Lasiurus cinereus villosissimus Geoff roy. 
Hydrurga leptonyx Blainville. 

1824 Tadarida brasiliensis Geoffrey. 

1826 Lasiurus borealis bonariensis Lesson and Garnot. 

1832 Leptonychotes weddelli Lesson. 
Oryzomys longicaudatus Bennett. 

1833 Lagidium viscacia cuvieri Bennett. 
Cavia australis Geoffroy and D'Orbigny. 

1835 Ctenomys magellanicus Bennett. 
Histiotus macrotus Poeppig. 

Oryzomys longicaudatus magellanicus Bennett. 

1836 Dusicyon culpaeus magellanicus Gray. 

1837 Abrocoma bennetti Waterhouse. 
Akodon longipilis Waterhouse. 
Akodon olivaceus Waterhouse. 
Akodon olivaceus brachiotis Waterhouse. 
Akodon xanthorhinus Waterhouse. 
Conepatus humboldti Gray. 
Dusicyon fulvipes Martin. 

Dusicyon griseus Gray. 

Phyllotis micropus Waterhouse. 

Marmosa elegans Waterhouse. 

Phyllotis darunni Waterhouse. 

Phyllotis darwini xanthopygus Waterhouse. 

Reithrodon auritus cuniculoides Waterhouse. 

1838 Desmodus rotundus d'orbignyi Waterhouse. 
Myotis chiloensis Waterhouse. 

1839 Euneomys chinchilloides Waterhouse. 
Akodon xanthorhinus canescens Waterhouse. 



1841 Aconaemys fuscus Waterhouse. 
Phyllotis darwini rupestris Gervais. 

1842 Lyncodon patagonica Blainville. 
1844 Notiomys megalonyx Waterhouse. 

Octodon bridgesi Waterhouse. 
1846 Phyllotis boliviensis Waterhouse. 
1848 Ctenomys opimus Wagner. 
1858 Akodon andinus Philippi. 

Notiomys valdivianus Philippi. 

Oryzomys longicaudatus philippii Landbeck. 

1860 Ctenomys fulvus Philippi. 

1861 Histiotus montanus Philippi and Landbeck. 

1865 Felis jacobita Cornalia. 

1866 Histiotus montanus magellanicus Philippi. 
I 1872 Ctenomys maulinus Philippi. 

1880 Ctenomys magellanicus fueginus Philippi. 

1892 Myotis chiloensis atacamensis Lataste. 

1893 Dromiciops australis Philippi. 

1894 Dromiciops australis gliroides Thomas. 
Notiomys macronyx Thomas. 
Marmosa elegans soricina Philippi. 

1895 Akodon longipilis hirta Thomas. 

1896 Akodon andinus dolichonyx Philippi. 
Ctenomys robustus Philippi. 
Dusicyon culpaeus lycoides Philippi. 
Eligmodontia puerulus Philippi. 

1897 Akodon lanosus Thomas. 
Lagidium viscacia moreni Thomas. 

1898 Conepatus rex Thomas. 

Notiomys valdivianus michaelseni Matschie. 

1900 Akodon olivaceus mochae Philippi. 
Akodon olivaceus pencanus Philippi. 
Phyllotis darwini boedeckeri Philippi. 
Irenomys tarsalis Philippi. 

Irenomys tarsalis longicaudatus Philippi. 
Notiomys megalonyx microtis Philippi. 
Reithrodon auritus pachycephalus Philippi. 

1901 Dusicyon griseus domeykoanus Philippi. 
Felis concolor patagonica Merriam. 
Eligmodontia elegans morgani Allen. 

1903 Akodon longipilis suffusa Thomas. 

Ctenomys magellanicus osgoodi Allen. 

Dusicyon griseus maullinicus Philippi. 

Notiomys macronyx vestitus Thomas. 

Euneomys petersoni Allen. 
1905 Notiomys delfini Cabrera. 

1907 Lagidium viscacia wolffsohni Thomas. 

1908 Akodon longipilis francei Thomas. 
Lutra provocax Thomas. 

1910 Akodon longipilis moerens Thomas. 


1912 Phyllotis darwini vaccarum Thomas. 

1916 Abrocoma bennetti murrayi Wolffsohn. 
Euneomys chinchilloides ultimus Thomas. 

1914 Dusicyon culpaeus andinus Thomas. 

1917 Aconaemys fuscus porteri Thomas. 

1919 Akodon olivaceus beatus Thomas. 

1920 Lagidium viscada famatinae Thomas. 

1921 Conepatus chinga mendosus Thomas. 
Lagidium viscada boxi Th'omas. 

1924 Rhyncholestes raphanurus Osgood. 

1925 Notiomys macronyx alleni Osgood. 
Notiomys valdivianus chiloensis Osgood. 
Spalacopus cyanus tabanus Thomas. 

1926 Lagidium viscada sarae Thomas. 
1931 Marmosa elegans coquimbensis Tate. 
1934 Chinchilla chinchilla velligera Prell. 


1943 Myotis chiloensis arescens. 
Felis concolor araucanus. 
Felis guigna molinae. 
Octodon lunatus. 
Spalacopus cyanus maulinus. 
Ctenomys magellanicus dicki. 
Ctenomys maulinus brunneus. 
Myocastor coypus melanops. 
Notiomys valdivianus bullocki. 
Notiomys valdivianus bicolor. 
Akodon longipilis apta. 
Akodon longipilis castaneus. 
Akodon sanborni. 
Phyllotis darwini fulvescens. 
Phyllotis micropus fumipes. 


Names are given as originally proposed followed by the present 
generic name when this is different. Names of recognizable species 
and subspecies are printed in boldfaced type. 


Abrocoma bennetti Waterhouse. 
Lynchailurus pajeros huina Pocock (Felis). 

ANGOSTURA (Province of Santiago) 

Mus melanonotus Philippi (Akodori). 
Mus porcinus Philippi (Akodori). 

ANTOFAGASTA (Province of; oasis of Leoncitos) 

Hesperomys dolichonyx cinnamomea Philippi (Akodori). 

ANTUCO (Province of Bio Bio) 

Nycticeius macrotus Poeppig (Histiotus). 
Nycticeus poepingii Lesson (Lasiurus). 
Nycticeius varius Poeppig (Lasiurus). 
Nycticeus chilensis Lesson (Histiotus). 
Plecotus poeppigii Fitzinger (Histiotus). 

ATACAMA (coast) 

Otaria velutina Philippi. 


Ctenomys atacamensis Philippi; Tilpozo. 

Ctenomys chilensis Philippi. 

Ctenomys fulvus Philippi; Pingo Pingo. 

Ctenomys pallidus Philippi; Breas, southwest of Antofagasta de la Sierra. 

Ctenomys pernix Philippi; Aguas Calientes, east of Salar de Atacama. 

Hesperomys dolichonyx cinnamomea Philippi (Akodori). 

BAGUALES (Sierra at boundary between Chile and Argentina) 
Viscaccia wolffsohni Thomas (Lagidium). 

CARTAJENA (Province of Valparaiso) 

Mus melampus Philippi (Akodori). 


Akodon sanborni Osgood; Rio Inio. 
Canis fulvipes Martin (Dusicyon). 
Dromiciops gliroides Thomas; Huite, near An cud. 
Lycalopex fulvicaudus Gray (Dusicyon). 
Myocastor coypus melanops Osgood; Quellon. 
Notiomys valdivianus chiloensis Osgood; Quellon. 
Phyllotis micropus fumipes Osgood; Quellon. 
Rhyncholestes raphanurus Osgood; Rio Inio. 
Vespertilio chiloensis Waterhouse (Myotis). 

CHOAPA (Province of Coquimbo) 

Mus campestris Philippi (Phyllotis). 




Mus brachiotis Waterhouse (Akodon); small island in Midship Bay. 

Mus chonoticus Philippi (Akodon). 

Otaria brachydactyla Philippi (Arctocephalus) . 

COBIJA (Province of Antofagasta, mountains near) 
Mus rupestris Gervais (Phyllotis). 

COLCHAGUA (Province of) 

Mus macrocercus Philippi (Oryzomys). 
Mus psilurus Philippi (Akodon). 

Rio COLORADO (Province of Malleco) 

Ctenomys maulinus brunneus Osgood. 


Mus araucanus Philippi (Oryzomys). 
Mus pencanus Philippi (Akodon). 

CONSTITUTION (Province of) 

Mus cyaneus Philippi (Rattus). 

COPIAPO (Province of) 

Canis domeykoanus Philippi (Dusicyon). 


Camelus vicugna Molina (Vicugna); mountains of Coquimbo and 


Chinchilla velligera Prell. 
Desmodus d'orbignyi Waterhouse. 
Mus cyanus Molina (Spalacopus). 
Mus darwini Waterhouse (Phyllotis). 
Mus longipilis Waterhouse (Akodon). 
Poephagomys ater Cuvier (Spalacopus). 

CURICO (vicinity of) 

Octodon bridges! Waterhouse. 

HERMITE ISLAND (Cape Horn Islands) 
Euneomys ultimus Thomas. 


Mus agilis Philippi (Oryzomys). 
Mus diminutivus Philippi (Oryzomys). 
Mus landbecki Philippi (Akodon). 
Mus illapelinus Philippi (Phyllotis). 


Otaria philippii Peters (? Arctocephalus). 
Phoca ansoni Desmarest (Mirounga). 
Phoca ansonina Blainville (Mirounga). 
Phoca elephantina Molina (Mirounga). 
Phoca leonina Linnaeus (Mirounga). 

LAKE LLANQUIHUE (west side at "Nueva Braunau") 
Canis maullinicus Philippi (Dusicyon). 

LA LIGUA (Province of Aconcagua) 

Mus pernix Philippi (Oryzomys). 
Mus platytarsus Philippi (Phyllotis). 


LA SERENA (Province of Coquimbo) 

Mus griseoflavus Philippi (Phyllotis). 

LIMACHE (Province of Valparaiso) 

Myotis chiloensis arescens Osgood. 

LINARES (Cordillera) 

Ctenomys chilensis Philippi. 

MADRE DE DIGS ISLAND (Trinidad Channel) 

Hesperomys coppingeri Thomas (Oryzomys). 

MAGELLAN (Straits of) 

Cants griseus Gray (Dusicyon). 
Cants magellanicus Gray (Dusicyon) ; Port Famine. 
Canis patagonicus Philippi (Dusicyon). 
Capreolus leucotis Gray (Hippocamelus); Port Famine. 
Conepatus humboldtii Gray. 
Ctenomys magellanicus Bennett; Port Gregory. 
Mephitis patagonica Lichtenstein (Conepatus). 
Mus magellanicus Bennett (Oryzomys) ; Port Famine. 
Oxymycterus lanosus Thomas (Akodon); Monteith Bay. 
Phoca flavescens Shaw (Otaria). 

Reithrodon chinchilloides Waterhouse (Euneomys); south shore near 
east entrance. 


Otaria argentata Philippi (?Arctocephalus). 

MAULE (Province of) 

Mus atratus Philippi (Akodon). 

Mus boedeckeri Philippi (Phyllotis); Coroney Ranch. 

Mus glaphyrus Philippi (Oryzomys) ; Coroney Ranch. 

Mus maulinus Molina (unidentifiable). 

Mus melaenus Philippi (Oryzomys). 

Mus microtis Philippi (Notiomys). 

MAULE (Lake; Province of Talca) 

Ctenomys maulinus Philippi. 

MELINKA (Guaiteca Islands) 

Reithrodon longicaudatus Philippi (Irenomys). 


Akodon longipilis castaneus Osgood. 
Mus mochae Philippi (Akodon). 
Notiomys valditrianus bullocki Osgood. 


Akodon longipilis apta Osgood. 
Felis concolor araucanus Osgood. 
Phyllotis darwini fulvescens Osgood. 


Notiomys valdivianus bicolor Osgood. 

O'HiGGiNS (Province of) 

Mus ruficaudus Philippi (Akodon). 

OLMUE (Province of Valparaiso) 
Octodon lunatus Osgood. 



Aconaemys porteri Thomas. 
Mus osorninus Philippi (Rattus). 
Mus xanthopus Philippi (Akodon). 

PAIGUANO (Province of Coquimbo) 

Marmosa elegans coquimbensis Tate. 

PEINE (Province of O'Higgins) 

Mus dichrous Philippi (Phyllotis). 
Mus lepturus Philippi (Akodon). 
Mus saltator Philippi (Oryzomys). 
Mus segethi Philippi (Phyllotis). 
Oxymycterus niger Philippi (? Notiomys). 

PETEROA (Cordillera in Province of Curico) 
Mus peteroanus Philippi (Oryzomys). 

PICA (Province of Tarapaca) 

Ctenomys robustus Philippi. 

PINO HACHADO PASS (Chilean-Argentine boundary) 
Lagidium sarae Thomas and St. Leger. 

PUENTE ALTO (Province of Santiago) 
Ododon degus clivorum Thomas. 


Canis torquatus Philippi (Dusicyon). 
Mus brevicaudatus Philippi (Akodon). 
Mus fonckii Philippi (Akodon). 
Mus saltuum Philippi (Rattus). 

PUNTA ARENAS (Province of Magallanes) 

Hesperomys michaelseni Matschie (Notiomys). 
Mus pachycephalus Philippi (Reithrodon). 
Oxymycterus delfini Cabrera (Notiomys). 
Reithrodon cuniculoides obscurus Allen. 

QUILLOTA (Province of Valparaiso) 

Felis pajeros huina Pocock; near Lake Catapilco. 
Orison furax melinus Thomas. 

QUINTERO (Lake; Province of Valparaiso) 

Hesperomys megalonyx Waterhouse (Notiomys). 

QUIRIHUE (Province of Maule) 

Mus cauquenensis Philippi (Rattus). 
Spalacopus cyanus maulinus Osgood. 

RIESCO ISLAND (Est. Ponsonby) 

Ctenomys magellanicus dicki Osgood. 

Rio COLORADO (Province of Malleco) 

Ctenomys maulinus brunneus Osgood. 

SAN PEDRO DE ATACAMA (Province of Antofagasta) 
Hesperomys dolichonyx Philippi (Akodon). 
Hesperomys glirinus Philippi (Phyllotis). 
Hesperomys lanatus Philippi (Phyllotis). 
Hesperomys puerulus Philippi (Eligmodontia) . 
Vespertilio atacamensis Lataste (Myotis). 


SANTIAGO (Province of) 

Mus brachytarsus Philippi (Akodon). 

Mus dasypus Philippi (unidentifiable). 

Mus fusco-ater Philippi (Akodon). 

Mus germaini Philippi (Akodon). 

Mus megalotis Philippi (Phyllotis). 

Mus melanonotus Philippi and Landbeck (Phyllotis). 

Mus mollis Philippi (Phyllotis). 

Mus vinealis Philippi (Akodon). 

Myoxus getulus Poeppig (Octodon). 

Sciurus degus Molina (Octodon). 

SANTIAGO (Cordillera) 

Canis culpaeus Molina (Dusicyon). 

Felis puma Molina. 

Lepus viscacia Molina (Lagidium). 

Mus aethiops Philippi (Rattus). 

Mus and in us Philippi (Akodon). 

Mus exiguus Philippi (Oryzomys). 

Mus senilis Philippi (Akodon) ; Valle del Yeso. 

Mus trichotis Philippi (Akodon). 

SERENA (Province of Coquimbo) 

Mus coquimbensis Philippi (Rattus). 
Mus griseoflavus Philippi (Phyllotis). 

TALCAREGUE (Province of Colchagua) 

Mus nigribarbis Philippi (Oryzomys). 


Akodon francei Thomas; Santa Maria, near Porvenir. 

Canis lycoides Philippi (Dusicyon). 

Ctenomys fueginus Philippi; "ostlichen Insel." 

Mus infans Philippi (Akodon). 

Mus xanthorhinus Waterhouse (Akodon); Hardy Peninsula. 

Reithrodon chinchilloides Waterhouse (Euneomys) ; near eastern entrance, 

Straits of Magellan. 
Reithrodon cuniculoides flammarum Thomas; Spring Hill. 

TALTAL (Province of Antofagasta) 

Mus capito Philippi (Phyllotis); "Hueso Parado." 

TARAPACA (Province of) 

Lagidium lutescens Philippi; between Copacoya and Inacaliri. 
Lagotis cuvieri Bennett (Lagidium). 

TOLHUACA (Province of Malleco) 

Notiomys valdivianus araucanus Osgood. 

UNION (Province of Valdivia) 

Didelphys australis Philippi (Dromiciops) . 
Mus tarsalis Philippi (Irenomys). 

VALDIVIA (Province of) 

Canis trichodactylus Philippi (Dusicyon). 
Didelphys soricina Philippi (Marmosa). 
Felis guigna Molina. 
Mus amblyrrhynchus Philippi (Oryzomys). 


VALDIVIA (Province of) continued 

Mus commutatus Philippi (Oryzomys). 

Mus dumetorum Philippi (Oryzomys). 

Mus longibarbus Philippi (Akodon). 

Mus nemoralis Philippi (Akodon). 

Mus philippii Landbeck (Oryzomys). 

Oxymycterus valdivianus Philippi (Notiomys). 

Vespertilio gayi Lataste (Myotis). 


Abrocoma murrayi Wolff sohn. 

VALPARAISO (vicinity of) 

Abrocoma cuvieri Waterhouse. 

Canis amblyodon Philippi (Dusicyon). 

Didelphis elegans Waterhouse (Marmosa). 

Didelphis hortensis Reid (Marmosa). 

Felis colocola Molina. 

Felis guigna molinae Osgood. 

Mus cyanus Molina (Spalacopus) . 

Mus leptodactylus Philippi. 

Mus longicaudatus Bennett (Oryzomys). 

Mus olivaceus Waterhouse (Akodon). 

Octodon cumingii Bennett. 

Otaria fulva Philippi. 

VILLA PORTALES (Province of Cautin) 
Notiomys connectens Osgood. 


Auchenia guanaco Meyen (Lama). 

Camelus huanacus Molina (Lama). 

Canis albigula Philippi (Dusicyon) ; central provinces. 

Canis vulpes chilensis Kerr (?Dusicyon). 

Canis rufipes Philippi (Dusicyon). 

Copra pudu Molina (Pudu). 

Cavia minimus Molina. 

Cervus chilensis Gay and Gervais (Hippocamelus). 

Cervus humilis Bennett (Pudu). 

Conepatus laticaudata Geoffroy. 

Cricetus chinchilla Fischer (unidentifiable). 

Equus bisulcus Molina (Hippocamelus). 

Eriomys pellionum Van der Hoeven (unidentifiable). 

Grison vittata chilensis Nehring. 

Guillinomys chilensis Lesson (unidentifiable). 

Habrocoma helvina Wiegmann (Abrocoma). 

Lagidium crassidens Philippi. 

Lutra californica Gray. 

Lutra chilensis Bennett. 

Mephitis dimidiata Fischer (Conepatus). 

Mephitis fur cata Wagner (Conepatus). 

Mephitis molinae Lichtenstein (Conepatus). 

Mus coy pus Molina (Myocastor). 

Mus fusco-ater Philippi (Akodon). 

Mus infans Philippi (Akodon). 

Mus laniger Molina (unidentifiable). 

M us macronychos Philippi (Akodon) ; central provinces. 


No EXACT LOCALITY continued 

Mus melanizon Philippi (Akodori). 

Mus melanotus Philippi (Phyllotis). 

Mus nasica Philippi (Akodori). 

Mus philippii Landbeck (Oryzomys). 

Mus subrufus Philippi (Rattus). 

Mustela cuja Molina (Grisori). 

Mustela felina Molina. 

Mustela quiqui Molina (Orison). 

Myopotamus coy pus albomaculatus Fitzinger (Myocastor). 

Octodon cumingii Bennett. 

Otaria chilensis Miiller. 

Otaria chonotica Philippi. 

Otaria leucostoma Philippi (? 'Arctocephalus) . 

Otaria rufa Philippi. 

Oxymycterus scalops Gay ( Notiomys) ; central provinces. 

Phoca chilensis Kerr (?Mirounga). 

Phoca lupina Molina (? Arctocephalus). 

Phoca molinaii Lesson (unidentifiable). 

Phoca porcina Philippi (unidentifiable). 

Phoca tetradactyla Schinz (? Arctocephalus). 

Psammoryctes noctivagus Poeppig (Spalacopus) . 

Sciurus degus Meyen (Octodon). 

Spalacopus poeppigii Wagler. 

Spalacopus tabanus Thomas. 

Vespertilio capucinus Philippi (Histiotus). 

Vesperus segethii Peters (Histiotus). 

Viverra chilensis Link (Conepatus). 

Viverra chinga Molina (Conepatus). 



1900. La chinchilla. Anal. Univ. Chile, pp. 913-934. 

1901. Los lobos marines de Chile. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 5, pp. 33-41. 
1901a. Datos sobre la chinchilla. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 5, pp. 201-211. 

1902. Los pinepedos de Chile. Act. Soc. Sci. Chile, 11, pp. 215-272. 


1942. Extinct and Vanishing Mammals of the Western Hemisphere. Amer. 
Comm. Int. Wild Life Prot., Spec. Pub. No. 11. 
Account of chinchillas (pp. 389-396). 


1905. Mammalia of Southern Patagonia. Repts. Princeton Univ. Expeds. 
Patagonia, 1896-1899, 3, Zool., pp. 1-210, pis. 1-29. 

1919. Notes on Small Spotted Cats of Tropical America. Bull. Amer. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., 41, pp. 361-375. 


1904. El Doctor Don Rodolpho Amando Philippi. Su Vida y sus Obras. 
pp. i-viii, 1-248, Santiago, Chile. Imp. Cervantes. 
With bibliography of 349 titles. 


1906. Contribution al estudio de la chinchilla, Eriomys laniger. Bol. Minist. 
Agric., Buenos Aires, 6, pp. 131-136, fig. 1. 


1855. Mammals. U. S. Naval Astronom. Exped. Southern Hemisphere, Lieut. 
Gilliss, Suppl., 2, pp. 153-162, pi. 11. 

Notes on eleven species and a systematic "List of Mammalia found in 
Chile" (fifty-one terrestrial species). 


1829. The Chinchilla. Gardens and Menagerie, Zool. Soc. Lond., 1, Quad., 
pp. 1-12. 

1832. Characters of a New Species of Otter (Lutra, Erxl.), and of a New Species 
of Mouse (Mus L.), Collected in Chile by Mr. Cuming. Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., pp. 1-2. 

Lutra chilensis, Mus longicaudatus. 

1832a. Characters of a New Genus of Rodent Mammalia, Presented by Mr. 
Cuming. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pp. 46-48. 
Octodon Cumingii. 

1833. On the Family of Chinchillidae, and on a New Genus Referrible to It. 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pp. 57-60. 

1835. On a Second Species of Lagotis (Lag. pallipes). Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

pp. 67-68. 
1835a. On a New Species of Ctenomys, Blainv., and on Other Rodents Collected 

Near the Straits of Magellan by Capt. P. R. King. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

pp. 189-191. 

Ctenomys magellanicus, Kerodon kingii, Mus magellanicus. 
1835b. On the Family of Chinchillidae, and on a New Genus Referrible to It. 

Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1, pp. 35-64, pis. 4-7. 




1853. Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte von Chile. Denks. Math.-Naturw. Cl. 
Akad. Wiss. Wien, 5, Abt. 2, pp. 73-142, pis. 4-8. Saugethiere, pp. 132-133. 
Notes on several carnivores and rodents. 


1937. Notes on the Genus Chinchilla. Journ. Mamm., 18, pp. 159-163. 


1841. Notes on Various Birds and Mammals from Chile. Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., pp. 93-96. 
1843. On the Habits of Some of the Smaller Chilean Rodents. Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., pp. 129-132. 


1931. Un caso de albinismo en Akodon olivaceus. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 35, 
pp. 112-113, fig. 17. 

1932. Los nombres cientificos de Molina. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 36, pp. 


1873. The Huemul (Cervus chiknsis). Nature, 9, p. 82. 

1875. Uber Equus bisulciis Molina's. Arch. Naturg., 41, (1), pp. 19-30. 


1902. Observaciones sobre la coloracion de ciertos mamiferos americanos. Rev. 
Chil. Hist. Nat., 7, pp. 278-308. 

1903. Catalogo descriptive de los quiropteros chilenos. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 
7, pp. 278-308. 

1905. Notas sobre algunas mamiferos chilenos. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 6, 
pp. 15-16. 

Description of Oxymycterus delfini. 

1911. Catalogo sinonimica de los Felidae sudamericanos. Rev. Chil. Hist. 
Nat., 15, pp. 40-54. 

Notes on nomenclature of Chilean species. 

1929. Notas sobre los pumas de la America austral. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 
33, pp. 312-320, pi. 19. 

Regards Felis p. patagonica as synonym of F. p. puma, and F. p. pearsoni 
as recognizable. 

1940. Notas sobre carnivoros sudamericanos. Notas del Museo de la Plata, 
5, Zool., No. 29, pp. 1-22. 

Subtitles: La identidad de "Felis colocola" de Molina. 
Tres nuevos generos de carnivoros. 
El nombre especifico del lobo marino de un pelo. 


1940. Mamiferos sud-americanos. Historia Natural Ediar. 370 pp., 78 pis. 
Buenos Aires, Compania Argentina de Editores. 


1865. Descrizione di una nuova specie del genere: Felis. Mem. Soc. Ital. Sci. 
Nat., 1, pp. 1-6, pi. col., author's ed. 
Felis jacobita. 


1868. Letter to Professor Huxley. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pp. 184-187. 
1871. Notes on the Natural History of the Strait of Magellan and West Coast 
of Patagonia. Edinburgh, pp. ix+517. 
Passing notes on the larger mammals. 



1902. Mamiferos y aves de la Tierra del Fuego e islas adyacentes. Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires, (3), 1, pp. 341-405. 
Three pages devoted to general notes on mammals. 



1934. Mamiferos peliferos susceptibles de criar en Chile. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 
38, pp. 27-37. 

1939. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Chinchilla. Deutsche Pelzthierzuchter, Miin- 
chen, 14, pp. 288-290. 


1940. Contribucion a la anatomia de los Octodontidos. Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. 
Nat., Santiago, Chile, 18, pp. 103-124. 

1942. El Encefalo de los Octodontidos. Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat., Santiago, 
Chile, 19, pp. 83-106, figs. 1-18. 


1929. Comentarios sobre el huillin del Abate Molina. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 
33, pp. 552-555. 


1906. Dr. Rudolph Amandus Philippi. Sein Leben und seine Werke. Ver- 
handl. Deutsch. Wiss. Ver., Santiago, 5, pp. 1-39. 
With portrait and bibliography. 


1847-48. Historia fisica y politica de Chile. Zool., 1, pp. 19-182; Atlas, 
pis. 1-11. 

Gay lists sixty-seven species of mammals, including seven domesticated 
forms, two extinct species, and several introduced and extralimital. The 
exact date of publication of the plates is uncertain (see Zimmer, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 16, pp. 237-238, 1926). There are eight colored plates 
of mammals and three in black and white showing osteological details. 


1846. Remarques sur le Copra pudu et I'Equus bisulcus de Molina. Ann. 
Sci. Nat., Paris, (3), 5, pp. 87-94. 


1891. Mission scientifique du Cap Horn. Zoologie, 6, Anatomie comparee, 
pp. M3-M62, 5 pis. Paris. 


1929. El huemul. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 33, pp. 573-582, fig. 
History and habits. 

1935. Zoologia del Aysen: Mamiferos. Bol. Mus. Nac. Chile, 14, p. 59. 


1904. Biografia del Doctor Rodulfo Amando Philippi. pp. i-vi, 1-185, 
Santiago, Chile. 

With bibliography of 414 titles. 


GRAY, J. E. 

1830. Spicilegia Zoologica, p. 11, pi. 7, fig. 

Includes one of the earliest descriptions and figures of the chinchilla. 


1869. On the Guemul, or Roebuck of Southern Peru. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
pp. 496-499, figs. 

Xenelaphus huamel gen. et sp. nov. 

1872. On the Guemul Huamela leticotis. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (4), 10, 
pp. 445-446. 

1873. Further Remarks on the Guemul of Patagonia, Huamela leucotis. Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., (4), 11, pp. 214-220, fig. 


1903. Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896- 
1899. 1, Narrative and Geography, pp. xvi-314, 50 figs., map. 

Includes notes on mammals, especially the larger ones, from localities not 
far from the Chilean boundary. 


1933. Die biographischen Grundlagen Chiles. Zool. Jahrb., Syst., 64, pp. 


1930. Estudios sobre el guanaco. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 34, pp. 38-48. 
Habits, hunting. 


1942. Tertiary, Quaternary, and Recent Marine Mammals of South America 
and the West Indies. Proc. Eighth Amer. Sci. Congress, Washington, pp. 


1924. Biologische Reisestudien in Sudamerika. III. Chilenische Beutelratten. 
Zeitsch. Morph. Okol., Berlin, 3, pp. 169-176, 3 figs. 

1925. Ibid. V. Die Chilenischen Hirsche. Zeitsch. Morph. Okol., Berlin, 4, 
pp. 685-701, 2 figs. 

1925a. Ibid. VII. Notiz iiber einen Bastard zwischen Hund und Pampafuchs 
nebst Bemerkungen iiber die Systematik der Argentinisch-Chilenischen 
Fuchse. Zeitsch. Morph. Okol., Berlin, 4, pp. 702-710, 3 figs. 


1899. Ensayo sobre la distribution de los mamiferos en la Republica Argentina. 
Congr. Cient. Lat. Amer., Buenos Aires, 3, pp. 165-206, map. 
Colored map includes Chile. 



1891. Etudes sur la faune chilienne. II. Note sur les chauves-souris (Ordre 
des Chiropteres). Act. Soc. Sci. Chile, 1, pp. 70-91. 

Includes twelve species of Desmodus, Sturnira, Nyctinomus, Vespertilio, 
Atalapha, and Vesperugo. 


1919. Remarks on Some South American Canidae. Arch. Zool., 12, No. 13, 
pp. 1-18, figs. 1-4. 

Subtitles: I. On the Affinities of Pseudalopex lycoides Philippi. 
II. The Dog of the Yaghan Indians, Tierra del Fuego. 

1920. Nagra ord om sydamerikanska hunddjur. Fauna och Flora, Uppsala, 
15, pp. 7-14. 

Tierra del Fuego. 


1899. Specific Characters of the Chilean Guemul. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
pp. 917-919, pi. 61 (col.), 1 fig. 



1937. El Octodon Cumingii como animal de laboratorio. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 
pp. 43-45. 


1837. Observations upon a New Fox from Mr. Darwin's Collection (Vulpes 
fulvipes). Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pp. 11-12. 


1898. Hamburger Magalhaensische Sammelreise, Saugethiere. Hamburg. 
29 pp., 1 pi. 

Includes a compiled list of the mammals of southern South America, a 
discussion of faunal areas, and a bibliography. 

1912. Ueber Felis jacobita colocolo und zwei ihnen ahnliche Katzen. Sit- 
zungsber.-Gesells. Naturf. Freunde, Berlin, No. 4, pp. 256-259. 


1929. The Natural History of the Elephant Seal. Discovery Reports, 1, pp. 
233-256, pis. 19-24. 


1891. Mission scientifique du Cap Horn. 6, Zoologie, pp. A3-A30, pis. 1-8. 
Account of rodents by Oldfield Thomas. 


1782. Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chili. 8vo, pp. 1-368. Bologna. 
1786. Versuch einer Naturgeschichte von Chili. Ubersetzt von J. D. Brandeis. 

1788. Compendio de la historia geographica, natural y civil del Reyno de 
Chile. Madrid. Spanish translation by Domingo Joseph de Arquellada 

Imperfect title: book not seen by the author. 

1789. Essai sur 1'histoire naturelle du Chili, pp. 1-352. Paris. 
"Traduit de 1'Italien, enrichi de notes, p. M. Gruvel, D.M." 

1808. The Geographical, Natural and Civil History of Chili. 2 vols. Middle- 
town, Connecticut. Printed for I. Riley, with notes from the Spanish and 
French versions and an appendix. 

"Translated from the original Italian by an American gentleman." 

1809. The Geographical, Natural and Civil History of Chili. 2 vols. London. 
Longman, Hurst, Rees and Orme. 

"Translated from the original Italian ... to which are added Notes and 
Two Appendixes by The English Editor." Footnotes signed with initials 
"E.E." Translated text identical with American edition; map and typogra- 
phy different. A footnote (p. xiv) refers to the "Amer. Trans.," but the 
same also appears (p. ix) in the American edition. 

1810. Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chile, sm. 4to. Seconda edizione. 

Includes considerable revision and an excellent portrait of the author. 


1886. Uber Furcifer antisiensis. Sitzungsber. Gesells. Naturf. Freunde, 
Berlin, pp. 17-18. 

1895. Uber Furcifer antisiensis d'Orb. und Cervus brachyceros Philippi. Sit- 
zungsber. Gesells. Naturf. Freunde, Berlin, No. 2, pp. 9-18, figs. 1-2. 


1907. Les Cervides de la cordillere des Andes. Assoc. Frang. 1'Avanc. Sci. 
C. R., 35me sess., pp. 482-494. 



1929. El chingue (Conepatus chinga). Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 32, pp. 164-166. 


1896. A Zoologist in Tierra del Fuego. Some account of the Swedish Expedi- 
tion 1895-96. Nat. Sci., 9, pp. 172-181. 
Brief notes; maps. 


1924. Review of Living Caenolestids with Description of a New Genus from 
Chile. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 14, pp. 165-172, pi. 23. 

Rhyncholestes raphanurus. 

1925. The Long-clawed South American Rodents of the Genus Notiomys. 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, pp. 113-125, pi. 10. 

1941. The Technical Name of the Chinchilla. Journ. Mamm., 22, pp. 407-411. 


1875. Uber die mit Histiotus velatus verwandten Flederthiere aus Chile. 
Monatsber. K. Akad. Wiss., Berlin, pp. 782-785. 


1886. Reise nach der Provinz Tarapaca. Verhandl. Deutsch. Wiss. Ver., 
Santiago, 1, pp. 135-136, maps. 

1893. Ein neues Beutelthier Chile's. Verhandl. Deutsch. Wiss. Ver., Santiago, 
5, pp. 318-319. 

Didelphys australis Philippi (=Dromiciops). 
1893a. Un nuevo marsupial chileno. Anal. Univ. Chile, pp. 1-6, 1 pi. 

1894. Beschreibung einer dritten Beutelmaus aus Chile. Arch. Naturg., 60, 
(1), P. 36. 

1909. Historia del Museo Nacional de Chile. Bol. Mus. Nac. Chile, 1, pp. 
1-30, 3 pis. 

Includes portrait of R. A. Philippi. 


1857. Description de una nueva especie de rata, procedida de algunas obser- 
vaciones jenerales. Anal. Univ. Chile, 14, p. 513. 

Mus philippii "Landbeck." 
1857a. Ueber den Guemul von Molina. Arch. Naturg., 23, (1), pp. 135-136. 

1858. Beschreibung neuer Wirbelthiere aus Chile. Arch. Naturg., 24, (1), 
pp. 303-305. 

Oxymycterus valdivianus (=Notiomys). 

1860. Reise durch die Wuste Atacama auf Befehl der chilenischen Regierung 
im Sommer 1853-54 unternommen und ausgefiihrt von R. A. Philippi. 4to, 
pp. x+192+62, map, 27 pis. Halle. Preface dated "Santiago, August 29, 

1860a. Viaje al Desierto de Atacama hecho de orden del gobierno de Chile 
en el verano 1853-54 por R. A. Philippi. Publicado bajo los auspicios de 
Gobierno de Chile. 4to, pp. viii+236, map, 27 pis. Halle en Sagonia. 
Preface dated September 3, 1858. 

1866. Ueber ein paar neue Chilenische Saugethiere. Arch. Naturg., 32, (1), 
pp. 113-117. 

Vespertilio magellanicus and Cam's patagonicus. 

1867. Comentario critico sobre los animales descritos por Molina. Anal. 
Univ. Chile, 29, pp. 775-802. 

1867a. Sobre una nueva especie de foca o lobo marine del mar chileno descrito 
por el Profesor Peters. Anal. Univ. Chile, 29, p. 802. 
Otaria philippii. 


1869. Ueber einige Thiere von Mendoza. Arch. Naturg., 35, (1), pp. 38-51, 
pi. 3. 

Includes a note on "Canis fulvipes" from Puerto Montt. 
1869a. El colocolo de Molina. Anal. Univ. Chile, 32, p, 205. 

1870. Ueber Felis colocolo Molina. Arch. Naturg., 36, (1), pp. 41-45. 
1870a. Eine vermeintliche neue Hirschart aus Chile. Arch. Naturg., 36, (1), 

pp. 46-49. 

Remarks on Anomolocera leucotis Gray. 

1872. Drei neue Nager aus Chile. Zeitsch. Gesammt. Naturw., Berlin, Neue 
Folge, 6, pp. 442-445. 

Ctenomys maulinus, Oxymycterus niger. 

1873. Sinonimia del huemul. Anal. Univ. Chile, 43, p. 717. 

1873a. Ueber Felis Guina Molina und iiber die Schadelbildung bei Felis 
Pajeros und Felis Colocolo. Arch. Naturg., 39, (1), pp. 8-15, pis. 2-3. 

1880. Ctenomys fueginus Philippi. Arch. Naturg., 46, (1), pp. 276-279, pi. 13, 
figs. 1-6 (skull). 

1888. Berichtigung der Synonymic von Otaria Philippii Peters. Arch. Naturg., 
54, (1), p. 117. 

1889. Rectificacion de algunos errores con respecto a las focas o lobos de mar 
de Chile. Anal. Univ. Chile, 75, p. 61. 

1892. Las focas chilenas del Museo Nacional. Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., 
sec. 1, pp. 1-48, pis. 1-23. 

1892a. El guemul de Chile. Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., sec. 1, pp. 1-9, 
pi., figs. 1-6. Author's edition? 

1892b. Einige Worte iiber die chilenischen Mause. Verhandl. Deutsch. Wiss. 
Ver., Santiago, 2, pp. 173-176. 

1893. Der Guemul der Chilenen. German edition. Leipzig. 

1893a. Comparacion de las floras i faunas de las Republicas de Chile i Argen- 
tina. Anal. Univ. Chile, 84, Ent. 15, pp. 529-555. 

1894. Beschreibung einer dritten Beutelmaus. Arch. Naturg., 60, (1), p. 36. 
Didelphys soricina (=Marmosa). 

1894a. Neue Thiere Chile's. Verhandl. Deutsch. Wiss. Ver., Santiago, 3, 
pp. 9-13. Original not seen. 
Mus cyaneus Philippi (=Rattus). 

1894b. Cervus antisiensis, chilensis, brachyceros. Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, 
Ent. 7, pp. 1-16, pis. i-iv. 

1896. Dos animates nuevos de la fauna chilena. Anal. Univ. Chile, 94, p. 541. 
Canis lycoides Philippi. 

1896a. Description de Ips mamiferos traidos del yiaje de esploracion de Tara- 
paca por Federico Philippi. Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., Ent. 13a, pp. 1-24, 
pis. 1-7. 

?Date. Ueber die Veranderungen, welche der Mensch in der Fauna Chile's 
bewirkt hat. pp. 1-19. Only author's edition seen. 
Discussion and list of introduced animals. 

1900. Figuras i descripciones de los murideos de Chile. Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Chile, Ent. 14a, Zool., pp. 1-70, pis. 1-25. 

1901. Nueva especie chilena de zorras. Anal. Univ. Chile, 108, pp. 167-170, 

Canis domeykoanus Philippi. 

1903. Einige neue Chilenische Canis-Arten. Arch. Naturg., 69, (1), pp. 

Canis amblyodon, C. maullinicus, C. trichodactylus, C. albigula, C. torquatus. 


-and LANDBECK, L. 

1858. Beschreibung einiger neuen chilenischen Mause. Arch. Naturg., 24, 
(1), pp. 77-82. 

Mus andinus, M. porcinus, M. melanonotus, M. pusillus, M. philippii. 
1861. Neue Wirbelthiere von Chile. A. Mammalia. Arch. Naturg., 27, (1), 
pp. 289-290. 

Vespertilio montanus. 

1861a. Description de una nueva especie de murcielago. Anal. Univ. Chile, 
18, p. 730. 

Vespertilio montanus. 

and PETERS, W. 

1871. Ueber Pelzrobben an den sudamerikanischen Kiisten. Monatsber. K. 
Akad. Wiss., Berlin, pp. 558, 566. 


1941. The Examples of the Colocolo and of the Pampas Cat in the British 
Museum. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (11), 7, pp. 257-274. 


1835. Reise in Chile, Peru und auf dem Amazonenstrome wahrend Jahre 

1827-1830. 4to. pp. xviii+466. Leipzig. 

1835a. Ueber den Cucurrito Chile's (Psammoryctes noctitagus Poepp.). Arch. 
Naturg., 1, (1), pp. 252-255. 



1934. Die Chinchilla-Arten. Kleintier und Pelzthier, Leipzig, 10, pp. 309-314, 

3 figs. 
1934a. Die gegenwartig bekannten Arten der Gattung Chinchilla Bennett. 

Zool. Anz., 108, pp. 97-104. 
1934b. Ueber Mus laniger Molina. Zool. Garten, Leipzig, 7, pp. 207-209. 


1902. Field Notes upon Some of the Larger Mammals of Patagonia. Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., pt. 1, pp. 272-277. 

Huemul, puma, guanaco, cavy, armadillo. 

1902a. Through the Heart of Patagonia, pp. i-xvi, 1-346, 39 pis., 3 maps, 
etc. New York. D. Appleton and Company. 

Many notes on natural history and illustrations of animals based on 
observations in Argentina, frequently near the Chilean boundary. 


1909. Principales rasgos de la jeographia animal de Chile. Only author's 
edition seen. 

1910. Catalogo ilustrado i descriptive de la coleccion de mamiferos vivientes. 
Bol. Mus. Nac. Chile, 1, No. 8, pp. 135-268. 


1909. El chingue. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 13, pp. 176-180. 


1928. Los vertebrados autoctonos chilenos que aun viven en libertad dentro 
del recinto ocupado por el Jardin Zoologico Nac. de Chile. Ministerio de 
Fomento, Santiago, pp. 1-11. 


1877. Apuntes de la zoolojia de la hacienda de Cauquenes, provincia de Col- 
chague. Anal. Univ. Chile, 49, pp. 537-541. 



1903. La Isla de la Mocha. Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Ent. 8, pp. 1-104, pis. 1-12. 
Chapter X (pp. 46-48) has some notes on mammals, principally marine 

1905. La distribucion geographica de las compuestas de la flora de Chile. 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Ent. 17, pp. 1-44, 2 maps. 

The colored phytogeographic maps may be of interest to zoologists. 


1917. Apuntes sobre el puma. Act. Soc. Sci. Chile, 25, pp. 97-116. 

"Tal vez donde mas abunda en Chile es en la Cordillera de Nahuelbuta." 


1928. Dispersion geographica de los tuco-tucos vivientes Ctenomys, en la region 
neotropical. Anal. Soc. Arg. Est. Geog., 3, No. 1, pp. 233-250, pi., map. 


1919. Sobre la distribucion geografica del Dromiciops australis. Act. Soc. Sci- 

Chile, 27, livr. 3. 
1926. Lista preliminar de los mamiferos fosiles de Chile. Rev. Chil. Hist. 

Nat., 30, pp. 144-156. 

1935. Mamiferos fosiles de Chile. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 39, pp. 297-304. 
1935a. La presencia del Zaedyus pichiy (Desm.) en Chile. Physis, Buenos 

Aires, 11, p. 514. 

1936. Notas mastozoologicas. Com. Mus. Concepcion, 1, No. 6, pp. 102-105. 


1871. Notes on Rare or Little Known Animals Now or Lately Living in the 
Society's Gardens. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pp. 221-240, figs. 

Illustration (plate) of Pudu. 
1873. Remarks on Cervus chilensis and Cervus antisiensis. Ann. Mag. Nat. 

Hist., (4), 11, pp. 213-214. 
1875. The Huemul and Its Allies. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pp. 44-47, figs. 


1881. Account of the Zoological Collections Made During the Survey of 
H.M.S. "Alert" in the Straits of Magellan and on the Coast of Patagonia. 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pp. 3-6. 

1894. On Micoureus griseus, Desm., with the Description of a New Genus and 
Species of Didelphyidae. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), 14, pp. 184-188. 
Dromiciops gliroides. 

1907. On a Remarkable Mountain Vizcacha from Southern Patagonia, with 
Diagnoses of Other Members of the Group. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), 19, 
pp. 439-444. 

Viscaccia wolffsohni et al. 

1908. Partial reprint of above. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 12, pp. 13-14. 
1908a. A New Akodon from Tierra del Fuego. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 2, 

pp. 496-498. 

Akodon francei. 

1912. Small Mammals from South America. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 10, 
pp. 44-48. 

Subtitle: "The grisons of Chili and Argentina." 

1916. Notes on Argentine, Patagonian and Cape Horn Muridae. Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist., (8), 17, pp. 182-187. 

Subtitles: The Cape Horn Euneomys. 

The Oryzomys of the Extreme South of South America. 
The Cape Horn Akodon. 


1917. A New Species of Aconaemys from Southern Chile. Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., (8), 19, pp. 281-282. 

Aconaemys porteri. 

1919. On Small Mammals Collected by Sr. E. Budin in Northwestern Pata- 
gonia. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 3, pp. 199-212. 

Includes Chilean species of Nahuelhuapi region. Irenomys, Geoxus, new 

1921. A New Mountain Vizcacha (Lagidium) from N. W. Patagonia. Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 7, pp. 179-181. 

Lagidium boxi. 

1925. On Some Argentine Mammals. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 15, pp. 

Subtitle: "A second species of Spalacopus" from Chile. 

1927. A Collection of Lectotypes of American Rodents in the Collection of the 
British Museum. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 19, pp. 545-554. 

Includes many Chilean species. 

1927a. The Octodon of the Highlands near Santiago. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
(9), 19, pp. 556-557. 
Octodon degus clivorum. 


1910. A Naturalist in the Straits of Magellan. Pop. Sci. Monthly, July, pp. 
1-18 (author's ed.). 

Popular account of experiences with U. S. Fish Commission Steamer 


1837. Characters of New Species of the Genus Mus, from the Collection of 
Mr. Darwin. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pp. 15-21, 27-32. 

Includes Mus longipilis, M. olivaceus, M. micropus, M. brachiotis, M. 
xanthorhinus, M. canescens, M. darmnii, M. xanthopygus, Reithrodon 
cuniculoides, Abrocoma bennettii, A. cuvieri. 

1841. On a New Genus of Rodents Allied to the Genera Poephagomys, Ctenomys, 
etc. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pp. 89-92. 

Schizodon (= Aconaemys). 

1844. On Various Skins of Mammalia from Chile, with Notes Relating to Them 
by Mr. Bridges. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pp. 153-157. 
Hesperomys megalonyx, Octodon bridgesii. 


1839. The Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle. Part II: Mammalia, pp. 
1-97, pis. 1-35 (32 col.). London. 
Brief field notes by Darwin. 


1938. Die biogeographischen Beziehungen der Sudkontinente. Zoogeogra- 
phica, 3, pp. 27-65. 


1908. Contribuciones a la mamalogia chilena I. Sobre el Felis colocolo 
Molina. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 12, pp. 165-172, pi. 10. 

1909. Sobre un nuevo roedor de la Tierra del Fuego classificado por Oldfield 
Thomas. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., (1908), 12, p. 227. 

1909a. Contribuciones a la mamalogia chilena II. Sobre la Lutra huidobria 
(Mol.). Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 13, pp. 101-103. 

1910. Notas sobre el huemul. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 14, pp. 227-234. 
Extensive list of references. 


19lOa. Revision de algunos jeneros de marsupiales i roedores chilenos del 
Museo Nacional de Santiago. Bol. Mus. Nac. Chile, 2, No. 1, pp. 83-102. 

An important paper discussing the types of species named by Philippi. 
1911. Extractos de un diario de viaje. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 15, pp. 60-66. 

Habits of mammals, especially of Tierra del Fuego. 

1913. Resena de los trabajos publicados desde 1895 por autores nacionales y 
extranjeros sobre la mamalogia chilena. Act. Soc. Sci. Chile, 23, pp. 57-79. 
1913a. Contribuciones a la mamalogia chilena: Apuntes sobre los marsupiales. 
Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 17, pp. 74-88, pis. 3-7. 

Dromiciops, Marmosa. 

1916. Description of a New Rodent from Central Chile. Rev. Chil. Hist. 
Nat., 20, pp. 6-7. 

Abrocoma murrayi. 

1921. Catalogo de craneos de mamiferos de Chile colectados entre los afios 
1896 y 1918. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 25, pp. 511-529. 

An important list of fifty species with many records of exact localities. 
1923. Medidas maximas y minimas de algunos mamiferos chilenos colectados 
entre los anos 1896 y 1917. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 27, pp. 159-167. 

1925. La vizcacha y su caza. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 29, pp. 20-23. 

1925a. Sinopsis de los quiques (Orison) de Chile. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 29, 
pp. 138-140, fig. 21. 

1926. Los especies chilenas del genero Notiomys. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 30, 
pp. 11-12. 

Review of OSGOOD, 1925. 

1927. Los octodontidos de Chile. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 31, pp. 97-101. 

1927a. Los octodon de las alturas cerca de Santiago. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 
31, pp. 118-120. 

Review of papers by Thomas. 

1927b. Observaciones sobre los octodontidos de Chile. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 
31, pp. 176-181. 


1908. Catalogo metodico de los mamiferos chilenos existentes en el Museo de 
Valparaiso en Diciembre de 1905. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 12, pp. 66-85, 1908. 
List of twenty-six species. 


1929. Notas sobre algunas de los mamiferos descriptos por Molina, con dis- 
tribucion geografica en Chile y Argentina. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 33, pp. 

Fourteen species. 

1930. Los roedores octodontinos con distribution en la zona Cordillerana de 
Chile y Argentina. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 34, pp. 321-331. 

List of thirty-six forms. 
1940. Mamiferos sud-americanos. See CABRERA and YEPES. 


1935. Contribuciones al conocimiento de la fauna de Chile. Rev. Univ. 
Santiago, 20, pp. 837-841. 


Current names in roman type, synonyms and secondary references in italic 
type, new names in bold-faced type. 

Abrocoma bennetti, 106 

cuvieri, 106 

laniger, 106 

murrayi, 107 
Abrothrix, 184 

illutea, 186 

modestior, 192 
Acodon michaelseni, 156 
Aconaemys fuscus, 112 
aethiops, Mus, 235 
agllis, Mus, 143 
Akodon andinus, 177 

apta, 188 

beatus, 17.6 

brachiotis, 173 

canescens, 182 

castaneus, 189 

dolichonyx, 179 

francei, 193 

gossei, 177 

hirta, 191 

jucundus, 179 

lanosus, 197 

longipilis, 184 

moerens, 190 

mochae, 171 

nubila, 193 

olivaceus, 167 

pencanus 170 

sanborni, 194 

suffusa, 192 

xanthorhinus, 180 
alba, Octodon, 108 
albescens, Panthera, 79 
albigula, Canis, 63 
albomaculatus, Myopotamus, 131 
alleni, Notiomys, 165 
amblyodon, Canis, 63 
amblyrrhynchus, Mus, 146 
americana, Viscaccia, 238 
andicus, Cervus, 225 
andinus, Akodon, 177 

Dusicyon, 64 
ansoni, Phoca, 99 
apta, Akodon, 188 
araucanus, Felis, 77 

Mus, 146 

Notiomys, 151 
Arctocephalus australis, 101 

philippii, 102 
arequipae, Conepatus, 97 
arescens, Myptis, 55 
argentata, Otaria, 102 
atacamensis, Ctenomys, 127 

Myotis, 56 

ater, Poephagomys, 114 
atratus, Mus, 170 
AucheniaGuanaco, 231 

huemul, 225 

lonnbergi, 231 
Auliscomys, 211 
aurita, Phoca, 99 
australis, Arctocephalus, 101 

Cavia, 142 

Dromiciops, 48 

Bathyergus maritimus, 114 
beatus, Akodon, 176 
bennetti, Abrocoma, 106 
bicolor, Notiomys, 155 
bisulcus, Hippocamelus, 224 
blossvillii, Vespertilio, 53 
boedeckeri, Phyllotis, 202 
boliviana, Chinchilla, 136 
boliviensis, Phyllotis, 210 
bonariensis, Lasiurus, 53 
boxi, Lagidium, 141 
brachiotis, Akodon, 173 
brachydactyla, Lutra, 90 

Otaria, 102 

brachytarsus, Mus, 184 
brasiliensis, Tadarida, 62 
brevicaudata, Chinchilla, 136 
brevicaudatus, Mus, 174 
bridgesi, Octodon, 110 
brunneus, Ctenomys, 125 
bullocki, Notiomys, 154 
byronia, Phoca, 99 

californica, Lutra, 90 
Camelus equinus, 225 

Huanacus, 231 
campestris, Mus, 200 
canescens, Akodon, 182 
Canis albigula, 63 

amblyodon, 63 

chilensis, 63, 239 

chiloensis, 237 

montanus, 65 

patagonicus, 67 

prichardi, 65 

rufipes, 69 

torquatus, 70 

trichodactylus, 70 
capilo, Mus, 205 
Capreolus leucotis, 225 
capucinus, Vespertilio, 60 
castaneus, Akodon, 189 
Castor huidobrius, 240 
caudatus, Lasiurus, 237 



cauquenensis, Mus, 235 
Cavia australis, 142 
Cervus andicus, 225 

chilensis, 225 

humilis, 229 
Chelemys, 156 
chilensis, Canis, 63, 239 

Cervus, 225 

Ctenomys, 127 

Guillinomys, 241 

Histrix, 238 

Lepus, 137 

Aftts, 240 

Mustela, 90 

Nycticeus, 57 

Otaria, 100 

Pudw, 229 

Stenoderma, 237 

Viverra, 94 
chiloensis, Canis, 237 

Myotis, 54 

Notiomys, 154 
Chinchilla boliviana, 136 

brevicaudata, 136 

chinchilla, 136 

intermedia, 136 

lanigera, 136 

major, 136 

velligera, 134, 136 
chinchilla, Chinchilla, 136 
chinga, Conepatus, 94 
chonotica, Otaria, 100 
chonoticus, Mus, 174 
chorensis, Conepatus, 97 
cinnamomea, Hesperomys, 179 
clivorum, Octodon, 108 
colocola, Colocolo, 87 

/eZis, 79 

Colocolo colocola, 87 
colocolo, Felis, 79 
commutatus, Mus, 146 
Conepatus arequipae, 97 

chinga, 94 

chorensis, 97 

enuchus, 94 

humboldti, 95 

huntii, 97 

mendosus, 94 

porcinus, 97 

rex, 97 

connectens, Notiomys, 162 
coppin^en, Hesperomys, 145 
coquimbensis, Marmosa, 47 

Mus, 236 

coypus, Myocastor, 131 
crassidens, Lagidium, 137 
crimper, Lagotis, 137 
Ctenomys atacamensis, 127 
brunneus, 125 

chilensis, 127 

dicki, 123 

/odax, 122 

fueginus, 119 

fulvus, 127 

magellanicus, 117 

maulinus, 124 

neglectus, 117 

opimus, 131 

osgoodi, 120 

pallidus, 127 

pernix, 127 

robustus, 130 
cuja, Orison, 91 
culpaeus, Dusicyon, 63 
cumingii, Octodon, 108 
cuniculoides, Reithrodon, 220 
cuniculus, Oryctolagus, 236 
cuvieri, Abrocoma, 106 

Lagidium, 138 
cyaneus, Mus, 236 

Spalacopus, 114 
cyanus, Spalacopus, 114 

dabbenei, Euneomys, 216 
darwini, Phyllotis, 200 
dasypus, Mus, 241 
degus, Octodon, 108 
delfini, Notiomys, 166 
Desmodus d*orbignyi, 61 
dichrous, Mus ,200 
dicki, Ctenomys, 123 
Didelphis hortensis, 44 
dimidiata, Mephitis, 94 
diminutivus, Mus, 143 
dinellii, Myotis, 56 
dolichonyx, Akodon, 179 
domeykoanus, Dusicyon, 69 
d'orbignyi, Desmodus, 61 
dprsalis, Myopotamus, 131 
Dromiciops australis, 48 

gliroides, 50 

dubius, Hippocamelus, 225 
dumetorum, Mus, 146 
Dusicyon andinus, 64 

culpaeus, 63 

domeykoanus, 69 

fulvipes, 71 

griseus, 67 

lycoides, 66 

magellanicus, 65 

maullinicus, 70 

elegans, Marmosa, 44 
elephantina, Phoca, 98 
Eligmodontia morgani, 199 

puerulus, 198 . 
enuchus, Conepatus, 94 
equinus, Camelus, 225 
Euneomys dabbenei, 216 

petersoni, 216 

ultimus, 216 

Euphractus sexcinctus, 234 
exiguus, Mus, 143 



famatinae, Lagidium, 140 
felina, Lutra, 90 
felis colocola, 79 
Felis araucanus, 77 

colocolo, 79 

guigna, 84 

jacobita, 86 

molinae, 85 

patagonica, 76 

puma, 75 

flammarum, Reithrodon, 221 
flavescens, Otaria, 99 
fodax, Ctenomys, 122 
Foncki, Mus, 174 
francei, Akodon, 193 
fueginus, Ctenomys, 119 
fulva, Otaria, 100 
fulvescens, Phyllotis, 204 
fulvipes, Dusicyon, 71 
fulvus, Ctenomys, 127 
fumipes, Phyllotis, 214 
furcata, Mephitis, 94 
fusco-ater, Mus, 184 
fuscus, Aconaemys, 112 

Galictis vittata, 91 
gayi, Vespertilio, 54 
Geoxus, 156 
Germaini, Mus, 167 
getulus, Myoxus, 108 
glaphyrus, Mus, 146 
glirinus, Hesperomys, 205 
gliroides, Dromiciops, 51 
gossei, Akodon, 177 
grayi, Lasiurus, 54 
griseoflavus, Mus, 200 
griseus, Dusicyon, 67 
Grison cuja, 91 

melinus, 91 

Guanaco, Auchenia, 231 
guanicoe, Lama, 231 
guigna, Felis, 84 
Guillinomys chilensis, 241 

Habrocoma helvina, 106 
hatcheri, Reithrodon, 221 
helvina, Habrocoma, 106 
Hesperomys cinnamomea, 179 

coppingeri, 145 

glirinus, 205 

lanatus, 206 
Hippocamelus bisulcus, 224 

dubius, 225 
hirta, Akodon, 191 
Histiotus macrotus, 57 

magellanicus, 60 

montanus, 59 
Histrix chilensis, 238 
hortensis, Didelphis, 44 
Huanacus, camelus, 231 
huemul, Auchenia, 225 
huidobrius, Castor, 240 

Lutra, 88 

huina, Lynchailurus, 79 
humboldti, Conepatus, 95 
humilis, Cervus, 229 
huntii, Conepatus, 97 
Hydrurga leptonyx, 98 

illapelinus, Mus, 200 
illutea, Abrothrix, 186 
infans, Mus, 180 
intermedia, Chinchilla, 136 
Irenomys longicaudatus, 219 
tarsalis, 217 

jacobita, Felis, 86 
ju-bata, Phoca, 99 
jucundus, Akodon, 179 

Lagidium boxi, 141 

crassidens, 137 

cuvieri, 138 

famatinae, 140 

lutescens, 138 

moreni, 142 

sarae, 141 

viscacia, 137 

wolffsohni, 142 
Lagotis criniger, 137 
Lama guanicoe, 231 
lanatus, Hesperomys, 206 
Landbecki, Mus, 167 
laniger, Abrocoma, 106 

Mus, 240 

lanigera, Chinchilla, 136 
lanosus, Akodon, 197 
Lasiurus bonariensis, 53 

caudatus, 237 

'grayi, 54 

villosissimus, 53 
leonina, Mirounga, 98 

Phoca, 99 

leptodactylus, Mus, 236 
Leptonychotes weddelli, 98 
leptonyx, Hydrurga, 98 
lepturus, Mus, 167 
Lepus chilensis, 137 

timidus, 236 
leucostoma, Otaria, 102 
leucotis, Capreolus, 225 
longicaudatus, Irenomys, 219 

Oryzomys, 143 
longipilis, Akodon, 184 
lonnbergi, Auchenia, 231 
lunatus, Octodon, 110 
lupina, Phoca, 102 
lutescens, Lagidium, 138 

Mus, 234 
Lutra brachydactyla, 90 

californica, 90 

felina, 90 

huidobrius, 88 

provocax, 88 


lycoides, Dusicyon, 66 
Lynchailurus huina, 79 
Lyncodon patagonica, 93 

macrocercus, Mus, 143 
macronychos, Mus, 167 
macronyx, Notiomys, 159 
macrotus, Histiotus, 57 
magellanicus, Ctenomys, 117 

Dusicyon, 65 

Histiotus, 60 

Oryzomys, 150 
major, Chinchilla, 136 
maritimus, Bathyergus, 114 
Marmosa coquimbensis, 47 

elegans, 44 

soricina, 48 
maulinus, Ctenomys, 124 

Mus, 240 

maulinus, Spalacopus, 115 
maullinicus, Dusicyon, 70 
megalonyx, Notiomys, 157 
megalotis, Mus, 200 
melaenus, Mus, 146 
melampus, Mus, 184 
melanizon, Mus, 143 
melanonotus, Mus, 200 
melanops, Myocastor, 132 
melanotis, Mus, 200 
melinus, Grison, 91 
mendosus, Conepatus, 94 
Mephitis dimidiata, 94 

furcata, 94 

molinae, 94 

patagonica, 95 
michaelseni, Acodon, 156 

Geoxus, 156 

Notiomys, 156 
micropus, Phyllotis, 211 
micro tis, Notiomys, 158 

Oxymycterus, 156 
Microxus, 196 
Mirounga leonina, 98 
mizurus, Oryzomys, 146 
mochae, Akodon, 171 
modestior, Abrothrix, 192 
moerens, Akodon, 190 
molinae, Felis, 85 

Mephitis, 94 
mollis, Mus, 200 
montanus, Canis, 65 

Histiotus, 59 
moreni, Lagidium, 142 
morgani, Eligmodontia, 199 
murrayi, Abrocoma, 107 
Mus aethiops, 235 

agilis, 143 

amblyrrhynchus, 146 

araucanus, 146 

atratus, 170 

brachytarsus, 184 

brevicaudatus, 174 

campestris, 200 

capito, 205 

cauquenensis, 235 

chilensis, 240 

chonoticus, 174 

commutatus, 146 

coquimbensis, 236 

cyaneus, 236 

dasypus, 241 

dichrous, 200 

diminutivus, 143 

dumetorum, 146 

exiguus, 143 

Foncki, 174 

fusco-ater, 184 

Germaini, 167 

glaphyrus, 146 

griseoflavus, 200 

illapelinus, 200 

infans, 180 

Landbecki, 167 

laniger, 240 

leptodactylus, 236 

lepturus, 167 

lutescens, 234 

macrocercus, 143 

macronychos, 167 

maulinus, 240 

megalotis, 200 

melaenus, 146 

melampus, 184 

melanizon, 143 

melanonotus, 200 

melanotis, 200 

moHis, 200 

musculus, 236 

nasica, 167 

nemoralis, 174 

nigribarbis, 143 

osorninus, 236 

pernix, 143 

peteroanus, 143 

platytarsus, 200 

porcinus, 184 

psilurus, 167 

pusillus, 239 

Renggeri, 167 

ruficaudus, 167 

saltator, 143 

saltuum, 235 

segethi, 200 

senilis, 167 

Simpsoni, 235 

subrufus, 235 

trichotis, 167 

vinealis, 167 

xanthopus, 174 
musculus, Mus, 236 
Mustela chilensis, 90 
mustela Quiqui, 91 
Myocastor coypus, 131 

melanops, 132 



Myocastor popelairi, 132 
Myopotamus albomaculatus, 131 

dorsalis, 131 
Myotis arescens, 55 

atacamensis, 56 

chiloensis, 54 

dinellii, 56 
Myoxus getulus, 108 

nasica, Mus, 167 
neglectus, Ctenomys, 117 
nemoralis, Mus, 174 
niger, Oxymycterus, 157 
nigribarbis, Mus, 143 
noctivagus, Psammomys, 114 
norvegicus, Rattus, 234 
Notiomys alleni, 165 

araucanus, 151 

bicolor, 155 

bullocki, 154 

chiloensis, 154 

connectens-i 162 

delfini, 166 

macronyx, 159 

megalonyx, 157 

michaelseni, 156 

microtis, 158 

valdivianus, 151 

vestitus, 162 
nubila, Akodpn, 193 
Nycticeius chilensis, 57 
Nycticeus poepingii, 53 

varius, 53 

obscurus, Reithrodon, 221 
Octodon alba, 108 

bridgesi, 110 

clivorum, 108 

cumingii, 108 

degus, 108 

lunatus, 110 

pallidus, 108 

peruana, 108 
oliyaceus, Akodon, 167 
opimus, Ctenomys, 131 
Oreailurus, 86 
ornatus, Ursus, 237 
Oryctolagus cuniculus, 236 
Oryzomys longicaudatus, 143 

magellanicus, 150 

mizurus, 146 

philippii, 145 
osgoodi, Ctenomys, 120 
osorninus, Mus, 236 
Otaria argentata, 102 

brachydactyla, 102 

chilensis, 100 

chonotica, 100 

flavescens, 99 

fulva, 100 

leucostoma, 102 

philippii, 102 

rufa, 100 
velutina, 100 

Oxymycterus microtis, 156 
niger, 157 
scalops, 157 

pachycephalus, Reithrodon, 221 
pallidus, Ctenomys, 127 

Octodon, 108 
Panthera albescens, 79 
patagonica, Felis, 76 

Lyncodpn, 93 

Mephitis, 95 
patagonicus, Canis, 67 
pencanus, Akodon, 170 
perwiz, Ctenomys, 127 

Mws, 143 

peruana, Octodon, 108 
peteroanus, Mus, 143 
petersoni, Euneomys, 216 
philippii, Arctocephalus, 102 

Oryzomys, 145 

Otaria, 102 
Phoca ansoni, 99 

aurita, 99 

byronia, 99 

elephantina, 98 

jubata, 99 

leonina, 99 

lupina, 102 

porcina, 102, 240 

scowi, 99 
Phyllptis boedeckeri, 202 

boliviensis, 210 

darwini, 200 

fulvescens, 204 

fumipes, 214 

micropus, 211 

rupestris, 205 

vaccarum, 205 

xanthopygus, 208 
pichiy, Zaedyus, 234 
platytarsus, Mus, 200 
Plecotus poeppigii, 57 
Poephagomys ater, 114 
poepm^ii, Nycticeus, 53 
poeppigii, Plecotus, 57 

Spalacopus, 114 
popelairi, Myocastor, 132 
porcina, Phoca, 102, 240 
porcinus, Conepatus, 97 

Mtts, 184 

prichardi, Canis, 65 
provocax, Lutra, 88 
Psammomys noctivagus, 114 
Pseudalopex zorrula, 68 
psilurus, Mus, 167 
Pwdtt chilensis, 229 

pudu, 228 
pudu, Pudu, 228 
puerulus, Eligmodontia, 198 
puma, Felis, 75 


pusillus, Mus, 239 
Quiqui, mustela, 91 

raphanurus, Rhyncholestes, 50 
Rattus norvegicus, 234 

rattus, 235 
rattus, Rattus, 235 
Reithrodon cuniculoides, 220 

flammarum, 221 

hatcheri, 221 

obscurus, 221 

pachycephalus, 221 
Renggeri, Mus, 167 
rex, Conepatus, 97 
Rhyncholestes raphanurus, 50 
robustus, Ctenomys, 130 
rufa, Otaria, 100 
ruficaudus, Mus, 167 
rufipes, Cants, 69 
rupestris, Phyllotis, 205 

saltator, Mus, 143 
saltuum, Mus, 235 
sunborni, Akodon, 194 
sarae, Lagidium, 141 
scalops, Oxymycterus, 157 
scont, Phoca, 99 
segethi, Mus, 200 
segethii, Vesperus, 59 
senilis, Mus, 167 
sexcinctus, Euphractus, 234 
Simpsoni, Mus, 235 
soricina, Marmosa, 48 
Spalacopus cyaneus, 114 

cyanus, 114 

maulinus, 115 

poeppigii, 114 

tabanus, 116 
Stenoderma chilensis, 237 
subrufus, Mils, 235 
suffusa, Akodon, 192 

tabanus, Spalacopus, 116 
Tadarida brasiliensis, 62 
tarsalis, Irenomys, 217 
timidus, Lepus, 236 
torquatus, Canis, 70 
trichodactylus, Canis, 70 
trichotis, Mus, 167 

ultimus, Euneomys, 216 
Ursus ornatus, 237 

vaccarum, Phyllotis, 205 
valdivianus, Notiomys, 151 
varius, Nycticeius, 53 
velatus, Vespertilio, 57 
velligera, Chinchilla, 134, 136 
velutina, Otaria, 100 
Vespertilio blossvillii, 53 

capucinus, 60 

gayi, 54 

velatus, 57 

Vesperus segethii, 59 
vestitus, Notiomys, 162 
Vicugna vicugna, 232 
vicugna, Vicugna, 232 
villosissimus, Lasiurus, 53 
vinealis, Mus, 167 
Viscaccia americana, 238 
viscacia, Lagidium, 137 
vittata, Galictis, 91 
Viverra chilensis, 94 

weddelli, Leptonychotes, 98 
wolflfsohni, Lagidium, 142 

xanthopus, Mus, 174 
xanthopygus, Phyllotis, 208 
xanthorhinus, Akodon, 180 

Zaedyus pichiy, 234 

Zalophus, 103 

zorrula, Pseudalopex, 68